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VENTION OF THE Amalgamate 

(Cluthituj Barken-, uf Ainrrira. HELD 

MAY 13 TO 18, 1919. 





Call for Convention . . 

st Session 
Second Sess 

(I Session 

rth Session 

Report of General Executive Board. 

h Session . 
Seventh Session 
Eighth Scs> 

; i Cession . 

ii Session 





41' 40 











Delegates t. Thml I .ntispiece 

Baby Carriage 1 ith Army Uniforms to be Finished 

in 'lYm'inrnt li . 135 

Takin. -us on Baby Carriage for 

MJT at Iloni' 137 

Child Kmpli\v<l in tlie Manufacture of Army 

, 138 

Call for Third Biennial Convention 

New York, March 6, 1918. 

To the l mcils, Joint Boards and Local Unions 

of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

In accordance with the provisions of our International Constitution your 
e Board herewith calls upon yon to elect your representa- 
tives to th i HiKD BIENNIAL CONVENTION to be convened in Baltimore, 

tO A M. 

is the third con to be held under the banner of the Amalga- 

mate ng Workers of Ann : 

convention, at the end of 1914, in New York, was an emergency 
meeting, held threat stream. 

At that t a the escutcheon of the organized clothing workers 

was cleansed fmm tiu> accumulated blots and stains of many years of treason, 

ffnt and disaster; cleansed by the class conscious action of the 

rank and file, and the name of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

America was inscribed on it. As time passed it added to its lustre. 

Our second convention, in Rochester, was, in at least one respect, a con* 
trast to the first one. 

While our New York convention was but a mobilization of forces, the 

organization having its face set to the future and not wishing to look back 

o discouraging past, the second convention was a reunion of a victorious 

Our report to that convention told of battles bravely fought and 

brilliantly won. For th- ;n<> in the history of the organized clothing 

workers we were able to look back upon a past with pride and joy and draw 

from it inspiration, courage and hope for the great tasks ahead of us. 

The third convention, next May in Baltimore, will be greeted by Uie 
greatest hosts of labor ever organized in the clothing industry, with a new 
aspiring record of progress and attainments, including the establishment 
of the 48 hour week. 

The world war is still raging. While at the time our two previous 
conventions were held the war was confined to the old world it has sine* 
drawn into its vortex also our own country. The problems created by the 
war for the labor movement have thereby been made more serious and 
complex. Our organization has successfully met those problems in so far as 
they concerned us. As a part of the labor movement we must be prepared 

in in the future as they may arise. 

We are coming to the Third Biennial Convention with a stronger organ- 
ization, with a greater record of achievements, with a more powerful 



and with a sense of self-reliance that will be an inexhaustible source of 
courage in the great task of working out our own salvation. 

Your local union is entitled to send delegates for whom credentials are 
herewith enclosed. The duplicates are to be forwarded to the undersigned 
immediately upon the election of the delegate. The originals are to be pre- 
sented by the delegates to the Convention's Committee on Credentials. 

We hope that you will select your ablest members to represent you and 
that you will send a full delegation to the convention. Let all of us make 
oar full contribution towards making the coming convention even more 
successful than were the preceding ones. 

The General Executive Board take this occasion to congratulate the 
membership upon the splendid achievements of our Organization and to 
express their thanks for the trust reposed in them. 

"With best hopes for a successful convention and continued success there- 
after, and hoping to meet a full representation of our membership in Balti- 
more, we extend to you fraternal greetings. 



General Secretary. 


First Session. 

Baltimore, Monday, May 11, 

The Third Convention of the Amalgamated rioth'nf Worker* of America was 
called to order at 11:15 a. m.. Monday. May 13th, 1918. in the Garden Theatre, by Mr. 
Hairy Elsen, President of the Dlitrlct Council of Baltimore. No 3. The arrival of 

man and Secretary Schlossberg waa greeted with trstaeudB 
errerybody rising to greet them with cheers and prolonged applause. 

Opening Address of Brother Cleen 
FtOow Delegate* : 

It ! the great eat honor I ever expected to hare to be able to open thU 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Thanking the members of thla 

or the United States and Canada. I wiah to aay that we are happy that 
haa been chosen by them for this Third Biennial CoorenUon of the 

! think that Baltimore deaerres It Baltimore waa. so to aay. the cradle of the 
Amalgamated. The strength of the Amalgamated was first tested In Baltimore. The 
minute the Amalgamated came to life In Nashville, in 1914. that very minute the 
Amalgamated had to begin the battle for its existence in the city of Baltimore. At 
that time we had a strike in the biggest factory of this city, and one of the biggest in 
the United States a firm that employed in the neighborhood of three thousand 
tailors and cutters. The Amalgamated took up the fight and won. Not only did the 
Amalgamated fight its first battle in Baltimore, but even the spirit of the Amalgamated 
was first born in Baltimore. The Tailors' Council, you will remember, had its origin 
in Baltimore. 

The Amalgamated has made wonderful progress in Baltimore. Organisations that 
have been in existence for twenty-five, thirty and forty yean have not dared to 
undertake the tasks that the Amalgamated has undertaken in Baltimore. And we 
have succeeded. 

When the Amalgamated was first organised here, when the oflice was first 
lished in this city, our total membership in Baltimore was 1 SCO dues paying 
and about the same number of non-dues paying members. As yon know, in 

t we used to have two kinds of members, does paying and non-does) 
Today we have in Baltimore 10.000 full-fledged does paying members of the 

Clothing Workers. (Loud applause.) One thing that we did lose la 
is the non-dues paying members. They all became dues paying meml 

I bid you welcome, delegates, officers and guests, to this Third 
tlon of tho Amalgamated Clothing Workers, on behalf of the 10.000 
of the Amalgamated army. 

I shall now Introduce to you our President. Brother 

President Hlllman waa greeted with applause, everybody rising and cheering. 

At this point the arrival of Judge Panken and Assemblyman ShtplaeosT and 
Charles W. Ervln. editor of the New York Call, was greeted with r: 

President Hlllman's Address 

Delegates to this Third Biennial Convention: 

is a privilege to meet here at this Convention. We come here lepieseiilliig 
every place on the North American Continent where clothing is made. We are 
representing an army of over 100.000 organised clothing workers. Not only do those 
members look to you at this Convention, but every man. woman and child who 

he clothing industry looks to you. and wishes you success in you 

Upon your decisions, upon your work here, will perhaps depend the fotore of _ 

>usands of men and women who have to labor in the clothing industry. Our 
organization has a message not only to the clothing workers we bring a message of 
hope, a message of cheer to every worker organised or unorganised, in this cooatry. 

We meet here now two years after our last Convention, and have a woaitiful 
record of achievement to show. During those two years, through she efforts of our 
organization, the clothing industry that had been a sweatshop industry has been 
transformed by us into an industry in which men and women need not he ashamed 
to work. We have civlllied the Industry. We have humanised some of the esmaloyett 
in the industry and we brought a sense of dignity and self-respect to every ***ff and 
woman working In this industry. My friends, it was in the coarse of those two 


that the forty-eight hour week was made an accomplished fact. It was the 
work of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.. My friends, this waa 
brought about not by any well wishing; It was bravery fought for by the members of 
our organiiatlon. For weeks and months the men and women stood out on the 
of Montreal. Canada, at a time, when the conditions made for the most intense 
Girls were on the picket line In weather of 30 degrees below zero. They 
But they held out and as a result the forty-eight hour week is now 

ion fought, and some died, in the great struggle in the city of 
the forty-eight hour week waa the great issue raised by our organization. 
We hare raised the standard of wages so that we are coming near the American 
In the clothing industry. I want you, delegates, to grasp this point, that if 
standards mean high standards of living, that It is the organization of 
that stands and fights for those American standards of living. 
Tbe employers Introduced In the days past Russian standards, Chinese standards, 
rds. It was up to our organization, the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers ol America* to fight and establish American standards. We have time and 
again readjusted and brought up the wages so as to meet changed conditions. All 
else that waa accomplished was accomplished through our organization. The em- 
ployers throughout did not hesitate to throw the full burden of the present crisis upon 
Che workers. 

When this country entered into the war, a situation arose in which unscrupulous 
employers saw an opportunity to crush whatever there was of labor organizations; 
they were ready, under the cloak of patriotism, to crush democracy at home, no matter 
what happens abroad. In our own industry, when the contracts were given out for 
army clothing and uniforms that the youth of the nation is to wear the uniforms that 
our own members In the thousands are wearing today the non-union employers, who. 
reason received the contracts, introduced the worst kind of sweatshop condi- 
the manufacture of army uniforms. We found at a time when tens of 
thousands of skilled clothing workers were out on the streets looking for work, that 
the uniforms went to the tenements to be made under the most unsanitary conditions. 
That may have been the cause of the great mortality among the soldiers in the camps 
here at the beginning of the mobilization. Investigations have shown that Army 
uniforms were made in places where there was actual disease contagious disease. 
These employers saw their opportunity to bring in child labor, to replace men by 
women, all. understand me, under the cloak of patriotism. I understand that one firm, 
conspicuous in this market for the brutal conditions prevailing in its shops, appealed 
to the women to "enlist." Enlist for what? To help this particular manufacturer 
profiteer on the Government of the country. We have taken up our grievances with 
the representatives of the Government in Washington. We have shown those em- 
ployers in their proper light. As a result, changes were made that improved enor- 
mously the labor conditions in the manufacture of uniforms today. 

We not only won conditions for ourselves, but we have created a situation where 
this country will be spared the disgrace of having Army uniforms manufactured under 
sweatshop conditions. 

Men who presumed to speak for labor made themselves the willing tools of the 
employers and fought against decent standards of labor on Army clothing. Fortu- 
y did not succeed. I want to say to you. delegates, that the brand) of tho 
administration in Washington which has charge of the manufacture of Army clothing, 
deserves our heartiest thanks for its sincere and earnest attempt to protect labor 
standards. The war has created a condition where every one must assume his part 
of the responsibility. 

It is no more a question as to the causes of the war. I feel today stronger than 
at any time that labor will suffer its greatest defeat if the autocratic power of Germany 
will have its way. 

My friends, democracy is not confined to any branch of our life. Democracy 
can not really exist politically, if there Is industrial slavery. And if the forces of 
political autocracy should be victorious In this great struggle, it will mean a victory 
for Industrial autocracy. 

My friends, the war was started over night. The peoples of the world knew 
nothing about It. It was done by individuals with tremendous power over the lives 
of the people. It was in their secret sessions that war was declared. Labor has a 
responsibility to see that peace should not be made in the same fashion. The settle- 



inent of this great world struggle BOA be made by tae 
Individual rulers. 

My friends, there are a great number In this country who 
own German rule la Issarieaa industries. We hare paid a 
-captains of industry'. And what do we find? We flod that Industry 
every instaace where the Mad for production made Itself felt by the 
gency The old system of individual responsibility la not only unjust, but is 
and criminal for the country generally. We all must look forward to a 
will abolish poverty, unemployment, and all other ufTertngs that are caused by the 
pratent Industrial system. 

I hope that your deliberations will strengthen still more the power of the 
ration, will bring still greater unity, and make for a better futuro a 
a free world politically and Industrially (Tremendous applauat)). 

After his address President HlUman assumed the chair. 

Election of Committee on Credentials 

President HILLMAN: According to the rules laid down at 
the first order of business will be the election of a Committee on Credentials Yo 
all know the reason for this procedure. I hope that you will waste as little time a* 
possible on tilt flection of a Committee on Credentials, so that they can proceed with 
the work and that the Convention may expedite matters In dealing with the great 
number of problems that are awaiting us. Declaring this Convention open and 
for the transaction of business I shall entertain a motion for niMliiillussl of a 
mlttee on Credentials. 

Delegate ALEX. COHEN: Mr. President. I more that you appoint a committee 
subject to the approval of the Convention. 

Preslden* HILLMAN Brother Cohen. I will have to rule your motion out of 
order. We shall not start this Convention by making possible the blunders of other 
conventions. (Laughter and applause). 

Several members were nominated by the delegates to the Convention and all the 
nominees were asked whether they accepted or declined. The following seven 

!.. Well* Local 116 Montreal 

L Rerayle Local 3 New York 

Jack Blame Local 1 Boston 

Stephan Skala Local 8 Chicago 

Joseph Goodman I /oral S v York 

Jos. Gold Local 156 New York 

Hyman Blumberg District Council No. 3 Baltimore 

President HILLMAN: I forgot to announce that we are to elect a commit tee 
of five. To save the time of the Convention, we will call this the Credential Committee, 
here was no objection. President Hillman requested the committee to take the 
credentials and retire to another room and report later to the conrentioiL) 
(The Credential Committee retired In accordance with his Instructions): 
President HILLMAN: Gentlemen. I hare great pleasure to introduce to roe, a maa 
who has been a friend of our organization in the past, who has the confidence of oar 
membership in this city to such an extent that when they were looking for a 
of our Industrial court in one of the largest houses in this city, they 
elected him for that position. I have the pleasure of introducing to you the 
of the Trade Board under the agreements with the Henry 
Strouse Brothers. Judge of the Juvenile Court Jacob M. Moses- (Applause.) 

Address of Judge Moses 

"resident, delegates, ladles and gentlemen: I esteem It a rery high 
nly a great pleasure, to welcome you to our city. (Applauae). As yo 
Baltimore Is one of the Important clothing centers of the) country and tta reputation ta 
at least partially to be placed to the credit of the Amalgamated deta- 
in* Workers of America. (Applause.) I say this because tl 

clothlnp industry of Baltimore, and the rank and file of 

been looking forward with pleasure and hope to the meeting of this 



the muesli which you will bring and which you will leave with us, and which, I am 
ore, will prove an inspiration and an incentive to still greater achievements in indus- 
trial freedom and Justice. (Applause). 

This Convention. I believe, Mr. President, is the first which your organization has 
held aince our entrance into the great world's conflict which is now raging. This is 
CM of the moat critical periods in the history of the world, and each and every one of 
m trom our noble President. Woodrow Wilson (loud applause), to the humblest mem- 
ber of this organisation, must dedicate himself and herself to the furtherance of the 
crest cause of humanity and democracy (applause). In this great world's conflict, 
Is playing a leading part, and it is universally recognized that the outcome of 
struggle for freedom will mainly depend upon labor in the various belligerent 
Let the keynote of this Convention be "Service" service not only to our- 
selvesYbut service to others, and especially service to our country in this great crisis 
(applause). I want it to go forth from this convention hall not only throughout the 
dty of Baltimore, but throughout this nation, that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America are wholeheartedly, loyally and unreservedly supporting the President of the 
United States (great applause), and that we are ready and willing to dedicate, not only 
ourselves, but all that we hold dearest in the world for the purpose of winning thin 
war (applause). We can not afford to have any slackers in our ranks. Every man and 
rrery woman must do his or her duty. And I fool ronfidfnt that labor will do its 
duty and will make all the sacrifices necessary to win the war (applause). All that tho 
workers ask is a square deal. All that labor demands Is justice. An honest day's work 
Is worth an honest day's pay. And it is the duty of this great nation, which Is fighting 
for Justice and democracy, to say to us that the profiteers of the country, no matter how 
rich or how influential or how powerful they may be, shall not exploit the toiling masses 
of our people (applause), and shall not rob the worker of the Just share of the products 
of his own industry. The ideals of justice and democracy for which we are fighting 
abroad should be put into practice here at home (applause), and our government and 
our people must realize that the unfair and rapacious employer of labor is an enemy to 
the peace and the freedom and the democracy of the world no less than the political 
autocrat wtoo is conspiring to deprive the people of thoir liberties (applause). Our 
President has said that "this is a war to make the world safe for democracy." But 
let us remember that democracy is not an end in itself. Democracy is only a means 
to a certain end. And the aims of democracy are the conservation of life the safe- 
guarding of the liberty and the promotion of the happiness of the people (applause). 
As your distinguished chairman said, political democracy alone can not accomplish 
these ends. Political democracy must go hand in hand with democracy in Industry. 

Mr. Chairman, I can not close thf^ ' marks without reference to an address 

which was delivered in the city of Baltimore in November last. On that occasion the 
National Consumers' League met here in an annual convention and the Honorable 
Secretary. Newton D. Baker (applause) who is the President of that organization, 
delivered an address on industry in war time. 

I want to read a few words from this address because this organization especially 
is Interested in some of the things Mr. Baker said. He said: "It will do us no 
good whatever to send our sons to France to fieht for our political rights if while 
they are waging the battle we surrender our industrial and our social rights here at 
home. ... It does us no good to be able to vote for people; it does us no good 
to be able to call ourselves free and to describe our land as the land of the free unless 
we have all the component parts of real freedom. And that means the political liberty 
to recast our industrial life so that it will really be a life of opportunity to the least 
person who lives under it. 

"Now, our sons are going to France many of them to stay many of them to 
return, and when they come back they will see the Statue of Liberty. They will sail 
Into New York harbor proud of their victories, proud of their honor?. And I am filled 
with an exalted state of enthusiasm about the kind of armies we are sending to 
France. It Is just such an army as a free people ought to send, an army that has 
Ideals in its individuals as well as In Its collective mass, an army that is going upon 
no selfish quest, is not seeking to take something from somebody, Is divorced from 
all ancient notions that used to bring about wars of prestige or of conquest. It is 
going upon a purely idealistic basis. In a certain sense they are material warriors In 
a spiritual warfare; and when they have finally done the thing which they must do, 
when they have finally established on the frontiers of France the eternal dominance of 



free over autocratic institution*, when they hare done that, they will come 1 
And when they come I want them to find not a dissipated aad depressed life 
I do not want them to find that th.-y hare been chasing one corner of freedom 
the others have been utterly lost, but I want them to come back to wives 
and mother* and brothers aad children filled with robust health, people who hare 
worked in Industry aad commerce, people who hare produced the goods upon which 
life depends, people who hare filled the workshops and the factories and the fields with 
labor, done under wholesome conditions. Let them find that, as they were fighting 
end of the frontier and winning one corner of freedom's fields, we st boms) 
were enlarging lea of Industrial liberty, that we wore laying out now bovn- 

daries of real freedom hare among ourselves, that we were enlarging the lessons we 
bad hitherto learned of the value, the Indlspenslbleness of wholesome OuMHIOiis for 
people who do the labor for the world, and establishing condition* which It will be a 
iiege, for them to come back to rather than a gr 

And. In closing, he referred to one moro significant matter which I want to 
call to your attention, and of which this Convention should be told. He said: 

The privates' uniforms of the Army of the United States are not 
in sweatshops; not one of them Is being made In sweatshops. Under i 
which have been made for the manufacture of the clothing of the Army. It is 
substantially :. -lor sanitary conditions, not in the homos of people 

to lire in congested places: under suitable restrictions as to hours of labor 
and u:i J. r proper wage scales, so that for once at least the Government of the 
United States assumes the character of a model employer In a vital Indus' 

(Loud applause). 

Now. delegates, who Is responsible for the fact that for the first time, st least 
In my recollection. & cabinet officer Is able to get up before the country aad boast 
fact that the, United State* I* a model employer It I* due to the untiring 
efforts to the in* 1 strength of Sidney Hlllman (loud applause). In his 

modest way he gave credit for this achievement to the entire membership of your 
organization, when It was thla quiet man with the still, small rolce. who in lesion 
and out of season, who almost wore out the railroad ties between her** aad Wash- 
ington, going over to in high place those In power and with his quiet 
istinle insistence forced the Gor eminent to have the uniforms 

made In decent shops J Applause). And so. through the efforts of your executive 
officers, you hare enal i State* Government to take the proud position 

that it now boast*, to be "a model employer In a rital Industry" (Applau* 

So. ladle* and gentlemen, in welcoming r< city of Baltimore, aad I 

much int. hear the opening speech of Mr. Risen who aald that Baltimore 

was the cradle of the Amalgamatedwell, gentlemen. It might be the cradle, bnt 
the Amslgamated 1* not asleep h -r and applause). In welcoming 

you. therefore, to our city, and to pltality. I also want to extend 

to you our congratulations upon the great achierement* which hare been rtrlewod 
In the address of your President, and to expre!* the hope and the conviction that 
the deliberations and the discussion! of this Convention will add new hope and 
new cheer and new inspiration, not only to the workers of thl! organization or of 
this city, but to all the worker* of America (applau* 

President HIM Delegates, our organisation prides itself upon bavin* 

a great numb> nles. But those who sre our friend* are real friends, and as 

one of the officers of the organization. I can hardly distinguish between the) otleatl 
elected by you for your daily work, and a number of others who hare glren up all 
the time they could snare from other work to help In the building of our organixa- 
tion. The one I am going to present to you was one of our officer*: for s while la 
New York city our membership elected him as manager of their joint board. And 
they thought so well of his work that they hare elected and re-elected him to the 
State Assembly. I take pleasure in Introducing to yon Brother 

Assemblyman Abraham ShlplacofTs 

I don't know whether our worthy President realised what a compliment ho paid 

me just now. It Is said that the successful teacher Is one who makes himself useless 

(laughter), and. to a certain extent. I can show the same accomplishment, Mr. PrenV 

I was the manager of the Joint Board of New York, and in a very short while 



I brought the organization to such a successful stand that I made myself useless in It 

FrUnds. I am mindful of your Ume, and I feel that, at least for me, this Is no 
place and no Umo for making any Ion* speeches, so I am going to spare you. I 
Inflict it occasionally upon the rank and file, and you. as the representatives of tht 
rank and file, hare to take In the dose anyhow. So If I have anything of an extensive 
nature to tell you. I will reserve it for such time as you will have to listen, whether 
you like It or not. (Laughter.) 

To-day I want to express Just one thought, chiefly for my own satisfaction, and 
I want to say the following: 

There are times In the life of every Individual, as well as in the history of groups 
of Individuals and of organizations when they face certain situations certain prob- 
lems, certain tasks in life which they cannot measure themselves at the time when 
they approach those situations. And I think that it Is a very fortunate thing that 
things happen that way. 

I feel to-day that four years ago, when this organization was at its incipient 
stage, that If those men and women who have been at the helm of this organization 
for the last four years, and who have been steering it so beautifully and successfully, 
I feel that if some of the men and women had at that time realized what a tremendous 
{ft* they had before them, the amount of work they had to accomplish, the acuteness 
of the struggle that they were to engage In, the possibilities are that some of them 
would have lost courage and would not have tackled the proposition. Fortunately, 
we do not always figure out carefully beforehand Just what is facing us I say "for- 
tunately" In this particular case. And I want to say to you, delegates, to-day that 
tome of you probably don't quite realize what you are here for I mean not to the 
fullest extent to which I, as an observer, not as a co-worker, can see it. What I say 
to-<iay Is not subject to the rules of the Credentials Committee. I am not even subject 
to the rules that may be laid down by the President. I happen to be a free lance 
today. I don't know just whom I represent, except, maybe, the firm known as 
"Ship." Some of you know it. And I am happy to say that around that "Ship" in 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America I have built up both a friendship and 
a comradeship of which I am quite proud. (Loud applause.) 

Tou will no doubt in the next few days be deliberating upon questions of material 
importance to your members, and not for one moment would I urge you to do any- 
thing else. You have plenty of problems to solve yet. I would ask you I would 
ask you that at least in your subconsciousness you remember this fact and I want 
to repeat again that what I am going to say no one but I myself am responsible for. 
At least in your subconsciousness you must remember that organized labor In this 
country, while, relatively speaking, It has accomplished a great deal, In my humble 
opinion It has not quite succeded in its highest mission, for if it had, this organiza- 
tion would be part and parcel of the organized American labor movement. (Applause.) 

I have not come here to quarrel with anybody, but I want to tell you something 
which occurred a few days ago In the city of Paris. At the conference of the Inter- 
Allied Labor Organization of the Allied countries, the delegates of the official labor 
organization of the United States have had the experience of being told that which they 
should probably have been told long ago. And when I say it, I say it not only with 
the profoundest respect, but with the love, with the wannest feelings toward the two 
and a half millions of the rank and file of the American Federation of Labor. Un- 
fortunately, I cannot feel the same way toward some of their leaders, and It Is these 
leaders who were told something which you may as well know to-day, as you are 
going to start on the deliberations of your Convention. 

Mr. Thomas, one of the greatest statesmen of Europe and recently a member 
of the Cabinet of France, said something to the gentlemen who represent that little, 
funny, stout gentleman of American organized labor, when they tried to bring his 
spirit Into conditions abroad. They told the American delegation, "We are very 
sorry. We should very much like to have you in our company, but if your point of 
Hew is as narrow as It is, why, it is not very essential. The British, the French, 
and the other countries who are represented at the Allied conference will somehow or 
>ther manage to get along without you." (Enthusiastic applause and laughter.) I 
have not for one moment given up the hope, the sincere and ardent hope to see the 
day when this apparent estrangement, apparent estrangement not real apparent 
estrangement between this organization and part of the rest of labor of this country 



will be a thing of the past. But at the aame time. I not only hope, but I am 
if I understand the mettle of which you men and women art made, that It will not 
be done by the bending of yoor knee Nor will H have to be done by the coaHssj 
of the great forces of American labor. It will simply have to be done sot* in or 
later by putting aside those few individuals who stand between you and the rest of 
the workers of the United Stale* (Loud and prolonged applause.) to I today, 
not responsible to any one. not even to the President, until he Ulls me to sit down 
(Laughter), will say right here that I. for one. would very much btke to see that part 
of organized labor which has official recognition represented here to-day. 

But In the words of that great statesman, mttered a few days ago. In Part*. 1 
will say that for the present, at least. It seems to me that it Is not absolutely easen- 
tlal (Laughter and applause.) And I assure you. my friends, that I would not feel 
that way I would not say ao if I thought that the great number of members of the 
American labor movement had any 111 feeling toward you. I would not say so If I did 
*nd I think that 1 have a right to say that I know eemettlng about the 
attitude of the rank and file of the workers of the United State* toward this organ- 
tsation. because I happen to be the "Wandering Jew" that keeps on moving from 
one part of the country to another. (Laughter ) I have. In fact within the last two 
or three years, covered some seventeen or eighteen thousand miles in this country, and 
I don't usually stop at the Millionaires* Club when I come to a city. (Laughter ) It 
Is usually rubbing elbows with worklngmen and worklngwosaen. and I And. and I 
assure you that I am not mistaken in that respect, that not only I* there no ill 
In the hearts of the great mass of American worker* toward the 
ing Workers of America, but much further than that, thousand*, ten of 
are beginning to look with an eye almost of envy toward your organization. (Ap- 
plause.) They may not be allowed in some places to say it loud enough, but they 
aro beginning to thtnk It pretty loud. (Lauprhtpr and applma- ) They are beginning 
to point a finger and say, "that seems to be the real stuff." (Langhter.) And I want 
yon. my friends, to bear that in mind. It is Important that you should bear It In 
mind all the while, while you are deliberating upon wages and hours and conditions 
of work which are absolutely important, which are the foundation and basis of an 
economic organization. 

It Is Important that you should remember that the imilgntinftil nothing Work- 
era of >f the organizations outside of the pale of the 
American labor movement, which Is becoming the beacon light for the 
labor movement (applause), and because of that because I hope that I am not mis- 
taken in my views. I feel spontaneously like congratulating you from the rte(ls of 
my heart upon your achievements ever since that convention in Nashville. Teen. 

Presld- MAN: Brother Shiplacoff. or. rather. Brother Ship the ship, by 

the way. that has never been shipwrecked warned us that he Is personally reeponafbit) 
for what he would say. Not knowing what he might say. I knew, though, that he wttl 
never succeed In making us not love him no matter what he says. 

When I waa elected president of this organization in the city of Nashville, 1 
happened to be in the city of New York, connected with another organiiatloi : 
received the Information by wire that I was elected president In a few hours I 
received another wire directing me what to do. You understand the power of the 
President (laughter), and this wire was signed by one whom we need to can Jacob 
or Jack Panken (applause). I don't brin* this to vonr notice as a matter of 
mendatkm. You know Panken better than I do. Brother Panken has 
with our organization from Its : York members and the 

of other labor organizations listening to his speeches about justice decided 
all to test him and let him show what justice translated Into court 
and elected him judge. I am glad to present to you now one who used to be Jacob 
Panken. but to-day I* Judge Panken. 

(Judge Panken received an ovation and tremendous cheering. The 
so loud and prolonged that he could not apeak for several minutes). 

Judge Panken'* Address 

Mr. President. Delegates) to the Convention. Ladles and Gentlemen: 
that some time ago. in t of Baltimore, the 

rnited States, about six weeks ago. 1 think, delivered a speech. And 
things the President said, "we have got to make the world a safe place to live In 
heartily concur and agree with that sentiment that this world has got to be made a 
safe place to live in. And It does appear to me. my friends, that we have always 
attempted to moke this world a safe place lo live in. Not only the labor 



which holds 1U convention this morning, but labor throughout the world has ever 
fought to make the world a safe place to live in. (Applause.) There is no other 
purpose and no other end to which labor can consecrate Itself than to make the world 
a safe place to lire In. 

A great many people who are not connected with the labor movement believe 
that there is a selfish motive that springs from the heart which brings the people 
in myriads into the folds of the labor movement. A great many people believe that 
it is the desire for material comfort, for material goods that brings men and women 
Into the ranks of labor. A great many people believe that men and women are 
attracted to the trade unions and to the radical labor movement tho world over simply 
because they expect something in return which can be measured in dollars or which 
can be measured in hour*. But there is nothing more untrue than that theory and 
than that idea. Men and women do not go on the picket line, men and women do 
not spend their nights, men and women do not open the gates of the prisons and 
enter them because they want more bread, because they want a few more minutes' 

Men and women do not brook the club of a policeman upon their heads in order 
to get another cent in order to get another half hours' time, in order to get a bigger 
piece of meat, In order to get a bigger piece of bread. Oh. no, my friends! The 
labor movement has a soul, and it is the soul, the spirit of the labor movement that 
calls you and calls me and calls the millions to work, aye, and fight, aye, and die, so 
that the labor movement may live and may realize its great ideal! (Applause). To 
make the world a safe place to live in, not only live physically, but live spiritually; 
not only feed the stomach, but feed the soul; not only feed yourselves, but feed the 
generations that are to come; not only live now, but to make the world better for 
posterity. That is the aim, that is the mission of the labor movement, my friends. 
We ask for an increase in wages, but we are not satisfied with an Increase. We 
ask for a reduction in our time of labor, but we are never satisfied with that reduc- 
tion; in our hearts and In our souls there is something stirring which makes us 
discontented, which makes us dissatisfied with the things that we get to-day, with 
the things that we got yesterday. It is that motive force, that motive power that 
Impels us into the future and tries to get from the future the things that belong to 
human beings, the things that belong to the workers! (Loud applause.) And It is, 
as your President said. Justice that we are looking for. It is justice that we are 
beckoning. It is justice that we are aiming for. It is justice that we are striving 
to capture. 

And it is not a justice that is to be given to us! That is the point that I want 
to make clear. I want every man and every woman within the reach of my voice 
to understand this fact It is not a justice that is to be given to us that we want 
It is a justice that is our* that we want, a justice that belongs to us! (Great ap- 

Of course, the Amalgan^ted Workers of America have made a horrible mistake 
In electing me a judge, you know, because I have got to give you Justice. (Laughter.) 
But it cannot be done. I cannot give you any Justice. You see, I have got 
to be a jvdge because you fellows wanted me to be a judge. That is all there is to 
Hut Judge Moses told me a secret a moment ago he said, "What you have 
got to do is to resign long before you become for did that, too. TIo 

resigned. I don't know whether I am going to resign, friends. I expect to see 
Socialism established before my time is up! (Applause.) 

We are on the threshold of a new system. We are on the threshold of new and 
big thinps. The President has referred to industrial democracy to Individual respon- 
sibility as compared with collective responsibility mo direct your attention to 
this fact. Mr. Baker says In a speech that the United States Govemmont can now 
boast of being a model employer in the garment industry. Let me just add one 
thing to that that United States Government has convicted and sentenced private 
management and individual control of big business. The railroads of the United 
States are now in the hands of the United States Government. And it Is only a little 
while when the mines in thin country will be turned O ypr into the hands of the 
Government And it Is only a short while when the steel business will be turned 
over into the hands of the Government. The shipping trade has already been ap- 
propriated by the United States Government. And let me tell you that the spirit 
that is prevailing in the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America is being spread 


throughout the country, and the railroads and the 
industry asd the other industries that the United States Govf 
over will never be returned to private ownership. They are 
hands of the United States of America, (Great applause.) 

The English Labor Party has put out a program which is magnificent in its en- 
tirety. English labor la not satisfied with a fair day's wages for a fair day's work. 
English labor asks its Government at this moment that the Osverisunt tnrn over 
to the trade unions the railroads so that the trade unions shall operate and JimoBfeJ 
ically manage the railroad. (Applause.) Things are beginning to move and are mov- 
ing much more rapidly than we think They are moving orach more rapidly than we 
can see so swiftly we cannot see the rapid movement that to going on through- 
out the world, aa tb President said In a letter to the New Jersey Democrats some 
time ago He said. "When the boys return from the other aid*, they will not be saUe- 
fled with economic serfdom any more." The President is a big-ganged man with a 
great big outlook upon affairs, and be realizes that when the boys come back from 
the trenches they will not be willing to go back Into economic serfdom. They win 
want Industrial freedom and they will know how to get It! (Great applause.) 

human hlatory. Hlatory is being made right In front of us from day to 

o hour, and from moment to moment And permit me to tell you. lUlanfis to 
the Convention, that you gentlemen and you ladles are making history 
tory which will be written In capital letters and Inscribed in gold, for yon 

'rom the tailor shops, you men and you womei 
the Ironing boards, you men and you women are just like the 
through the Desert of Sahara, showing the way to labor, to final 
liberty. That la the thing that we are doing, that is the great and 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. You men and you 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, divorced from the 
labor movement, not hampered by tradition, not shackled by 
you women of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, into your 
been entrusted the banner of Industrial freedom, the banner of industrial liberty. 
Remain loyal, remain faithful to the task that has been put Into your hands! (Loud 
and prolonged applause.) 

President HILLMAN: I always knew that Brother Panken Is reedy to 
all sacrifices for labor. Now we know that the greatest sacrifice be has made so Car 
was by becoming Judge In the Interests of labor. 

Our organization, finding so much opposition, while making such wonderful 
ress in spite of so much opposition, is greatly indebted to the labor press I 
that we have not with us at this opening session of the Convention Comrade) 
ham Cahan of the "Forward" (applause). He has always stood by our 
But not only the "Forward." a great number, all tbe rest of the real labor 
helped our organisation In the difficult struggles of the past I am glad that we have 
us at this session the editor of the "New York Call" fApptausM. labor's 
mouthpiece In the city of New York, which has always stood ready to help us since 
Comrade Enrin has been in charge of the editorial policy of tbe paper. I take great 
pleasure in presenting to you Comrade Charles W. Ervln. 

Address of Charles W. Ervin 

I am glad to be Introduced as the editor of the "Call." but I fee! that the 
dent has not given me the honor that he should have given me. I have had the 

lege of having been an organizer In the needle trades. (Applause.) My 
in your movement comes entirely from the fact that you recognize that 
citizenship amounts to nothing unless you have industrial citizenship (Applause.) 
all you are Interested in is to get a little less poverty by a little more wages a II. 
better conditions, a little shorter hours, your organization would not interest me 
the least If any organisation of men and women has so little spine as to be 
to organize Just for a little less poverty, that organization is not worth 

It is because the Amalgamated baa not been content to do this that It c . 

real historic position In the organized labor movement If you win examine Its 



itution yon will find it entirely different from most of the constitutions of the 
older labor organizations. And because your constitution is so different, because 
you act upon it, your organization is loved by you and damned by the capitalist 
class. (Applause.) Take the entire history of the Amalgamated movement and yon 
will find that every endeavor has been made through lack of publicity, through libel- 
ous statements, through abuse, to keep you from growing. But in spite of it all you 
are growing, growing, growing. And it is up to you to put the Declaration in prac- 
tice in this country. We hear very much about this Declaration that gave us 
political rights. We hear piffling politician? talk about it. We hear them recite about 
gtnrernment by the consent of the governed, about life, liberty and happiness. But 
you will never secure those things the Declaration will stay only proclaimed until 
the workers through industrial citizenship put that Declaration into practice. (Ap- 

Knowing that you are tired, and having the misfortune to follow speakers who 
exhausted almost the whole field of human endeavor and human thought, I 
will close by just wishing that you keep alive the same noble discontent that is now 
found in your ranks that great discontent that will never be satisfied until you re* 
ceive a real living wage the best of everything for those who make everything. 1 
you. (Loud applause). 

President HILLMAN: Delegates to the Convention, we are going to devote 
session to addresses of welcome. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
is different in many respects from other labor organizations. We have 
it our aim not only to satisfy our economic needs, but also those which will 
tually uplift the men and the women in the ranks of labor. And so we have 
amongst our friends, not only such as are directly connected with the labor move* 
ment, but also such as are interested in the promotion of progress generally. We 
find our friends amongst the artists who see in our organization tho beautiful 
soul of the labor movement. We have one of our friends of this class, as I may say, 
with us. I have now the great pleasure of calling upon one who is known to every 
one who reads the Jewish literature and a great number who have the opportunity 
to be conversant with his work in other languages. Our friend David Plnski will 
address the Convention in Yiddish. 

Address of David Pinskl 

(Mr. Pinski spoke in Yiddish. The following is a translation:) 
Twenty-five years ago, I began the song of the Jewish people, of the Jewish 
workers. It is said that at that time there were almost no Jewish workers, but I 
have discovered them intuitively, by a holy spirit. For twenty-five years I have been 
writing, while the Jewish workers were very scarce and few between. I feel happy 
that I can now greet a part of the Jewish workers' labor movement, a strong labor 
union, the majority of which are Jewish workers, a union that counts the Jewish 
members in the tens of thousands, Jewish workers, Jewish fighters. I feel happy 
on this occasion. I also feel that as a poet I have in you at present material for 
further writing. 

I see in you, not only fighters for daily brea }. not only fighters for shorter hours 
of labor I also see in you that which Judge Panken said: "The spiritual power, 
fighters for a better spiritual life." 

I greet you, therefore, not only as those who carried through a victory of forty- 
eight hours a week and shortened your hours of Inbor, I greet you for the manner 
in which you fought for the forty-eight hour work, for the motives behind your fight 
It was not a fight of beggars. You did not apj-'vir as beggars and merely say that 
the work is too hard for you and that you must inter hours in oni-r to ease 

your life. You appealed in the name of those unfortunate ones on the other side of 
the Atlantic who will have to come o*ver to this country and join your ranks. 
this, I greet you. I greet you because of the fart that you are the first in all fights, 
not only for your own betterment, for tho Impr f your own conditions, but 

also because you are the first to help others. You were first in the relief work 
for the war sufferers. There was will in your work real will. 

As a Jewish poet, I also want to greet you specially for your attitude on the 



questions which are of purely a Jewish nature. I greet you and wish you to flftlMI 

continuance on that road, and I call upon you: You hare done much; kep on doing 
till more. (Applauae.) 

President HILLMAN: 

from the ouulde but some of our members, to 
mission to leave our trad* and represent ui In the 
gamated Clothing Workers of the city and the State of New York ! represented ftp 
:<ber of these members. In their legislative branches. One of them, who Is a 
member In good Landing of Local No. 3. Preaaers* Local Union of New York, has 
been sent to the Board of Aldermen of New York. He is going to address the 
Con rent Ion I take great pleasure In Introducing to yon Brother Vladeclc. 

Address of B. Chsrney Vladeck 

(Mr. Vladeck spoke In Jewish. The following is a translation:) 

If It IB true, what Judge Panken said, that Socialism will be realised before nil 
term will expire, then I will have to look for another party. I believe that it will 
be the most uninteresting thing to have a convention of the Amalgamated after the 
Socialist order of things will be realized. The most beautiful within us. the finest 
within us. the noblest within us Is brought out not In contentment, but In discontent; 
not in truce, but In fight The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America would 
never be what it is if it did not have to make its history through a bitter but beauti- 
ful and glorious fight (applause) It In only because yon have to come in conflict 
with walls that were In your way that the instinct of fight was awakened In yon. and 
you proved that there is no wall where there is a way. that there is no tenon where 
there Is a real desire to break the fence. 

I come today as one of you, in the most humble manner, to greet yon. to con- 
gratulate you upon this spirit that the Amalgamated brought into your industry and 
into the Jewish labor movement. 

What is the spirit of the Amalgamated? Is It a big membership? There are 
unions that have bigger membership than that of the Amalgamated. Is it the big 
treasury? There are unions with bigger treasuries than the Amalgamated has It 
is not the membership and it is not the treasury, but it Is that soul, that 
that internal bond, that psychological condition. I will say. which 
mated what it is. 

What Is that condition? It is the condition that makes the 
he must not wait f -ganlzatlon to pull him to help him 

that he is willing to volunteer at any moment the situation might demand of 1 
do things. It is this spirit of the Amalgamated that made it possible for this 
iation to become what It Is and to play the role that It has played. 

I can tell you that In the district from which I come the 
forces are the members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ap- 
plause). Seventy or eighty per cent of the members of the Socialist party in 
Williamsburg Wllltamsbnrg is the best organized district of the Socialist party in 
New York and has a membership of twelve hundred at least seven hundred or eignt 
hundred, are members of the Amalgamated locals. (Applause). 

The most active members of the Workmen's Circle are members of the 
gamatod. In every enterprise that is undertaken by the progressive labor 
the executive committee, the active men. are members of the Amalgamated. We 
undertook to purchase the finest building that our neighborhood has as a 
temple, and I tell you now that the first in the hall. In the temple of tabor. 
in under their flag, will be members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

It was this spirit that made It possible, and It Is for that reason thai I 
It an honor to come to you and say a few words to you on this occasion It is that 
spirit that is necessary, not only for the Amalgamated, but for the entire labor 
ment and for the entire 


The trouble with the world baa been tbat while it has a great many engines it 
baa proportionately still more beavy freight car that could not be moved. Did you 
ever tee the way a beavy freight train tries to pull out? The engine pulls, and one 
ear strikes the other, and It stops. The engine pulls again and the cars strike each 
otber again and they remain still again. And the engine continues pulllnr and pulling 
and pulling until it begins to move slowly ir . vory worker and every union 1s loaded 
like a heavy freight train wltb petty and little things and it has to be pulled and led 
by two or thre* people who are the engines, you cannot travel very far. I r 
the spirit of the Amalgamated because I know, and I know what I am talking 
tbat the Amalgamated Is probably the only organization In which the members don't 
feel like freight cars loaded with dead weight, but like engines that are ready at any 
time to j>ull tbe train ever further and further (applause). 

Brothers and friends, in our great world a horrible' tragedy is being enacted. 
Something is burning, something is blazing, and heavy clouds of smoke are 
from the earth. And under the earth are currents of poison. The whole world Is 
shaken up in the terrible upheaval caused by the war. My friends, no matter how 
tbe war will end. the world will come out diseased from this war. The world will 
come out of this terrible furnace so weak and exhausted that it will be necessary 
to exert all of our spiritual and physical efforts to put the world on Its feet again. 

I greet you as a member of Pressers' Local 3. I greet you as a fellow man. But 
more than anything else do I greet you a* a citizen of the world, as a human being. 
I greet you as the representatives of a powerful and progressive organization, r 
tentatives and brothers of a big, mighty body, a division of that great army which 
Is now going to free the world. (Loud applause.) 

Pre?Mont HILLMAN: The hour is Dotting late and we will not call upon all of 
our friends who came here to greet this Convention. We will take the opportunity 
to call upon tbem at the later sessions. I will at this time present to you a man who 
is known to every member of our organization one who Is, I may ?ay. the guiding 
spirit of our organization, one of the officers of the organization with whom I have 
bad tbe privilege of working. Delegates, you understand that our path Is not always 
a rosy one, and If the officers of the organization find always the courage to go ahead, 
It Is because of tbe splendid and wonderful spirit of co-operation that prevails among 
us. I shall now present to you one who is always ready to supply courage and hope. 
I will introduce to you the General Secretary of our organization, Brother Joseph 

(Secretary Schlossberg was given an ovation, everybody rising and enthusiastically 
cheering and applauding.) 

General Secretary Schlosaberg's Address 

Mr President and fellow delegates, Including our representatives from the Army 
and Navy, and our fellow workers In the balcony: 

The balcony has occupied a very distinguished position In the history of our 
organization. That was the place from which we wore driven out when we cams 
down to the distant Southern city of Nashville *< penk for the tens of thousands of 
clothing workers whose voices were choked in their own organization. Every time 
we come to a convention and look at the balcony we s in 1t the symbol of the prog- 
ress that we bave made. Friends, fellow-workers, occupy that place now. They are 
fighting witb us and alongside of us. They come to greet us, not to curse us. 

I greet you as the Industrial parliament of th< in our industry and as the 

foundation of tbe parliament of civilization; o f thp parliament through which the 
people as a whole will legislate for themselves, and which will take the place of the 
one through which private Interests, plutocracy, autocracy, and all other sorts of 
ruling and oppressing interests in this and othpr countries, are now legislating for 
themselves and against the people. We here, through this convention, issue a call 
to the workers In all other industries: "Make your conventions a parliament of the 
people In your industries! Make your conventions the place from which decrees 
ahould go forth In the Interests of the people; make your conventions that source of 
power that will constitute in this country what the Trades Union Congress at this 



time constitutes In England; where industrial democracy will be carried out and will 
become the guiding principle, the determining principle of the people 1 ! life." 

ill be that parliament the foundations of which are laid here, that wllj 
the people in the making of laws ft* themselves. The political parliame 
now presume* to speak for (he people. does not represent the people. 
have shown repeatedly that erery group of powerful Interests U repi 
parliament. When a railroad matter is up. It Is the railroad lobbylat 
destinies of this nation in that branch of our life. When a steel question la up. It ! 
the steel lobbyist who doea ft-not the people. 

of Industrial democracy, we mean something definite am 
crete. With us it Is not an empty phrase. U Is not a dream. It Is just this thine 
that we are doing now. 

When we pasted the 48-hour week resolution two yean ago we legislated for the 

Industry. It was then up to us to carry out that piece of legislation, and we did carry 

When we legislated It. It became the law of the Industry, and wherever our 

ice prevails that law la being enforced. When a political legislature adopt* an 

eight hour day. It usually remains a dead letter. It is the power of organised labor 

that determines what the legislation In the Industries should be or should not be. 

My friends, this convention represents more than may be visible to 1 
observer. It Is not only a convention representing tens of thousands of 

t Is a convention representing a new society, the rUlng. the making of a 
new society. 

of us. with few exceptions, have come here from other parts of the world, 
' where oppression and suppression were the order of the day. We 
have come here seeking an asylum, freedom, and opportunities. And when those 
many thousands of immigrants from the other side of the world came here, Iporant 
of the language of the country. Ignorant of Its institutions, of its cuitoma. and of 
its ways, the employers whom they found here took advantage of their Ignorance 
and hoiplcssnesa and imposed upon them that very system of which Presides]'. 
man sp< :ng system in our industry, similar systems of 

tlon in other industries. 

But those downtrodden men and women, who ran away from misery and 
slon In the countries of their birth only to find sweatshop slavery here, availed 
selves of the opportunities accorded them by the American institutions, and literally 
themselves by their own bootstraps from helplessness Into power. They made 
mselves intelligent men and women, fighting men and women, built up their 
own organized power, and are now in a position to legislate for their industry, and 
legislate in a spirit which spells the overthrow of capitalist exploitation. There were 
hosts to h MI. and no one to help them. They fought their way through by 

their own united power. They are now in a position to deliver a message to many 
of their fellow workers and teach them how labor should be organised and what 
labor's true mission Is. 

After a short period of three and a half years that is all the time that has 
ince we have raised the banner of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Am 
we have succeeded In the teeth of all prejudice, in the teeth of all opposition, in the 
teeth of all prosecution and persecu: mere strength of our conviction, by 

the mere power of our determination, in removing a great deal of the antagonism and 
prejudice artificially raised against us in the ranks of organised labor, in f*n*nsT the 
confidence of many thousands of worklngmen in this country, and they begin to see 
that our message Is right, that our form of organization Is right, that our "H'-fif* 
goal is right. 

I shall now read to you some messages that we have received. There Is one which 
Is particularly interesting and inspiring. It Is a message to this Convention by Eugene 
V. Debs. 

(After reading a large number of letters and telegrams, which are given later, 
the speaker continued.) 

Now. delegates. Brother Hillman has taken the occasion, on introducing me to 
you. to throw a few bouquets at me. I shall be Indiscreet enough to ask Brother 



Hlllman to yield with mo and I know he will agree "with me the proper share of 
credit to all those who have worked with us. We are all happy to report to yon 
that there haa been full co-operation all along the line among the General Officers 
and Local Officers and the members generally. Otherwise our success would hare 
been Impossible. 

Tbe success of this organisation, the victories that we have achieved, the praise 
that has been won by as from our co-workers in other industries, and in other parts 
of the labor movement, are big and great enough for all of us. 

Every officer and every member has contributed his and her full share to th 
co-operation, to the spirit, and to the success. 

Every sneaker has referred to the present conditions, to the present particular 
situation. I shall not enlarge upon that. I shall only say this: It will be the duty 
of organized labor in this country to see to it that, wh-n this war Is ovrr. th^ army 
that Is now being organized by this country to particpiate In the war on the other 
side of the ocean, shall not be used as a means for the establishment of militarism In 
this country. We are happy to have in this particular respect, as well as in other 
respects, the fall support of the President of the United States. 

Many thousands of our members are either in the camps waiting to be sent to 
Prance or are already there. Many more thousands will be called later, if the war 
long enough. When those members return from the front the fighting spirit 
conditions there will have developed in them, if any new fighting capacity is 
for a member of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, will be 
by them here to protect this country from that scourge which has ruined and 
laid waste all of Europe within the last three and a half years. 

I wish to quote, in conclusion, a few words, which are a part of a message sent 
by the British labor movement to the workers of the world. In our country this 
message has so far been confined only to the radical labor movement. The official 
labor movement, unfortunately, has shut its door against it, and there is no means of 
reaching the rank and file, except in a very limited way. 

"We need to beware of patchwork," say our British brethron. 

Remember that this Is a part of a program proposed by the British Labor Party 
for the reconstruction of Great Britain after the war. 

"We need to beware of patchwork. No bungling reforms will do. Radical 
changes, revolutionary changes, are necessary. The view of the Labor Party is tiiat 
what Is to be reconstructed after the war is not this or that government department, 
or this or that piece of machinery, but, so far as Britain is concerned, society itself." 

All we have to do Is to use the words "United States" for "Britain", and substi- 
tute the word "France" for "Britain", and, for that matter, insert the name of "Ger- 
many" for "Britain", and the aim of the British Labor Party will apply with the same 
force to every other country. Not any part off the government has to be changed 
or modified or reformed, but society Itself must be rebuilt, reconstructed. 

That is the message that the British Labor Party has sent to the working classes 
throughout the world. That must be the keynote, that must be the guiding spirit, 
for every piece of work we undertake, so that everything we do may be in harmony 
with It and may promote this great cause. 

I have no doubt that our organization will contribute Its share towards this great 
task. I hope that all of the delegates present here realize that what we are doing 
now is not only adopting resolutions and expressing wishes for a free world, a free 
society, a reconstructed society, but that we are actually reconstructing society. 

At this very minute industrial democracy is being made, right here; and along 
with us at every ottier convention of labor that is held In the same spirit. This we 
must understand. It puts upon us a new responsibility. If we are always aware of 
it. If we always bear it in mind, we shall not blunder, and shall do Just what the 
Interests of the working class require. 

The times are the greatest In human history. Perhaps still greater times ars 

Capitalism is bankrupt as a social system. Whatever its mission in the past, it 



has now become a stumbling block to progress and a menace to tae welfare ot Us 

Labor must now do the big Job. Not aa a blind tool in the hands of Capitalism, 
heretofore the master. bt* consciously, deliberately, independently, directed by its 
own Intelligence and enlightened Interests. Let us see that aa tar aa or section of 
the labor movement is concerned; as far as we are. aa an organlialion. responsible 
for conditions In the Industry, la society, for the IrtsJiajsjaal development and all elae 
that goes with the making of a human being, a higher human being, that the 
to deoe right, that it la done perfectly and completely. 

If. when the great change eosam when at the end of the war the 
menu of the world are called upon to fully carry ovt the HBUssMfaaUun of 
the proletariat of the world Is prepared to apply itself to it 
and understanding, the job will be done right, and will be done so that 
of a free society that we will construct will stand forever. Let oa see that we do 
our share, 

Let us take from thla Convention the message to our constituents to go right ahead 
with renewed spirit and renewed determination. The labor movement la 
to understand us. It will not take long before they will all 
shall then have one united labor movement In this country. 

Report of Arrangements Committee 

President HILLMAN: Brother Elsen of Baltimore, on Hsliltf of the 

ments Committee, will make a few announcements. 

Delegate KI8HN: The Baltimore members of the Amalgamated have tried 
utmost to make It as comfortable for the delegates as possible, and for this 
they have arranged several entertainments for the delegates during? the) 

This afternoon there will be automobiles ready to take all the delegates for a 
trip around the city to show you Baltimore and Its vicinity (applause) I will ask all 
the delegates, those who want to participate in this trip, to please give their 
the committee at the door when they leave the hall. For Tuesda 
arranged a mass meeting in the biggest hall In the city. In the Lyric 
we will have the best speakers that we can possibly get. from amongst the 
and members of the. Amalgamated. On Wednesday night a ball will be given by the 
District Council No 3 of Baltimore In honor of the delegates to the Convention, at 
the same pin ;\tre (applause). For Thursday afternoon we hare 

nrs to Washington (applause*. I win also ask all 

> go to Washington to please give their names to the second committee. There) 

two committees at the door. For Thursday evening, the Bohemian Local, 

" ' ' -.lalffarnated Clothing Workers of America, has arranged an 

invite all delegates to be present there. (Applause). Friday 
the C nlon. Local US. A. C. W ' ill give a smoker for the 

(applause). For Saturday evening the District Council has arranged a banquet at 
the Lyric Theatre (applause). 

President HILLMAN: I shall now call on Brother Crystal of the Arrangements 
Committee, who will give us tho rest of the program. (Applause). 

Delegate HARRY CRYSTAL: Mr. Chairman, there 1s practically nothing left for me 
to an; Risen has announced the whole program for th week. But 

I want to add this: Thin afternoon's trip through the city will start out from Balti- 
more and Front Streets, where the headquarters of the Amalgamated are 
When yon are through with your lunch you will please come there. The 
will ho waiting for you T will also announce that the Cutters' Union. Local 115 of 
Baltimore, invites sll the delegates, not only men. but women too. all the 

% have arranged a smoker for the men and tea cream. I suppose, for the 
so we want the ladles to be there too. 

President HILLMAN: Before adjourning this session I shall call on 



Meyer Senter, who It here m tne uniform of the United States Navy, to address the 

(Delegate Senter appears on the platform and Is given an enthusiastic ovation.) 

Address by Meyer Senter 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: 

This invitation to me to speak Is rather a surprise. I had no intention to speak 
from the platform this morning. I consider myself a full-fledged delegate, and, what 
is more, in the camp I hare two meals by this time and today I have only had one 
meal so far (laughter). 

Delegates. I don't know whether I can say very much at the present time. I 
am in the service and I feel very happy at the fact that I can be present at the Con- 
vention of our organization. I have tried at all times to do whatever was in my power 
In order to build up a strong, powerful and successful organization. I don't know 
whether I can say very much more than this: I hope, that when this war is over, 
when the enemies of our nation will be completely defeated (loud applause), and 
the workers will return, those who will be fortunate enough to return, the 
Union will be ready to receive them, and that organized labor will make such progress 
between this time and then that when the soldiers return from the front they will 
come back home to find a world of freedom freedom in the full sense of the word 
(applause), industrial freedom as well as political freedom, and that they will find 
a new life. 

I call upon you who remain here while we are away: Go* right ahead with the 
great struggle for the uplifting of mankind and for the abolition of the slavery of 
today. I hope that you will be successful with your battles over here as I hope to 
be with mine over there (prolonged applause). 

The chair announced that the Credentials Committee was not yet ready to report 
The session adjourned at 2.20 p. m. to reconvene at 10 o'clock the next morning. 



Letter from Eugene V. Deba 

Terre Haute, Ind., May I, 1918. 
Mr. Joseph Schlossberg. 

General Secretary Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 
New York, N. Y. 

Dear Comrade Schlossberg: 

Your communication of the 6th Inst. Is at hand and I appreciate fully your kindly 
interest In wishing me present at your approaching convention in Baltimore, a privi- 
lege I should enjoy more than could be expressed In words. I have the pleasure of 
knowing a number of your members and hold them In high esteem as comrades, and 
If circumstances permitted me to visit Baltimore at the opening of your Convention 
I would certainly take advantage of the opportunity of addressing the delegates and 
enjoying an hour or two of fellowship with these progressive-minded and loyal- 
hearted proletarians. 

Please do me the kindness to extend my hearty greetings to the Convention and 
to assure the delegates that my heart will be with them during their deliberations. 
The Convention meets at a crucial time and the one thing now needed to be emphasized 
by this and every other convention of organized workers is the solidarity of their 
class. Everything now depends upon the ability of the workers to unite their forces 
and to hold them Intact during these trying days. 

The principle upon which the Amalgamated Clothing Workers are organized Is 
the right one and If adhered to will result 1n the Industrial unity of all the workers 



in that trade and line them up In one solid mass not only for defensive action bat 
for initiative and constructive work looking to the abolition of the slavish and degrad- 
ing wage system and the ttlaH^h "* of the new Industrial order In which the 
workers shall be their own masters and shall themselves enjoy in full measure the 
fruit of their lat 

I have watched with special pride the progress made by the milgims* 
ing Workers, for I know under what difficulties it struggled into existence, 
reactionary Influences it was resisted, and what persistent, courageous and I 
work has been required to keep it true to its course. 

The delegates who meet in Baltimore on Monday nut will have 
for congratulation as they survey the past but this will serve only as a hlgt 
live to stick manfully to the task In the future and to unite, comrade to 
head and heart and soul, in the resolute determination to remove every 
the path and to push the organisation forward and ever forward, withot 
ias reached the shining goal of its high aspiration, 

Thanking you. my dear comrade, for your words of MlUlnees which toech me 
deeply and with love and heartfelt greeting to yourself and all of the aslegifss and 
visitors at Baltimore, I am In the cause of the workers. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) EUGENE V. DB8. 

Toronto. Ont. May It. 

Greetings on behalf of Locals 221. 212. 216. 219. 222 and Joint Board of Toronto. 
Canada We desire to convey our heartiest wishes and our joy at the sieeses of 
the Amalgamated. We look forward to the future with unbounded sKhielejai and 
hope this convention will attain Us purpose for greater Ideals in these momentous 

Bee*y Local 212. Toronto. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Maj 12. 
Congratulations to Third Convention. Wish you success. We want 44 

January First. 1919. 

LOCAL 175. A. C. W. OF A, Samuel Bemoan. Sec'y. 

Md . Mar 

etlngs. Hearty congratulations upon your past achievements. May the delib- 
eration! of the Convention be uch as to make our fighting organisation an Inspira- 
tion to the entire organised labor movement. 


Dr. S. M. NelsUdt. Secretary. 

Atlanta. Ga.. (Army Headquarters). May 12. 
May success crown third convention of the A. C. W. of A. 

of Local 161. New York. 

Chicago. 111.. May 12. 

Please convey to the delegates our greetings. We hope their deliberations 
be of great benefit to the members at large. 


Factory M. Hart, Schaffner 4 Marx. 

New York, N. Y.. May It. 

-etlngs and slncerest congratulations to all delegates of the Third Biennial 
OonYenUon and beat wishes for the attainment of unity and strength of the A C W. 
of A Success In the campaign for 44 hour week. 



Chicago, 111., May i:.'. 

We take this opportunity to extend to you our heartiest congratulations upon 
the victories your organization has met with in the past year and the firm foundation 
you hare succeeded In establishing. We trust that your efforts in the future will be 
as successful as in the past 


Hamilton, Ontario, May 12 

Very sorry I cannot be with you this year but am sending you hearty congratu- 
lations and best wishes. May everything you undertake be crowned with success. 
May our beloved Amalgamated continually grow in power. Let our slogan now be 
forty-four hours a week, which 1 hope will soon be established. 


New Yorl<. N V . May 12. 

Success and sincerest congratulations to all our representatives at the Third 
Hionnial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. We hope 
that our future undertakings for the forty- four-hour campaign v.-tn prove a success. 


63 Ludlow Street. 

Boston, Mass., May 12. 

We wish you good luck and success in all your undertakings. 

Boston, Mass., May 13. 

Greetings: Determination, -harmony in our ranks and the justice of our cause 
brought such wonderful success for our organization. Proceed with your delibera- 
tions in the same spirit. March on forward on the path of victory. In solid ranks 
we shall follow and assist you. 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

Boston, Mass., May 13. 
With best withes, from victory to victory. 

LOCAL 1, A. C. W. OF A., 

J. Blume, Pres. 
F. Lerman, Sec'y. 

New York, N. Y., May 13. 

Greetings from Children's Jacket Pressers* Union, Local Eleven, Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America. Congratulations from all members to your Third 
Biennial Convention. Heartiest wishes for success. 

JACOB HORN, Secretary. 

Boston, Mass., May 13. 
Greetings. Regards to all delegates at the convention. 

M. DANISHEFSKY, Local 25. 

Baltimore, Md., May 13. 
Congratulations to the Third Biennial Convention. 

LOCAL NO. 170, A. C. W. OF A. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13. 

Greetings to ail delegates to the Third Biennial Convention. Best wishes for 
the future. 

H. ROBERT, Secretary, Local 7. 

Hamilton, Ont., May 12. 
We, the members of Local 210, of Hamilton, Ontario, send our greetings to you. 



You have undertaken a BBJMsai work and attained iucc** We ere proud to be ai 

tne banner of the A < vs . Yom AT* la* pride of the American werklnc claas. 
asur juu. 


Md . Mtj 13 

. our heartiest greetUi** and congratulations. May your deliberation* 
crowned with success. for your success U the success of tne Labor Movement 
world over. 

Now York. N. Y. f May U. 1911 

Accopi beet wiahM for uccciaful convention. Our next coal will bo tbo forty. 
-h ( .ur wrnk LJIL u> hooo that the meetlnc of our fourth annual oonveadoa will 

four-hour wee*. Let us hope that the meUn< of our fourth annual 
be a time of peace and prosperity. 



New York. N. Y , May 12. 1911. 

New York Ceat Preatert* Benerolent Association sends you beat wishes and 
hopes that you will succeed In conquering all your enemies. Proceed with your won- 
derful work for the people In the clothing industry. 

O. I3ROWN8TEIN, Financial Secretary. 


Greetings to all delegates of the Third Biennial Contention and wishing yom 
continued success in the future. 

J. WBUMAN. General Organlxer. A, C. W. of A. 

Philadelphia. Pa. May 12. 1318 

The Officers of Philadelphia District Council No. 2 wish success to the Tail* 

Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 



Baltimore. Md.. May 12. ItU. 

We beg to extend our heartiest support and beat wishes for your accomplish- 
ments and we sincerely hope that the coming- year will be crowned with further 



Baltimore. Md.. Msy 12. 1918. 

Congratulations to the opening of the national convention in Baltimore City from 

Chicago. 111.. May 12. 1918. 

Accept beat wishes that your deliberations may lead to great advancement of our 
cause and organisation. 

LOCAL NO. 144 

Chicago. 111.. May 12. 1118. 

* cept heartiest congratulations upon the achievements of the organitation dur- 
ing the past years. May we march ever onward until every man and woman in In- 

y is organized. Allow me to congratulate our officers upon their great 
ability. Sorry I am not with you. 



New York, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

Pressers' Branch. Local 3, A. C. W. of A., wishes you success and hopes and 
trusts that the convention will succeed In establishing a 44-hour w 

M. PKIUANSKY, Treasurer, 
L. RABCHLNSKY, Trustee. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

The Wllllamtburg Labor Lyceum Anociation greets most heartily and sincerely 
the convention of the A. C. W. of A. la the strength and progress of your orgnnl- 
tation lies the destiny of nearly every big undertaking of labor. 

JOS. A. WHTTEHORN. Treasurer. 
B. C. VLADECK, Chairman. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

To all Delegates of the A. C. W. of A.: Greetings! I bid you welcome from th 
depth of my heart May your work be crowned with success and may our next step 
be the establishment of the 44-hour week. Long live the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America. 

S. LEVY, Recording Secretary, Local 213. 


Second Session. 

Tuesday Morning, May 14, 1118. 

The Convention WM called to order at 10 a. m.. Tuesday. May Hih. 
Hlllman presiding. Secretary Scbtoeaberg read the following tilitflMii. 

Now York. N. Y.. May IS. Itlfl. 

Heartleat congratulations, best wlihes and success to the Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing workers lea from the Civilian Clothing Cutters of Munvea * 

716 Broadway. New Y< > 


New York. N. Y.. May 13. It IS. 
To the Officers and Delegates of the Third Biennial Convention: 

Accept our hoar' .-ratulatlon and may your work be crowned with MCC 


M Hubinsky, PrssjMSjBf* 
V-T.VI. .- r-'.arjr. 

New York. N. Y.. May 13. 1*1S. 

In the name of the fifteen thousand members of oar military unifor 
ment we extend heartiest congratulations to the Third Biennial Convention 
that our organization, with the aid of the entire progressive labor mo 
help bring about a world peace and true democracy. 


Jos, Margone. Manager. 

Chicago, ill.. May 13. !!. 

Tho Dally World of Chicago greets you and pledges itself to co-operate with 
you in all your work in the interest of the clothing ind May all yor 

eratlons be successful. 

MORRIS SU8SKIND. Manager Daily World. 

New York. N. Y.. May 13. lilt. 
Greetings and best wishes for a 44-hour week. 

Morris Moskowltx. 

New York N Y. M.. U mg. 

To th* Officers and Delegates: Greetings! The Third Convention in the history 
of our organization marks Its wonderful progress. Wishes for IU continued sinruM 
Long live the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Am. 


New York. N. Y. May 1$. Itlf. 

Cr^tinc* W*. th? workers of Schwarts Jaffee. extend our jieeHiji to the 
1 Biennial Convention and pledge our full fledged, unrestricted cooperatio 
loyalty and trwt 



New York. N. T., May 13, 1918. 

Congratulations to the 3rd convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America, from the employees of Rugoff & Co., 85 Canal St., New York City. 

SAM PALULO, Chairman. 

New York, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

Heartiest greetings. May your efforts be spent in directing the cause of our 
organization to travel on the road which leads to the emancipation of the tailors in 
particular and toller* in general. 


L. Goldstein, 
I. Rappaport, 
Roinlsh, Committee. 

New York. N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

I extend to you my heartiest congratulations and earnest wishes that your delib- 
eration in behalf of the great clothing Industry may be crowned with success and tht 
results of your efforts be of mutual benefit to all concerned and to our glorious 

JOSEPH S. MARCUS, President the Bank of United States. 

New York, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

Accept the hearty congratulations of one who is proud of being an officer of the 
Amalgamated which has known success In no short a time as the four years of Its lift. 


Philadelphia, Pa., May 13, 1918. 

Local 153 Shirtmakers' Union of Philadelphia send greetings to the Third Bien- 
nial Convention. Remember that the eyes of all the workers in the needle industry 
are centered upon your convention. Make good as in previous conventions, and go 
on with the good work for better conditions. We hope that in this convention you 
will nail the banner of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America over on* 
grand industrial union comprising the whole needle industry 


Philadelphia, Pa., May 13, 1918. 

The Philadelphia uniform department of the A. C. W. of A. and the Cloak and 
Skin Makers' Union are extending to you and the delegates to the Third Biennial 
Convention their heartiest congratulations. We hope that the present convention will 
on the pedestal of the splendid past outline the work for the future and energetically 
carry it to a successful issue. 



Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 
We send you our best wishes and congratulations. 


Chicago, 111., May 13, 1918. 

Third Biennial Convention, A. C. W. of A.: Greetings: Accept our best wishes 
and felicitations. May your efforts and deliberations be crowned with success. The 
Operators' Branch, Loral 156, extends Its greetings to the Third Biennial Convention 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America and best wishes for a successful 
campaign for the 44-hour working week. 

A. M. Winner, Secretary, 

Montreal, Quebec, May 13, 1918. 
Hearty congratulations to our Third Convention. We are proud of the achieve- 



ment of the Amalgamated in the past. Let the work of the future aland out at a 
shining example to ail organized labor. 

K8E. Secretary Montreal Joint Board. A. C W o' 

New York. N. Y.. May 13. 1918. 

our heartiest congratulation*. May your deliberation result in a forty- 
four hour week. The Children'! Clothing Trades will lend their efforts to be the 
vanguard in bringing this happy result to realization. Fraternally your*. 


rs and Trimmers' Local 116 extend their hearty greetings to our 
Wishing you success In all your undertaking. 

A. PAYDTTE and L. MORRIS. Secretary. 

Chicago. Ill . May IS. 1918. 

Third HIennlal Convention. A. C. W. of A.: Greetings! Accept our 
and felicitations. May your efforts and deliberations be crowned with 
that you may add laurels to our past accomplishments. May there be a 
the laboring msstes will follow the path that has been paved by you. 

Joseph G lick man. 

Boston. Msts.. May IS. 1918. 

May this meeting be the Inspiration for renewed and fruitful activity. 


York. N Y . May IS. 1*18. 

The employes of Dauman send their hearty greetings to the Third Biennial OoaV 
ventlon of the A. C. W. of A. and wish you success in every enterprise, 

i.KRNKR. Chairman 

N>w York. N T May IS. 111*. 

Heartiest congratulations to the 3rd annual convention of the Amalgamated Clotav 
ing Workers of America. May success crown your efforts. Our boys are with you 
one and all. 


Chicago. HI . May IS. 1918. 

The United Hebrew Trades of Chicago, the body representing the organized Jew- 
lab laborers, send heartiest greetings to your Third Biennial Convention. We ar 
you in your noble struggles not only for a living but for a decent living. We bleas 
you. gigantic child of labor. 

R YOUKELSON. President, 

New York. N. Y.. May IS. 1918. 

Heartiest congratulation?. May your deliberations result in a forty eight -how 
wok and the ultimate emancipation of the working class. Sorry cannot be 
but my heart and soul are with you. Fraternally. 


Brooklyn. N. Y.. May IS. 1918. 

The Buttonhole Makers' Union. Local 245 of Brooklyn extend heartiest 
tions and best wishes for a successful convention. We hope that your 
will bring us more economic advantages and also the establishment of the 1 1 BOW 


Chicago. 111. Mar IS. 1918 
May the accomplishment of your efforts, our representatives, be such that through 



we shall real lie our aspiration for the building of our ideal industrial democracy. 

Chicago, 111., May 13, 1918. 

Campaign initiated. Employers trying to suppress our movement by cauaing dis- 
tributors of pamphlets to be persecuted. Aggression not diminishing our enthusiasm. 
1 fonee third convention affirm eight-hour day. 


Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

We, the workers of Milton Simpson & Co., 2041 Pitkln Avenue, send our best wishes 
and congratulation* 

NERENBERG, Chairman. 

New York, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

Greetings. With pride do I extend the greetings of the New York Joint Board 
to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
at whose past achievements for the clothing \\orkers whom you represent we look 
upon with much glory. We hope that this convention will continue to enlighten the 
labor movement upon the path of human emancipation until we reach the goal of true 
democracy and equality for all those who labor and produce. With best wishes for a 
uoceuful convention. 

M. BLUMENREICH, Secretary Board of Directors, 

New York Joint Board, A. C. W. of A. 

President HJLLMAN: Is the Credential Committee ready to report? 

(The Chairman of the Credential Committee read his report. At the conclusion 
of hit report, Assistant Secretary Potofsky named the following delegates as those 
who were recommended to be seated with a voice and vote at the Convention.) 

1, Boston, Mass. Jack Blume, Frank Lerman, Jos. Pennini, Samuel Zorn. 

2 New York City. David Goldstein, Joseph Goodman, Isaac Levlnaon, Morris Rappa- 

port, Harry Schepps, Nathan Slegel, Max Schultz. 
5, New York City. Alex Cohen, Morris Goldin, L. Nirenberg, L. Rerayle, S. 


4, New York City. Abr. Beckerman, J. P. Friedman, Harry Jacobson, Meyer Sentar. 
I. Chicago, 111. Stephan Skala. 

7. Brooklyn, N. Y. Isador Axelrod, Louis Berger. 

8. New York City. Hyman Goldoft, Abr. Miller. D. Nirenberg, Nathan Sosnlck, 

David Weiss. 

9. New York City. Abraham Silverman, Louis Feinberg. 

10, New York City. Louis Adler, Sam Katz, Philip Waldman. 

11, New York City. Sam Leder. 

12, New York City. Bennie Horowitz, Jacob Gutterman, Saul Rlger, Sam Scheir. 

15, Baltimore. Aaron Feldman. 

16, New York City. Morris Goldstein, M. Nitzberg, Samuel Stein, Louis Zuckerman. 
It, New York City, Max Yudelowitz. 

24, Newark, N. J. Eugene BuccI, Philip Berkowiti. 

30, Brooklyn, N. Y. Julius Powers. 

31, Baltimore. Md. Bonnie Bernstein, Harry Crystal, Sarah Katzen, Morris Zafran. 
S8, Chicago. Victor Wybraniec. 

XI, Chicago Bennie Brandzal, A. N. Fisher, David Goldberg, Rubin Morse, Mary 

Resbeck, Tom Uzarskl. 

40, New York City. Jos. Newman, Hyman Novodvor, Bernard Weiss. 

43, New York City. David Isaacs, Louis Schaplro, Jacob Yelowlts. 

51, Baltimore. Philip De Luca, Ulisse De Dominicis. 

K2, Baltimore. Frank Dvorak. 

64, Brooklyn.N. Y. Frank Vaitukaitis, John Zubauca. 

It New York City. Harry Bender. 

18, Brooklyn, N. Y. Wm. Cernowsky. 

19, Baltimore. Bennie Hurowlti. 



Chicago. Samuel Oeier. Jacob Kroll. Frank P*rtek 
63. New York city. Paul Arnone. Frank Bellanca. Dominick Di Nardo. 

Romano. Gabriel Vastano. 
69. Baltimore. Frank J. Bar 
72. Brooklyn. N. Y Joseph Cohen, 
idelphia. Harry Goldstsdm. 

85. Brooklyn. N. Y Frank Marrone. Louis Mairola 
Brooklyn. N. Y. Tbeo. Pilger. 
Cleveland. Victor Foreman. 
114. Baltimore. Harry Elsen. Louis Lederman. Max Prossinsn. Morris Slrkln. 

116. Montreal A. Wrlls. 

117. Baltimore. Harry Nelstadt. Max Roslnsky 

188! Philadelphia.' Pa. Jobn Bender. 

140. Philadelphia^-*. Lerner 
Ml. rhlladelpbla Hyman Greenberg. 
142. Brooklyn. N. Y. Harry Taylor, 
iladelphie, Pa.-Isaac Kesaler. 

Chicago. Ill Jacob 8. Pot of sky. Morris Rabinowlti. 

Boston. John Palalma, 
150. Boston. Thomas Mot 

162. Chicago. Samuel Diamond. Joseph Goldmsn. 
Mladelphla, Pa. Leah Gaibln 

166. New York City. Morris Adlnskr. Chas. Bnglander. Jos. Gold. 

Jacob Pollack. 

167. New York city -Morris Gunt. Emma Shapiro. 

158. New York City. Harry N Greenberg. 

159. Brooklyn. Harry Rubin. 

161. New York City. BenJ. Indyke. 
165. Brooklyn. N. Y. Sam Hassner. 
167. Montreal. Max Kes.v 

169. New York. Louis Posner. 

170. Baltimore. Msmie Santorn. alternate for Dorothy Jacobs 
Boston. David Oilman. 

172. Boston. Leon Lebovltz. 

Boston. Nathan Biller. David Goldstein. 

174. Worcester. Harry 8t ' 

175. Brooklyn. J. Blume. Simon Haas. J. Zuckennan. 

176. Brooklyn. Frank Caneellleri. 
178. New York Abraham Kronick. 

186, New York. Hyman Mitnitsky. Harris Yanofsky. 

207, Woodbine. N. J. M. Gin. 

209. Montreal. Frank Wl 

218. Brooklyn. N. Y Sol Friedman, H. Heller. 

i'l4. Brooklyn. N. Y, Harry Kalushkin. 

Brooklyn. N. Y. Max Alexander. Jack Perlman. 

218. Baltimore. John J. Denkevks, 

280. Baltimore. John Drasel 

Baltimore. Samuel Basstn. Abraham Sykes 

244. New York City. B. Goldsholl. 

247. Baltimore. Morris Fisher. 

248. New York. Max Steinberg. Sam Drabkin 

249. Philadelphia. Sam < 

259. Brooklyn. N. Y. Louis Brodsky. B Jackson. 

262. Brooklyn. N >rv Dotio. Peter Monat. David Wolf. Jacob J. Y< 

269. Chicago. Peter Galfkls 
77. Montreal. Ellas Rabkln. 

280. New York. Thomas Frlsa, Lorento De Maria. 
Joint Board of Rochester Jacob J. Levin. 
Joint Board of Boston Laxarus Marcovitx 
Joint Board of Chicago Hyman Isovtta, 
Neir York Joint Board Wm. Drubin 


Children's Clothing Trades Joint Board, New York Harry Cohen. 

Joint Board of Toronto Jas. Blugerman. 

Philadelphia District Coun Nathan Bunin. 

Baltimore District Council No. 3. Hyman Blumberg. 

Fraternal Delegate Jos. P. Barry, Boston Clothing Cutters and Trimmers' Union. 

As there was no objection, these delegates were declared seated as delegates to 
the Convention, and so ordered 

Brother Tttafsky then made an additional report for the Credential Committee 
as follows: 

"Your Committee on Credentials, elected at the first session, beg leave to report 
that we have examined all credentials submitted by the delegates. In accordance 
with the constitution the committee ruled that each delegate must be a member of 
the Local Union he or she was elected to represent, and, therefore, recommends that 
Brother Thomas Morelll, who is a member of Local 1, Boston, and an elected delegate 
of the Boston Overall Workers, Local 150, shall have a voice but no vote." 

Delegate Zorn suggested that Delegate Morelll be seated with a vote inasmuch as 
Local 150 is a new local and did not know of this particular clause of the constitution. 
and that if they were not allowed a vote it would create a bad Impression among the 
members of the local. 

Delegate Goodman stated as follows: 

We act in accordance with the constitution and we know that no member can 
represent a Local Union of which he is not a member. Therefore we think that this 
cannot be decided by the Convention because the membership voted on the constitu- 
tion. The Convention cannot overrule the membership. 

President HILLMAN: The call for the Convention sent out by the General 
Secretary from the General Office had the clause of the constitution inserted. The 
clause of the constitution reads: "Delegates shall be elected at a special meeting 
of the local union by ballot not later than March 31st preceding the Convention, and 
a plurality vote shall constitute an election. No person shall be eligible to election 
as a delegate unless he is a member of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amer- 
ica who shall have been a member in good standing of the local union he represents 
at least one year immediately preceding the day on which said election Is held." 

Delegate ZORN: This does not specify that he must be a member of that local. 

President HILLMAN: I am reading to you that which was passed by the Web- 
ster Hall Convention. I have no objection if the Convention wishes to use a technical 
excuse for violating the constitution. I believe it would be a very unfortunate step 
to establish such precedents. We have laws so that they may be enforced, no matter 
who may be affected. The report of the Committee on Credentials is that Delegate 
Morelll should be seated with a voice but without a vote. The vote is on the question. 

The recommendation of the Committee was unanimously adopted. 

Delegate Potofsky then read the following: 

"The committee is of the opinion that no one delegate may represent more than 
one Local Union, and therefore recommends that the delegate sent from Locals 244 
and 245 of New York may represent Local 244 only, of which local he is a member; 
likewise the Locals 249 and 281, Philadelphia. The committee recommends that 
Brother Goldscholl represent Local 244, and Brother Flicker be seated as a delegate 
from Local 249. of which he is a member." 

Delegate Levine of Rochester opposed the recommendation, because it takes 
away the risht of on* local to be represented He stated that inasmuch as the 
delegate has only one vote, to take away from him the right to represent one of the 
locals would be unfair. He said that this was particularly true of Rochester where 
one delegate represents four locals. 

Delegate ALEX. COHEN (of New York): I don't see the reason why that should 
be recommended by the Credential Committee. I understand that a man can talk 
In the name of two or three or four local unions. I don't see how the Convention is 
going to produce anything in any way by preventing a delegate from speaking on be- 
half of three or four local unions instead of one. I understand the reason, why a 
man cannot be elected as a delegate from another local union to represent his local, 
but when three or four local unions send one representative I don't see why this 



Convention should have any objections, and therefore 1 feel that there is no 
for concurring with the recommendation of the Credential Committee in this 

Delegate GOODMAN (of the Credential Committee): I wish to say that the 
Credential Committee decided In that manner because we do not wish to permit one 
delegate to represent a whole town. We do not want to establish a priniisnt 
Later on we may have a whole city sending one delegate, and we want every local 
union to have Its own representation, and not have one delegate represent an entire 

Delegate JACKSON (Local 259): If a local is poor and has no money to send 
n delegate, have they not a right to combine with another local and jointly send 

fill % flI aft f ** ^ 

Presidt MAN: Thnt the Convention will decided this morning I cannot. 

Delegate ALEX COHEN (Local 3): I want to be Informed whether, by letting 
oo delegate represent two local unions. It will mean that be will have two votes? 

President HILLMAN: No. It would not. It would simply mean that local unions 
may combine to send a delegate. I wish to say that the delegates may take Into con- 
sideration thnt It may work a great hardship on some of our local organisations. We 
have organisations in small towns that are not sufficiently strong to finance their 
own representatives, and so two or three local unions will have one business agent 
as their representative. By Isying down a law against It we may simply deprive 
those local unions from being seated at future conventions. While this 
may be seated here now. you realise that the local unions will not pay his 
In the future if he will not represent them. It would be wrong for a la 
onion to send proxies, but it may work a *rav.* 'njusttce to the smaller unions if yon 
will deprive them of the opportunity to en<1 joint delegates. (Applause). 

ve motion was then placed before the house. The vote was 33 In favor of 

accepting the Committee's report, and 59 opposed). 

President m I LMAN We will now vote on the motion that the delegates be 
seated as representing two local unions each. 
(This was unanimously carried.) 

Pr. n. LMAN: The chair wishes to announce that this action of the 

Convention, as I understand it. applies only to local unions that are financially 
to send representatives. It is not the sense of this Convention that joint 
be permitted In the case of local unions financially able to send separate 

(Delegate Potofaky then continued reading his report ) 

In the case of Local 24. Newark, which tent in two delegates while this local 
is only entitled to one. lacking only three members to be entitled to two. The Com- 
mittee recommends that both delegates be seated with one vote, a half vote for 

Delegate EHSEN: There are two delegates and If you seat the two . 
and give them only one vote, suppose the delegates disagree on a question, how will 

that vote? 

President HILLMAN: Each will have half a vote. 

Delegate BHSEN: I would much rather see that the one delegate that received 

the largest number of votes from the local union should be 

Delegate COHEN: I move that the recommendation of the Credential 

be accepted. 

The recommendation of the Committee was carried. 

The full report was accepted as amended In the one) case above mentioned. 

President HILLMAN: I shall ask the delegates to hand in their resolutions. 
While we are taking up some of our time with the Assistant Secretary receiving 
the resolutions I wish to announce that we will have the pleasure of listening this 
oon to the Chairman of the Board of Standards of the United States Govern- 
ment. Professor Ripley (applause). Professor Ripley was made chairman of that 


Board when Mr. Louis Klrsteln resigned. He will address the Convention at three 

I am sure that the delegates will be glad to hear now from one of our friends 
who Is with us and haa always been with us. I understand that lie was also at the 
conrention from which I was unfortunate enough to be absent, the convention in 
Naahvllle. I take pleasure in introducing to you Comrade H. Rogoff. (Prolonged 

Address of Harry Rogoff 

I am very sorry that Mr. Cahan, the editor of the Forward, has not been able to 
come to address you aa he intended. He haa not been feeling well and is unable to 
come. The greetings of the Forward to the delegates of the Amalgamated don't 
hare to be rendered In person by anybody. I think that the delegates to this Con- 
vention who are able to read the Forward know enough about the feelings of the 
Forward for this organization. It has been an Amalgamated newspaper an Amal- 
gamated organ ever since this organization has been started, and probably many 
months or years before, in spirit. The Forward is certainly over happy to see this 
result of Its agitation, to find that all its predictions and all its hopes have been more 
than realized with regard to the Amalgamated organization. There Is no special 
message that the Forward and myself, as its represntatlve, at this moment can bring 
to you. 

I heard many addresses yesterday. Many of the delegates, or many of the 
men who spoke to you, made all kinds of predictions about war times, after th 
war et cetera. I am unable to say anything about the future. But I should like 
to say one thing about the present that was said yesterday by Comrade Shlplacoff. 
I certainly endorse his sentiment on one particular point, that this Convention con- 
fine itself to the business of the Convention, to the business of the Amalgamated, 
to the problems that confront your organization, and try to keep out from the other 
problems that may involve you in controversies and in disagreements in the organi- 
zation. If there Is anything that I wish to impress upon your minds It is this. And 
I am sure that in this respect I voice the sentiment of all the people who stand At 
the head of the Jewish Daily Forward. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: I am asked to introduce a representative of the Los 
Angeles Sanatorium, Mr. F. Flanzer, who will address the Convention for a few minutes. 

Mr. Flanzer congratulated the Amalgamated upon its progress and concluded in an 
to the Amalgamated for help as follows: I have been traveling for the last 
three years for the Los Angeles Sanatorium, which is recognized as a radical institu- 
tion. Wherever I come, in every city of the United States, it always happens that 
some one asks me who is back of it, because they understand there must be some big 
man back of the institution. They cannot make It out that it is possible for any In- 
stitution to be carried on without any particular one backing it up, but all of the 
people should be In back of It. So I hope and trust that the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers at this Convention will give sufficient support to this institution so that I 
shall be able to tell those who ask me that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America is in back of it. (Applause). I hope your Resolutions Committee will 
recommend proper action. I thank you for all you have already done. (Applause). 

President HILLMAN: I wish to announce that tomorrow at ten o'clock sharp 
Congressman London will address the Convention (applause). I shall ask the dele- 
gates to be on time as Congressman London has to go back to Washington imme- 
diately on account of some bills that are coming up. I understand that the Com- 
mittee on Credentials wishes to make a further report. 

Delegate POTOFSKY: The chairman of the Credentials Committee requested me 
to announce that this credential was presented this morning and was voted upon 
favorably by the Credential Committee, Brother Harry Goldstein of Local 75 of 

The report was unanimously accepted. 

President HILLMAN: I am sure that the delegates would like to listen to one 
who is from our own ranks, a member of our New York Cutters' organization, a 



member of its Executive Board, a member of the Board of M<trea of New York, 
Brother Abraham Beekerman (Applause). 

' - ' -*\ * 

* Address of Delegate Beckerman 

AM BBCKERJCAN: Brother Chairman and Brothers: I 

to say that I did not expect to bo called upon to make any special 

don't happen to be a sort of invited alderman or invited guest, bat happen to be a duly. 

regularly elected delegate to this Convention. (Applause). 

Mr. 8HIPLACOFF: We will shut you up for the real of the CnsjfsjrtlaB. (Laughter) 

Delegate DECKER MAN: Over my dead body. (Laughter) I want to aay that It 
id unfurl unate that on thia platform, at thia particular time. 1 am being aided alone 
by oommenta from Aaaemblymen. from Judge* and from other eelebrftiea. I want 
to aay. brothers, deapite the fact that I did not expect to be called upon. 1 am very 
happy to be given this opportunity to get a few things off my heart, or a few thing* 
that were very near to my heart. 1* was a delegate to the convention two years ago 
cheater, and. from the general appearance of the present Convention, I think 
that we are going to live up to the fine convention that we had there, and I 
that in the next two years we will make such progress aa we 

The world has moved since two years ago In Rochester. The world has 
considerably And that particular part of the world, known as the 
Clothing Workers of America has in no sense lagged behind the rest of the world. 
The great struggle, which must some day come to an end. will probably bring about 
a new relationship of the working class in this world. There 1 no doubt that 
the war is over the working class everywhere will be a good deal more 
than it was before we began. And it is our duty, it is the duty of our 
to set a pace In this country and show the light for the labor movement in 
Over in Europe a few months ago there was a convention of organised labor of the 
Entente conutries: England. France and the other allied countries. A fine pro- 
gram for reconstruction was drawn up at that conference of Inter-allied labor. 

Unfortunately American labor was not represented there. And it was not repre 
seated because In this country we are cursed with the most reactionary labor 
ment in the world. (Applause). It is our duty, as the leading labor 
America: it is our duty, for we opened the path three years ago and 
emancipated ourselves from an autocratic officialdom, to set the pace in 
and see that the American labor movement works in conjunction with the 
movements of England. Prance. Italy and elsewhere (applause), and see that we 
take an active part in the process of reconstruction after the war 

What is It that we have to do? We have got to make progress in our 
tion. We have got to strengthen our organization in the future as we 
In the past. But we have got to do something besides that. We have got to 
the spirit of the working class outside of our movement so that they may keep 
with our movement and together we may put an ideal and spirit into the 
labor movement to match the labor movement elsewhere so that together we 
emancipate ourselves universal: 

That Is the program of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
now on. Work with them, strengthen ourselves as an organisation, and put 
into the rest of the labor movement of America so that we ma] 
towards the work of world-wide emancipation of the working 

;I.I.M \.\ in the Committee on Rules ready to repo 

Report of Committee on Rules 

legate BLUMBERQ of Baltimore. Chairman of the Committee on Rules, reported 
aa follows: 

The Committee recommends that this Convention meet dally In two sessions: 
the sessions shall be held from 9 a. m. until 12. and from 2 until C. Every delegate 



can speak on a resolution or motion before the house once. No speaker shall be 
allowed more than five minutes. The chairman of the Committee may have ten 
minutes to close the debate. The Convention shall be guided by Roberts' Rules 
of Order. 

Now there may be questions coming up of vital importance to the Convention. 
Then it will be up to the Convention as a whole to extend the limit of debate on 
any important question, but these are the rules as we recommend them to the Con- 
vention. There will be further recommendations in the afternoon session as to 

President HILLMAN I shall now ank the chairman of the Committee to read 
each rule separately and the Convention will then vote on them. 

Delegate BLUMBERG: This Convention is to meet daily in two sessions. 

(There was no objection ) 

"The sessions shall be from 9 to 12 and from 2 p. m. to 6." 

(Delegate ZORN of Boston offered an amendment that they meet from 9:30 to 
12:30 in the morning.) 

(This was seconded by Delegate Gold of Local 156 of New York.) 

(The amendment was carried.) 

(Delegate Blumberg continued reading as follows): 'The afternoon session shall 
meet from 2 p. m. to 6 p. m." 

Delegate GALOWITZ amended that "we meet from 2 to 6 p. m." 

Delegate BLUMBERG: It will be impossible for us to hold any night sessions 
in this hall, and It might be necessary during the last days of this Convention to 
meet until 7 o'clock. We can use this hall until 7, and if we decide to meet only 
nntil 5 it will be Impossible to get through. I don't believe it is a hardship to ask 
the delegates to sit until six. 

(The motion was carried that the sessions close at 6 p. m.). 

Delegate BLUMBERG: Every delegate can speak on a motion or resolution once. 

((There was no objection). 

No speaker shall be allowed to apeak more than five minutes. 

(There was no objection). 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: Does that preclude giving any members a special 

Delegate BLUMBERG: No, the Convention may grant special privileges. 
Delegate BLUMBERG (continues reading): The Chairman shall have ten min- 
utes to close the debate. 

(There was no objection). 

Delegate BLUMBERG: The Convention shall be guided by Roberts' Rules of 

(There was no objection). 

If there Is no objection on the part of my committeemen I should recommend that 
all the resolutions be in by tomorrow at 12:30. 

(There was no objection). 

After 12:30 no resolutions will be accepted. 

President HTLLMAN: Unless there is the unanimous consent of the Convention. 

(There was no objection). 

President HILLMAN: That means that you will have time until 12:30 tomorrow, 
at the latest, to hand in your resolutions. The Chair will announce the appointment of 
the following Committees, subject to the approval of the Convention: 

The Convention Committee 

Assistant General Secretary Jacob S. Potofsky. 
Sergeant-at-Arm* Lorenzo De Maria, Local 280, New York. 

Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms Saul Rieger, Local 12, New York; I. J. Strlzover, 
Local 120, Louisville, Ky.; L. Lederman, Local 114, Baltimore. 



PreM Committee: Ira W. Bird. Axortate Editor of "Advance." chairman; Harry 
Cry*tal, Local 36, Baltimore; Prank Bollnnca. Local 63. New York. 

Miscellaneous Wm. Drubln. chairman. N'ew York Joint Board. New York; Joa 

Pennlnl. Local 1. Boston; Harris Heller. Local 213. New York; Prank Bartoa*. Local 6. 

Baltimore; Mamie Santera. Local 170. Baltimore; Harry Rubin. Local 159. Brooklyn. 

; Bernard Wela*. Local 40. N- Sam Leder. Local 11. New York; Darld 

Oilman. Local 171. Boaton. 

Report of Officer* Jacob Kroll. chairman. Local 61. Chicago; Morris Ooldin. 
Local 8. New Yurk; Char Knglander. Local 166. New York; J. P. Friedman. Local 4. 
New York; Sam Stelner. Local 16. New York; Hyman Goldoft. Local 8. New York; 
B. Romano. Local 68. New York; Prank White. Local 109. Montreal; John 

Reaohition Committee Harry Cohen, chairman; J. B. Children's Clothing 
New . ter Monat. Local 262. New York; Paul Arnone. Local 68. New York; 

Nathan Siegel. Local 2. New York; Harry Bender. Local 65. New York; Hyman 
Isovits. Joint Board of Chicago; Leon Lebovltz. Local 172. Boston; Sam Baeain, 
Local 241. Baltimore; Leah Galbin. Local 163. Philadelphia. 

Organization Committee Alex Cohen, chairman. Local 3. New York; Joa. Good- 
man. Local 2. New York; Louis Pelnberg. Local 9. New York; Simon Haas, Local 176. 
New York; Louis Scbapiro, Local 43. Brooklyn. N. Y ; Peter Galskls. Local Ml. Chicago; 
I. Kessler. Local 143. Philadelphia; Sam Drabkln. Local 248. New York; Philip 
DeLuca. Local 51. Baltimore. 

Committee on Law David Wolf, chairman. Local 262. New York; Abraham Mfltar. 
Local 8. New ienry Dozzo. Local 262. New York; Julius Powers. Local 80. 

Brooklyn; Louis Zuckerman, Local 16. New York; Meyer Senter. Local 4. New York; 
Morris Rappaport. Local 2, New York; Sam Diamond. Local 162. Chicago; Nathan 
Blller. Local 173. Boston. 

Appeals and Grievance* Jas. Blugerman, chairman. Joint Board of Toronto; Harry 
Nlestadt, Local 117. Baltimore; Louis Posner. Local 169. New York; I. Axelrad. Local 
7. Brooklyn; A. N. Fisher. Local 39. Chicago; Eugene Bucci. Local 24. Newark; 8. 
Welnstein. Local 3. New York; B. Horowitz. Local 12. New York; Sam Kau. Local 10. 
New York. 

Committee on Rules Hyman Blumberg. chairman. District Council No. 3. Balti- 
more; Samuel Geler. Local 61. Chicago; Prank Marrone, Local 85. New York City. 

Labels Gabriel Vastano. chairman. Local 63. New York; John Drasel. Local 280. 
Baltimore; Max Yudelovitz. Local 19. New York; Prank Cancellleri. Local 176. 

Wybraniec, Local 38. Chicago; H. Kalushkin. Local 214. Brooklyn^ 
Alexander. Local 215. Brooklyn; Morris Rablnowlu. Local 144. Chicago; Morris 
Local 36. Baltimore. 

As there was no objection by the Convention to any of the delegates) 
Committees remained as announced by the Chairman. 

Order of Business 

Prealdent HILLMAN: I wish to state to the delegate* that we have tried to have 
every city and every locality represented In the different committee*) so that they 
may get the proper hearing at the Committee. Unfortunately we have not yet got 
sufficient committee* to place all the delegate* on them, to some had to be left out 
I hope that those who were left out of the committee* will take it in the right spirit 

Prealdent Hillman then read the Order of Business of the- Convention as follow*: 

1. Call to order by General 

2. Report of Credential Committee. 


5. Reading of Minute*. 
4 Report of Officers, 

6. Appointment of following 

Officers. Appeals and Grievances. Organisation. Label and 

7. Reports of 


I. New Business. 

10. Nomination of Officers. 

11. Selection of place for next convention. 

12. Adjournment. 

sldont HILLMAN: The report of the officers will be presented to this Con- 
renilon at the morning session Wednesday morning. Is there any objection to the 
order of business as read? 
(There was no objection.) 

This will be order of business for the Convention. 

(Delegate Potofoky was about to read resolutions, which had been submitted to 
him. when Delegate Cohen suggested that the resolutions be referred to the various 
and that when they report they read them to the Convention 10 as to 
the time of the Convention, and made a motion to that effect. It was seconded.) 

President HILLMAN: All I ask is, If you accept it, that you don't complain 
afterwards. As a rule we find that if a resolution is not read, claims are made that 
resolutions were handed in that were never handed in. If your motion prevails, 
Delegate Cohen, it means that all resolutions will be referred to the presiding officer 
without presenting them to the Convention, and the Chairman of the Committee will 
read them only when he reports on them. 

After a heated discussion the Convention voted that the resolutions be read to 
the Convention at this time. Delegate Rosenblum thereupon read the following reso- 
lutions which had thus far been submitted and they were referred seriatim by the 
Chairman to the respective committees dealing with each particular resolution: 


Resolution No. 1 Local 61, Baltimore, on 44-hour week. Referred to Committee 
on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 2 Local 14, Rochester, on organization campaign. Referred to 
Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 3 Local 14, Baltimore, on co-operative movement. Referred to 
Committee on Miscellaneous. 

Resolution No. 4 Locals 16, 186, 282, New York, on 44-hour week. Referred to 
Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 5 Local 39, Chicago, on promotion of labor literature. Referred 
to Committee on Miscellaneous. 

Resolution No. ft Local 63, New York, on wage increase on equal basis. Re- 
ferred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 7 Local 63, New York, on high cost of living and co-operative 
stores. Referred to Committee on Miscellaneous. 

Resolution No. 8 Local 63, New York, on program of inter-allied conference. 
Referred to Committee on Report of Officers. 

Resolution No. 9 Local 63, New York, on tenement-house work. Referred to 
Commute on Organization. 

Resolution No. 10 Local 63, New York, on minimum wage, week-work standard 
and educational campaign. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 11 Local 63, New York, on 44-hour week. Referred to Committee 
on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 12 Local 63, New York, on printing of constitution in all lan- 
guages. Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 13 Local 63, New York, on amendment to constitution, two- 
thirds majority of voting. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 14 Local 63, New York, on district form of organization. Re- 
ferred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 1& Local 15, New York, on needle trades department. Referred 
to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 18 Local 63, New York, on women's department Referred to 
Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 17 Local 247, Baltimore, as to organizing of pressers. Referred to 
Committee on Law. 



Resolution No IS-Cblidren'i Cloibtns; Joint Board. New York Ctty. on 44 hour 
week. Referred to Committee on naeoimkmi, 

Resolution No Ifr Local 17S. Brooklyn, on organization campaign tor orerall 
workers. Referred to Committee on Organization 

Resolution No. 20 Local tt. New York, endorse movement for daily Italian labor 
paper. Referred to Committee on Resolution* 

Resolntion No. 21-Local U, New York, on proffmm of Brttiab Labor Party. 
Referred to Committee on Report of Oficers 
Adjourned 12:10 p. m. 


Third Session. 

Baltimore, Md., Tuesday, May 14, 1918. 

The Convention was called to order at 2:15 p m., Tuesday, May 14, 1918, President 
Hilhnan in the Chair. 

The following messages of greeting were read by Secretary Schlossberg: 

Brooklyn. N. Y., May 14, 1918. 

On behalf of two thousand coat makers, whom we represent, accept our best 
wishes and congratulations to the Third Biennial Convention. It is our hope that 
this convention will undertake as its next move to win for the clothing workers in this 
country a better and brighter life by inaugurating the forty-four-hour week. 

Chairmen of Kalman Friedman's District, 
Coat Branch, New York Joint Board, A. C. W. of A. 
WM. GOLDBERG, Chairman. Member of Local 2. 

New York. N. Y.. May 13, 1918. 

Heartiest congratulations. May your deliberation bring about a shorter workday. 

I. Tanzer, Secretary. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, May 13, 1918. 

In this critical period, may your deliberations be of service to humanity. We 
are undergoing the travail of truth. From these birthpalns a new freedom will be 
born. The Amalgamated will surely do its utmost in this the last struggle of man. 

Greetings until the better day, 

Chicago, 111., May 13, 1918. 

May your efforts be crowned with glory. May the result of your deliberations 
be of such nature that it shall illuminate the works and instill in them that spirit of 
industrial democracy that will eventually dominate the world. 


Louis Weiss, Secretary. 

Toronto, Ontario, May 13, 1918. 

The vestmakers of Toronto Local 222 are extending congratulations to our Third 
Convention. We wish you success in your good work. 

H. HECKER, Secretary. 

New York, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

Congratulations to the Third Convention. Wish you success in bringing about 
the forty-four-hour week in five days' work; also scale of wages, and to take the 
platform for Palestine and send delegates to Congress. Hope you passed everything 
successfully and report good news to local union. Best wishes, 

Member Local 156. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1918. 

We congratulate yon. Long life to Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
Pass resolution for a forty-four-hour week. 

Palm Beach, Local 157, A. C. W. of A. 



New York, N. Y.. May 11. 1918. 

The Joint Executive Board of she United Brotherhood of Tailors extends its 
congratulations to the Third Biennial Convention of the 
Workers of America, and best wishes in all future undertakinc*. 

D. 8AXDLER, Chairman. 

Israel Galley. Secretary. Joint Executive Committee, 
United Brotherhood of Tailors. 

New York. N. Y.. May W. 1918. 

to the Third Convention at Baltimore. We hope that (his 
will help establish a six-hour-workday. 


Local 19, B. Zuckerberg. Financial 

New York. N. Y.. May 13. 1918. 

The working men of Stauber A Sapers' shop, of Local 167. A. C W. of A-, are 
sending yon heartiest congratulations, and hope that in the future you will con- 
tinue your splendid work. 


r. N. Y.. May 13. 1918. 
We send our best greeting to your Third Convention. Appreciate the work 
done and we also wish best success in the future. 


New York. N. Y.. May II. 1918. 

May the future achievements of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers excell lu 
marvelous attainments of the past 

N. Berger. Acting Secretary. 

New York. N. Y.. May 18. 1918. 

The Italian Branch of the New York Coat Makers. Local 63. extends greeting* 
to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
and expresses its fervent desire that our organization will win the recognition of 
the world as one of the foremost in the straggle for the happiness and freedom for 
those wfco serve the world. 

Cancelllerl, Secretary. Local 63. A. C. W of A. 

Baltimore. Md.. May 14. 1918. 

The Workers of the American Uniform Company, civilian branch, 
heartiest greetings to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamal 
Workers of America. 

B. SWARSKY. Chairman. 

Baltimore, M&. May 13. 191& 
Accept our best wishes and congratulations, stay your efforts be crowned with 


Rochester. N. Y.. May 13. 1918. 

Rochester sends yon its heartiest greetings and best wishes. Our long 
and spiritually enslaved fellow workers are fast recovering from Hie welfare 
of our employers, and are rapidly awakening to their true interest in life, 
joining oar ranks. The spirit for organisation is sweeping the city with a 
sympathy and support of our International Union and Its great and growing 
ship throughout the country. We feel that in the near future thi 


will make of the foremost welfare fake and non-union clothing market in America 
a mighty power for the protection of the workers. Remember that nineteen eighteen 
ii the year for Rochester. Yours for a hundred per cent organization very soon, and 
complete industrial and social democracy in our day, 


Locals 14, 202, 204, A. C. W. of A. 

Louis Feldman, Secretary-Treasurer 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 13, 1S18. 

Three thousand members of Locals 16 and 186, vett makers' unions of Greater 
New York, extend their greetings and congratulations to the Third Diennial Con- 
vention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. With best wishes for 
success In all your future enterprises and for a freer and happier mankind, 

A, WEINSTEIN, Secretary. 

New York, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

Heartiest congratulations. May this, our Third Convention, realize our aim for 
a successful one hundred per cent Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Union. 


Toronto, Ontario, May 13, 1918. 

Tonight 1 am leaving for Palestine to nght for my country and nation. For 
two yean, I am proud to say, I worked hard for the progress of the Amalgamated. 
I congratulate you on your Third Convention. May you progress and succeed In 
the work. Remember our martyred nation and help its deliveration. 

(Formerly Secretary of Local 216, Toronto.) 

Baltimore, Md., May 14, 1918. 
Accept our heartiest congratulations. 


New York, May 13, 1918. 

We send greetings to your Third Annual Convention. Wishing you success 
In your great work. 

LOCAL 30 OF NEW YORK, A. C. W. of A. 

Delegate Rosenblum continued reading the resolutions. 


Resolution No. 22 By the Boston delegation, in the matter of organizing th 
orerall workers. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 23 From Locals 4 and 9, in the matter of officers' salaries. Referred 
to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 24 By the Boston delegation, with regard to a paper In the 
Lithuanian language to be published by this organization for our Lithuanian members. 

At this point the President announced that as there were several resolutions that 
teal with educational work, a Committee on Education will be appointed, and this 
resolution will be referred to that Committee. 

Resolution No. 25 Joint Board of Toronto, Canada, including several different 
topics. The Chair announced tfcat the different parts will be referred to the proper 
Committees. The Chair suggested that in the future delegates take care to present 
separate resolutions on separate topics. 

Resolution No. 26 Local 2, on officers' salaries. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 27 Local 2, on editorial policy. Referred to Committee on Re- 

Resolution No. 28 Local 2, on conventions. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 29 Local 2, on policies of officials. Referred to Committee on 

Resolution No. 30 Local 2, on the composition of the General Executive Board. 
Referred to Committee on Law. 



Resolution No. 81 Locm) 1. on sjsitttflartasj of daUcatss. totem* to Commit 
on Law. 

Resolution No. SI Local 2. ID the matter of foreign Isngissjsa, Referred to 

Committee on Resolution* 

Resolution No. W Local 2. on financial reports. Referred to CoanUttee cm 
Reports of Officers, 

Resolution No. 14 Local S. on the election of officers Referred to Ccssatttes 
on La* 

Resolution No. U Local 2. on the 44 hour week. Referred to Organization 

Resolution No. 3* Local 211. on * minimum wage. Referred to 

Resolution No. 87 Local 1M. New York. In the matter of the organisation of the 
lerks. Referred to Committee on Resolution! 

itlon No. 3* Local 168, New York, providing for an orfanlier tor the 
:IK clerks Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 2 Local 172. Boston. In favor of the restoration of Palestine to 
the Jew. na. 

Resolution No. 40 By the delegates of Locals 4 and 63 on the New York Call 
Referred to Committee on Education. 

Resolution No. 41 Local 112. Cleveland, on organization campaign. Referred to 
Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 42 Local 218. on several matters. Will he assigned to various 

Resolution No. 43 Local 1S6. New York, on the amalgamation of the two Joint 
Boards in New York. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

President H The delegates who have not handed In 

tlons as yet will please take notice that thin afternoon and tomorrow 
the only sessions left In which to hand In their resolutions We have 
deal in the last two y-ars it has taken a ?r-nt deal of effort to get 
are now. Everyone of the officers in the city, the active members in the city, the 
rank and file in the city, have contributed their share. But. as in other cities, the 
Socialists came to our aid in the time of great struggle. I now take great 
In introducing to you the editor of the "Public Ownership" of this city. Mr. 
Shipley. (Loud applause). 

Address of Msynard Shipley 

Mr. Shipley congratulated the Amalgamated Clothing Workers upon its 
success, and said: 

The only bright spot that I found when I arrived here, and got a little 
acquainted in this city, was that grand and wonderful organisation that yon are 
representing here today, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. (Applasjse,) 
I say this, friends, without any desire to compliment yon. let alone to flatter yon. I 
could not flatter you if I wanted to. and I don't want to. I say this 
of my heart, that If It were not for tho splendid organization of class 
in the Amalgamated here in this city I would simply have to take my $2 

ir organization has been so strong because of the so 
which your organization is based. It has been so strong that even the 
influences, the scabbing of the A. F. of L. on your jobs, the efforts that tho 
has made to break every strike that the Amalgamated has been forced to 
these have not weakened you. It has strengthened you when yon hare tho 
of having Mr. Ferguson against you. and that is as high a rormmiosxlafirm as can 
be given any working class organisation. (Applause.) 

Only a few months ago I had the pleasure of traveling through Boat of the 
State, and I found there, even way out In the coal mines In the 
that these coal miners out there are thinking of the Amalgamated 
of America of Baltimore. They are modeling their unions in the coal 
on what you are accomplishing in the needle trade Industry of this and 
They are copying after you." 


Mr. Shipley spoke of the valuable assistance given to thU organization by the 
Socialist party of Baltimore and its organ, "Public Ownership," and concluded: 

can say to you in all honest conviction, that I believe that I am looking into 
the faces today of the men and the women who will live to see a great industrial 
democracy reared on the political democracy of America today." (Applause.) 

Appeal from the Chicago "Daily World" 

The Chairman next Introduced Mr. Max Globerman, of the "Daily World," the 
only radical Jewish newspaper, in fact, the only radical newspaper in Chicago. He 
delivered a stirring appeal to the members for aid for this daily, as it represents the 
organ of radical thought in the city of Chicago. 

Address by William O'Toole 

The Chairman then Introduced Mr. William O'Toole. the organizer of the Socialist 
party In Baltimore. Mr. O'Toole was heartily cheered. He delivered an address In 
which he appealed to the members for financial aid for the newspaper, "Public Own- 
ership." inasmuch as. he stated. Comrade Shipley was too bashful to ask the members 
for aid. He expressed his admiration for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America, and endorsed the sentiments of all the previous speakers. He prophesied 
the time when the Amalgamated would become the leading power in the labor world. 
and when its ideas would spread through the entire labor movement. 

More Resolutions Presented 

At this point Delegate Rosenblum read further resolutions as follows: 

Resolution No. 44 By Locals 116, 209 and 277 of Montreal, on educational work. 
Referred to Committee on Education. 

Resolution No. 45 By the same delegation. Treating of various matters; will 
be referred to the several committees. 

Resolution No. 46 By Delegates Taylor, of Local 142, and Indyke, of Local 161. 
on Russia. Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 47 By the same delegation, on the Mooney case. Referred to 
Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 48 By Local 169, on a strike in the children's sailor suit industry. 
Referred to Organization Committee. 

Resolution No. 49 On Convention. Referred to Miscellaneous Committee. 

Resolution No. 50 By Local 63, on political activity. Referred to Committee on 

Resolution No. 51 By Local 175, on the forty-four-hour week. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 52 By Delegates Taylor and Indyke, on literature for our members 
at the front. Referred to Committee on Education. 

Resolution No. 53 On composition of the General Executive Board. Referred 
to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 65 By Local 3, on hours of labor. Referred to Committee on 

Resolution No. 56 Local 3, on foreign languages. Referred to Committee on 

Resolution No. 57 By Local 3, on legal holidays. Referred to Committee on 

Resolution No. 58 By Local 3, officers' salaries. Referred to Committee on Law. 
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society 

Mr. Hirsch Bloch. representative of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid 
Society, was Introduced by the Chairman. Mr. Bloch told the delegates of the great 
work done by the Institution he represents, without any discrimination as to nationality, 
creed or otherwise, and asked that the Institution receive the liberal support of our 

Announcement by Arrangement* Committee 

Delegate Crystal, Chairman of the Local Arrangements Committee, announced 
that a mass meeting will be held at Lyric Hall this evening. 

At 4 o'clock the Chair adjourned the Session until 9:30 the next morning, In order 
to enable the committees to immediately begin their work. 



Fourth Session. 

Baltimore. Md.. Wednesday, May 16, 191ft. 

The meeting was called to order at 9:W A. M.. President 
Secretary Sehiossberg read the following messages of greeting 

New York. May 14. 1118. 

This Is our message for good luck to the Third Biennial Convention of the 
r^m*"^ Clothing Worken of America. We shall continue with renewed energy the 
march of the workers upon the long and thorny path, upon which you hare been bring- 
ing the workers ever nearer to democracy and freedom. 


Frank Leventhal Acting 

New York. N. Y.. May 1J. 1118. 

Our heartiest congratulations to your Third Biennial Convention. May the 
brotherly spirit of solidarity prevail In your ranks. May your splendid work OB the 
economic and educational Held be continued In the future until the creation of the 
new social order. 


New York. May 14. 191ft. 

We. the officers and members of Local 2. aend our beat greeting and 
to your honorable body. No doubt you will work for the intereat of oar 
the future as you did In the past Long live the Amalgamated. 

Abe Simon. Temporary Secretary. 

New York. May 14. 1918. 

Extending to you our heartiest congratulations on the eve of your Third 
ventlon. May your deliberations and undertakings for the advancement and 
Bee of the Interests of your members and all who toil be crowned with great 

M. Kaufman, 

Sooth Brooklyn. N. Y.. May 14. 191ft. 

Our heartiest congratulations to the Third Biennial Convention of the 
Clothing Workers of America. We wish the delegates success in their 
is the forty-four-hour week. 


Cleveland. Ohio. May 14. 191ft. 

Success and sunshine to our convention. May your gathering be a 
orchard whose fruit shall be picked in time all throughout the organisation 


New York. May 14. 191ft. 

We extend to your organization greetings and congratulates* upon your Third 
Dttnnlil Convention. The success that your organisation has made within the past 
tone years has been greater than the accomplishments of other organisations in the 


past twenty-fire years. We again extend to you a heartiest congratulation and best 
wishes. May your future be crowned with success. 


Harris Feiner, President. 
Harry Slupsky, Manager. 

South Brooklyn, N. Y., May 14, 1918. 

Let the next convention find a mighty world international where elements will be 
as strong and daring as ours. Then no evil spirit will laugh any more its red laughter 
and the brotherhood of the working class will no longer be a dream. 

BRITZER, Chairman, Local 259. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., May 14, 1918. 

The Brownsville and Bast New York Hospital, Inc.. extends heartiest congratula- 
tions to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 


President HILLMAN: Before we proceed to our regular business, I shall take 
this opportunity to call upon a fraternal delegate to address this convention. The 
Cutters' Union of the city of Boston, an independent organization, not affiliated with 
the Amalgamated, has been working in full harmony with our organization for the 
past year, and has sent a fraternal delegate to this convention. I shall now call 
upon Brother Barry to address us. 

Address of Joseph F. Barry 

Delegate Barry: Brother workers, members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 
I want to say that this is unexpected. I am not strong. I don't know that I can make 
myself heard. But those of you who are from Ne^w York and Boston and Baltimore 
know that I represent a local of Boston Clothing Cutters, an Independent organization, 
which has always been affiliated with every labor movement concerning a clothing 
Industry except the present Amalgamated. We have always been so far ahead of the 
other clothing centers of the country that it used to distress us to hear the reports 
that our delegates would bring back from the different conventions of the clothing 
workers. In November, 1917, I had occasion to go to New York on some business 
relating to Government contracts. And it came to my notice that the Cutters of 
course, we are mainly interested in the Cutters had got beyond and far surpassed the 
Boston Clothing Cutters in wages and conditions. And I returned home and reported 
that fact to my organization. And then, in the course of events, with the assistance 
and the advice of some of your good members of the Amalgamated, my organization 
Toted to send a fraternal delegate here to Investigate and find out what the Amalga- 
mated was doing. 

Well, we take the city right here in which we are, the city of Baltimore, as you all 
know, was always a blot on the clothing workers. Now I can go back to Boston and 
tell them the fact that you have revolutionized the conditions In Baltimore and made It 
a place to work in instead of being slaves, such as you used to be. The same condition! 
exist in New York, from the reports that I hear from the delegates. 

1 know that this is the work of the Amalgamated. I know that you must be doing 
the same In every community that you represent. I know that I am going back to 

Boston and I am going to tell them a story that they have not heard for a long time. 
They are going to hear of a convention of clothing workers that was mainly composed 
of men, different from what has been in the past, when my local was interested in a 
national labor movement. The old days I can well remember when certain people 
governed and ruled the convention. It was not the men as far as I can remember, was 
it Brother Hilrman? 

President HILLMAN: No. 


Delegate BAJUt . 

that I have met aad 
ted. A more Intelligent, a better 
in any convention before. 

Now. I can not say. brothers, or feltow-workere. that my organization 1* 
join the Amalgamated. I am only one. It is for me to bring back to them a report of 
your view*, and they will act accordingly. They are Intelligent men. If they wish to 
join the Amalgamated. God speed to them. But I am going to cloee by wtohini 
niiBiisjiliil imoiTi and lone life of the Amalgamated for the food work that yon 
In ih* uplift of the clothing industry in this country, because if there to 

thai needs uplift It Is the clothing Industry I have been in It * 
to know 1 inmaeitur It from the time when aa an errand boy I took the doCnini 
the swealahop aad from the time that I took the clothing and unpacked it 
the caace coming from New York The shocking condition* that prevailed in 
clothing Industry the Amalgamated ha* stopped in many place*, and 1 know It to 
to stop them throughout the rest of the coui. 

I remember the condition* from the report* that were brought back In 
year* by the delegate* to the conventlona. We never got a decent report from any 
city with the eioeptkm of New York once in a while. But now. mingling wK* the 
I find that you are improving condition* la every place and every city 
you have aa organization, and I hope that the Amalgamated, before they are 
will standardise the wage* and the condition* in the flhrthlng Industry of the 
United State* aad Canada, so that no matter where a man'* home la. If It to hi* leek 
to have to change hi* city where he to to live, that wherever he goe* he will find the 
same good conditions and the same good wages. I thank you. brother*, aad wish you 
continued success. (Applause.) 

Preeideat H1LLMAN: I shall now announce the Committee on 

A. Becker-man. Chairman .Local 4. 

A. Yelknrltz ...Local 43. 

Harry Blsen Local : 

David Goldberg Local St. 

A, Feldman .... cal IS. 

Frank Lennan Local 1. 

M. Slrki . Local 114. Baltla*ej 

N'lrenberK Ix>cal 1. New York 

Betmle Berensteln . . . Local It. Baltimore 
I* there any objection to these appointments? 
(There was none.) 

I shall also appoint Delegate Young In place of Brother Ledennaa. who did not 
accept the appointment, as assistant sergeant -at arms We have with ue a 
Uve of the Naturalization Aid League and one of the Vice-Presidents of the 
Ladle** Garment Workers' Union I have the pleasure of Introducing to yom 
Pania Cohen. 

Address of Fanla Cohen 

Mr. Chairman and fellow worker*: It is needle** to tell you that I was very glad 
to take advantage of the opportunity to appear before you here at year Third 
Convention. My own organization, the International 
will hold it* convention next week, and I am quite busy with the 
menu. Still I was tempted to be with you and say a few words to you. After all, we 
consider ourselves one organization, of the 

I will tell you the special object of coming here this morning It to the flrst 
la my life. I will say. that I am coming with such a mission, aad I hope I will be enc- 
ceesfttl. You know we are living In this country under a system under which every ma* 
or woman living here for five year* has a right to become a crtliea of this country, aad 
enjoy the privilege* that go with citltenshlp. Unfortunately the workers aeglect thU 


opportunity. The middle class and the wealthy class are always naturalized. Why? 
It is very staple. They have time for it. If you approach the workers they tell you: 
"I have to work. I cannot go to Court and spend a day or two days or more In order 
to become a citlxen." In dull season the worker tells you: "I am worried by unem- 
ployment and cannot think of becoming a citizen." He neglects it. 

Now, we have a new element In New York. It is the women. Last November the 
franchise wms granted to them. But what did we discover? A very small number of 
them are citizens. The vast majority of them are not citizens at all. Do you know what 
It means? To my mind they are traitors to *heir own class if they don't become citizens 
of a country, where they could use their vote, where they could elect their own repre- 
sentatives. We find it necessary to organize in the city of New York, where the bulk 
of your membership and ours live, a league for the purpose of educating the workers to 
become citizens, tell them of their duty to become citizens, tell them to become citizens 
and elect their own representatives to Assembly, to Congress, et cetera. This involves 
The U. S. District Court in New York appreciated the necessity and the use- 
of our league, and it Is now recognized by that Court. 

Now this Is the first time that I am going to ask for money. It is a very unpleasant 
thing to do. but knowing how liberally your organization always responds to any appeal 
from the labor movement, I was persuaded to come here and ask for funds. Your organ! 
zation has already contributed to this institution. So did our organization. But it is 
going to contribute again. You have a representative on the executive board, your Presi- 
dent and your Secretary are on the advisory committee, and they will see to it that you 
will get the benefit for your members out of this league. I hope that every one of you 
will do something, will vote for a contribution. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: The Socialist Party 1918 Campaign Committee has sent its 
representative, Brother Bakal, to make a request of the convention. I will now call on 
Brother Bakal, who will address the convention on this subject for a few minutes. 

Comrade Bakal made a strong appeal for contributions for the Million Dollar Fund 
the Socialist Party has undertaken to raise for the next congressional campaign through- 
out the country. 

President HILLMAN: The delegates, I hope, are aware that this is the last session 
for the presentation of resolutions. When this session is over, no more resolutions will 
be accepted, except by unanimous consent. 

The Arrangements Committee asks that we adjourn the convention tomorrow at 
11 o'clock so as to give an opportunity to the delegates to see Washington. What Is your 

Delegate HARRY COHEN: I move to that effect. 

Chairman: Will the mover of the motion agree that we meet tonight until 7 o'clock 
and that tomorrow we adjourn at 11 o'clock a. m. for the rest of the day? 

Delegate COHEN: I accept that in the motion. 
The motion was seconded. 

Delegate RABKIN of Local 209: I move that we delay the Washington trip until the 
convention is through with its business. 

This amendment was seconded, but was lost by an overwhelming vote. 
The original motion was carried. 

President HILLMAN: We have with us here a number of Schloss Bros, strikers. 

Their appearance was greeted by thunderous applause, and as the strikers marched 
around the delegates, the enthusiasm and applause grew in volume until it was deafening- 
The demonstration lasted for fully six minutes and filled the hearts of everyone with 
emotion and pride and strength. 

The strikers then proceeded to the balcony to listen to the proceedings of the con- 

President HILLMAN: I shall now call on the Manager of our Local Organization, 
a member of our General Executive Board, Brother Hyman Blumberg, to greet the con- 
vention and the strikers. (Applause.) 


Address of Hyman Blumberg 

it would have done mt mort good tf those who have 
that we have DO onranliatlon in the City of Baltimore were frilMt IB CMt 
the splendid reception accorded to our strikers of Be h loss 
out BOW for five weeks the reception accorded them by this 

Brother Shlplacoff last night in his address at the Lyric Theatre said that special 
cities are subject to special epidemics of disease. He cited that In the City of New York 
they had the epidemic of Infantile paralysis. In Baltimore we have the epidemic of 
Ferguson f . In this same hall, when the American Federation of Labor held its 

convention her vember. 1916. that this same Ferguson, sitting at one of 

tables, said that he was proud to be a scab agent. And In response to Prselds 
who had attacked the actions of Ferguson in this City, said that if 
scab agents In the United States, to forward them to 

And I agree with him. Ferguson is not enough In this City to combat the 

gamated Clothing Workorn. H will n'vl moro' (Appl:m-- Th- <::>,;,. ,,f our 
in thin city, as shown by the tremendous fights that they have pot up. is sucn that if all 
the Fergusons of the United States were sent to Baltimore by the entire American Fed- 
eration of Labor, they would only help to strengthen the Amilsjimstsd Clothing Work- 
ers in this City to more solidly unite the clothing workers as a whole in Baltimore. 

The activity of our enemies against us has only tended to make this city oae tas> 
dred per cent. Amalgamated. 

I sincerely hope that, before this convention adjourns. I may be In a position to re- 
port to you a settlement an Amalgamated settlement of the Schloss strike! (Hurrah! 
and great applause.) And when the adjustment will be made with that firm, it will be 
years and years before any labor faker In this or In any other city that he may come 
from will ever dare attempt again an attack on our organization! (Applause ) 

I could not close without again referring to a remark that was made In this hall 
at the convention of the American Federation of Labor. At that time. Samuel Oompers. 
from this platform, said In reference to a question that came up. and I will repeat that 
remark with reference to the Fergusons. Oompers said : "Lay on MacDuff. and dasned 
be he who will cry enough!" (Loud applause.) 

President H1LLMAN: I am sure that the delegates, as well as the strikers, will be 
glad to listen to one who has participated In every fight in this city, as well as la staer 
cities, of our International, and this Is Brother Frank Be 11 an ca, editor of our Italian 
organ. Lavoro. 

Brother Bellanca of Local 63 delivered a stirring address In Italian. His speech was 
received with enthusiasm by the Italian members present and frequently interrupted by 

President HILLMAN: When the Nashville situation arose, we found that we 
in great need of professional men. especially lawyers, and went to friendly legal 
In New York. Morris HtllquH defended the legal side of oar case; in Cincinnati we were 
very fortunate In having the assistance of our friend Nicholas Klein. We will give up 
part of the morning's session to listen to an address by our friend. Nicholas Klein of 

Address of Nicholas Klein 

Mr. President and Friends: I did not expect to be called upon at this very - 
at least, because of the presence of my good friend and colleague, who has just 
to you from the City of Washington, with a message of encouragement, I have BO 
But I was asked when I approached the platform to say some few words of 
ment to the Schloss Brothers strikers of Baltimore. I can only say this, that 
than I could say this morning has already been demonstrated* here on this 
in this hall. The marching around of the men and the women this irfrr^g. *&d t-V 
standing up of the groups of delegates from the various cities, was indeed an Inspiring 
spectacle to my 


I believe that they have been on strike for five consecutive weeks. The strikers 
now realize -what war means. And they also realize no doubt what Sherman said about 
war, because, my friends, a strike is a war, the two contending forces fighting like sep- 
arate armies, each for Its share of the spoils in this world today. 

The speaker this morning, the Chairman or the co-worker of Baltimore, Bald that 
a settlement was about to be had, and he expected to announce before the adjournment 
of your convention a settlement of this strike. My friends, I hope that is true. I hope 
that the Schlos Brothers strikers are going to win a splendid victory! (Applause.) 

There never has been such a wonderful opportunity for labor as presents itself this 
rtry moment. But, my friends. I have in mind this, and I say this to the strikers and I 
say this to the delegates. Labor just now is In the flower of its manhood. Just like this 
beautiful spring day. when the buds are beginning to open, so labor is coming into its 
own. But, my friends, that in due in great measure not so much to your stand either as 
or working-women, but to the peculiar economic status which has beem 
about by the war. And I say to you, my friends, that perhaps after this war 
and that is not so far off a chance will come to you strikers, and to you workers, to 
show not by applause, but by action, how much per cent, you feel for organized labor. 
Because, my friends, after this war. there will be a sreat unemployment problem. The 
munition plants will be closed and useless, and millions of munitions workers will be 
thrown out upon the market. And then the time will come to show whether you strikers 
and you workers believe one hundred per cent, for organized labor or only 35 per cent., 
because, my friends, my good friend is he who is with me when the storms are beating, 
when I am hungry, when I have no money, when everybody is spitting on me, when I 
am in Jail; and then, when a man comes to me and says, "I am with you; have courage; 
I'm your friend!" that man is my brother that man is two hundred per cent, because 
that man is not a sunshine friend. Sunshine friends organized labor can get now. Sun- 
shine friends organized labor can get when it is victorious, when it is on top. But the 
true test will come to you, strikers, and to you workers, in Just a short time. To you 
strikers, who have been holding out five weeks. I may say a word of courage, and U 
this: When you go into the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, you are going 
mto a real organized Union, not a bosses' union. You are going into a union made up 
of those who have Ideals, of those who believe in you, of those who are working for 
you. of those who are using every energy and every effort, not for politics, but to make 
it better for you in the shop, not because of a label, but because you are workers and 
you produce all the wealth. 

And I say to you, stick to that Union. That Union means Just what It says. It is 
a Union of organized forces In America in the needle trades. 

So, my friends, without taking up any more time, let me say to you, and without 
being pessimistic, that there will be evil days coming. And they are not so far off. I 
wonder how many of the membership of New York and Chicago and all over the country 
are so solidified and will stick to the Union, to the Amalgamated, when the time comes 
when the call comes, and you are put to the test. Will you be a real soldier in a grand 
army of labor, or will you be one of those stragglers who only come in to get two dollars 
or more wages per week? That is going to be the great problem. 

And the education of your membership now, the solidifying of your forces now, the 
making of your lines strong now, my friends, is the big, big question, and it can be 
done anything can be done If a Union of one hundred thousand members can be 
organized In three years like has been so wonderfully done here by your leaders and by 
your officers and your membership, my friends, anything is possible. Education is pos- 
sible, and the winning of strikes Is possible. 

Let me close Just now by giving you a little story that I have given you once before. 
I close by telling you the story, because I think it explains better than anything else, at 
this time, the great possibilities which can come to labor. There is a story told about 
the making of the first railway. There was an old man, it is said, whose name was 
Stevenson, who made the first locomotive. You know, Just like in the labor movement 
they said locomotives were impossible. You had to have horses or cattle to pull a train; 
that nothing would go without something being attached to it. There would be no loco- 

And when old man Stevenson proposed a train something to be run without the aid 
of horses or oien, he was ridiculed. One day a test was made, and they laid two pieces 




and upon these two piecee of wood they placed some thin shaeta of metal, and 
that crude arrangement waa placed the flrat locomotive. 
And it is said in this story that tbouaaada of people were ovt to ate the flrat taet 

of that locomotive, and of couree the people all shouted, aad pointed to thr 

crazy, aad they aald the locomotive waa out of queetlon: It waa lav 
and the crowd yelled out: "You old foggy fool! Yon can't do It! You cant do 
And the same everywhere. The old man waa in the cab. and aoanbody fired a 
pistol and the signal was given. He pulled the throttle open and the engine shot oat aad 
In their iaa limit the crowd, not knowing how to answer I 

to that argument. 
" TOD old fool! You can't stop It! You can't stop it! Yon can't stop It' ' < Applaoee ) 

And my friends. In this story you have a history of thto entire movement- Ftret they 
ignore you. Then they ridicule you And then they attack you and want to burn you. 
And then they build monuments to you. 

And that is what is going to happen to the Amalgamated Ctotatag Workere of 

And 1 say, courage to the striker*, and courage to the deiegatea, bacauas groat 
are coming, stressful daya are here, aad I hope your hearts will be atrong. aad 1 
will be one hundred per cent, union when It cornea! (Great applause ) 

President MILKMAN.* I am sure that Coagreaamaa London noodo 
to this convention I take great pleasure in calling upon Congreeeman Meyer London te 
address this convention. 

London received an ovation, everybody rising and cheering wildly. 

Congressman London's Addreea 

Chairman and Deiegatea to the Amalgamated 

vvas with a great deal of hesitation that I left the city of Washington even for a 
couple of hours and absented myself from a part of the aiilmv It has fallen to ma to 
be a member of the American ConirresA at a time when the world la aflame. 
thing is In the crucible, when the flux Is more rapid than e-ver in the hlatory of the 
tyrdom of the race. And it has fallen to my lot in this hour of stress to 
norlty view to speak for those who have been voiceless for a long time, to 
the tomorrow or the day to come. And every ounce of my energy, all I have and all that 
I expect to develop, all my spiritual, intellectual and physical strength is devoted to the 
task before me. 

I always find inexpressible pleasure In addressing a gathering of 
greatest event In hlatory waa the organization of the flrat labor union. It to 
man who Is at the very bottom of the social scale, when the worker upon Boaa 
rests all the weight and all the burden of society, it is when he arlaea. whan ha 
claim a share In the world not only better clothing and better shoes 
but when he demands access to the world's treasures of learning and 
lated for centuries, when he begins to draw upon the reservoir of wl 

and of education. It is then that mankind begins to move forward. 

It is organized labor united labor that will push the world forward, aad 
apeak of organized labor I know that your convention and your organization occupies 
* preeent moment a unique position. It looks aa If you are Isolated. But that will 
not be for long. I know that all of you. your leaden aa well aa the 
will use the first opportunity to see to it that you become a pan and 
labor movement which will embrace the entire country and the entire 

Labor cannot afford to be selfish or sectarian or aristocratic. That 
curse of the labor movemnt for years. The clothing worker, the ladiea* 
and the tailor, was the roost deaplsed of all workers. You know that old 
"It takes nine tailors to make a man." That proverb came about In a vary 
In olden days men were aa foolish In matters of dreaa aa women are today and It 
a dozen tailor* to make up one man. It required an extra tailor to prepare the half- 
tro-aaera for him, aad the vest and the coat and the lapels, and all aorta of frills, so that 
the proverb waa created that "It takee nine tailors to make one man." But others 
applied it as a term of reproach aad contempt for the tailor, for the clothing 
And it waa a term of reproach, thirty years ago. before the great labor 
tailoring tradea aaw the light 

Now It is a pleasure, it Is an honor, to apeak to organize* 
them not only tho dothlnic worker, not only the man who ia 
only the man who aeeks the Improvement of hta 


has a vision, who looks into the tature, who studies and reads and thinks and who Is in 
the forefront of the labor movement, striving toward genuine progress. 

There is nothing to be despised about the tailor today. No bricklayers' convention 
and no railroad workers' convention and no telegraphers' convention can present that 
volume of idealism, of striving and craving for the better, that our conventions present 
And that Is why we are today in the vanguard of the labor movement. We have broken 
away from the past. We are not destroyers, but we have stopped licking the dust of the 
past. So far as our Ideals are concerned, we always know that they will become a reality 
when you have your feet on the ground and when you fight now and here for immediate 
Improvements, always guided by a big broad desire to improve not only your own con- 
ditions but the conditions of the world. It is this combination of the ideal and the prac- 
tical that Is characteristic of our union. We cannot build the cooperative commonwealth 
you build better men today. The union builds and creates that soul which Is es- 
for the world to travel forward. 

The sailor is made on the sea and in tho storm, the soldier on the firing line. The 
that will build a future society must begin building his character and his manhood 
his moral strength and develop his fibre a< a fighter today and here in the fights 
for the betterment of the conditions of the workers. 

I recall having read a beautiful sketch by one of the p: ian writ< -off. 

He pictures a skillful aviator a man who In a very short time acquired a reputation as 
the best aviator in the country. He had the very best machine. He was to give an 
exhibition of his skill and adroitness. And as he went up, the plaudits of the crowd ac- 
companying him. he looked with contempt on the crowd below him. All was so petty 
and so small and and so sordid. And he snld, "T will go up higher and higher and away 
from this crowd of small men, and away from the little things and away from the com- 
monplace " And as he went up high he determined to make this circle still "wider and 
till higher, and up he went higher and higher and higher, and wider and wider was the 
sphere that he soared away from the low, away from the contemptible, away from the 
little men and women who inhabit the earth higher and higher. He refused to come 
down. Every thing below was so sordid. But he did come down, and his machine came 
down, a dead machine with a dead aviator. 

The idealist who starts ou.t with a complete disregard for things as they are, who 
believes that this world is soiiiid and small, that the fight for wages and for hours Is 
too petty a thing, that what we ought to do is to reorganize the entire society, all at once, 
and build up a cooperative commonwealth beginning from the twentieth floor, Is like 
that aviator. He will go up higher and higher into wider and wider spheres away from 
everything small, but he will come down a dead man In a dead machine. 

The man who fights today for things worth while is the man who builds the world. 
I am glad to see that the great majority. If not all of the members of this union In this 
great crisis of the world, realizes that the last man In the world to scab against Uncle 
Sam is a member of organized labor and a member of a union. 

I did my part in the Congress of the United State* representing that body of thought 
which I as a Socialist stood for and stand for today. I know that labor, always capable 
of realizing the necessity of utilizing every existing force for the improvement of con- 
ditions will take the practical view. And what means thf practical view? Is the word 
"practical" a contemptible term? No. What does it mean? When we use that word 
from the platform of a labor convention, It means that which is best fitted to serve our 
Ideals and our purposes. It is in this sense only that we can use the word "practical." 
Any other method is destructive of the very things that we are striving for. 

I have tried on the floor of Congress, as I am trying everywhere else, to destroy the 
idea that war times are not times for improvements. I tried In the last argument on the 
so-called sedition bill to prove that it is In war times that we are to make changes which 
are necessary to put society on a proper basis. It fas when the nation Is put to stress, 
when all its energy Is called into action, when all its resources are needed, it Is then 
that we find what is wrong with us. It is then that we discover what is defective in our 
economics and in our politics. It Is then that every weak spot appears on the surface. 

Twenty-nine out of every 100 men who appeared to be examined for military service 
were found to be physically defective. There is a condition which we never understood 
before. That fact faces us today. And the fact is so apparent, so eloquent, so clear, BO 
convincing that we cannot postpone the removal of that horrible fact until the war is 



If we need strong men to fig ht th* nation's fights and the world's fights ta UBS* 
of war. we Insist thai we shall have strong men In time* of peace aad forever. 

Special students of American conditions knew that there was illiteracy ta oeme eec- 


We all knew In peaceful times that profiteering was a curse. But imagine the siuta- 
tkm today. Somebody asked me on the floor of Congress whether I would favor a strike 
in the trenches. I said Because in the trenches the rich boy aad tho 

poor boy. the banker's son and the bricklayer, are standing shoulder to shoulder pouring 
Ir blood. The rich man's son does not try to get Into the poor man's pocket and 
pick out his change. The rich man's son will exploit the poor man's son over hero km 
industry. The very reverse takes place of what takes place on the hattloflold. Aad that 
ta why we must be energetic, strong and courageous. Wo are not going to scab on Uncle 
Sam. but we don't want any profiteer to scab on us! 

There are great problems now. I don't know whether the statesmen of the world 
are capable of solving the problems that face tho world today. But the British Labor 
Movement, the French Labor Movement, the Italian Labor Movement, the Labor Move- 
ments of the World have their reconstruction program. They speak as brave BOB. not 
from books, not from theories, not from little pamphlets. No. In the university of lite 
they have learned a lesson, and the English worker and the French worker Insist that 
when the war Is over and when he goes back home he should bo not only a partner to 
the national debt of Great Britain and a pan owner of the French national obligation*, 
but that he should have access to the land and to the industries and that he should be 
given an opportunity to live a free man's life In a free country. 

And when you will be accused and no one will dare accuse u of lack of love for 
these United States, we say that, so far as we are concerned, no matter In 
some of us might have been born, no matter in what country the graves of our 
may be. thin country, where the cradle of our children Is standing, is our 
country! We shall not in this hour of crisis be weak. Now is the time for 

Now friends, you delegates of a union representing laboring men. you are not all 
the labor movement unfortunately. There are still millions of tollers who don't know, 
who have not seen the light of organization. There are still millions of men who don't 
understand the mission of our movement. Let every one of you men and women con* 
stltute himself a teacher and an organizer and a leader. Read more, study more, try 
to understand more. Let not the word "workers" be a term of contempt Organise, 
teach, don't throw the burden upon leaders only, because the leader has definite difficult 
functions to perform. The work of organizing must be done by the mssses. 

And not only In strikes. Oh. the strike unions! How I despise them! A strike 
organized, and all the people joining the union by paying in a quarter, and there ta a 
union man. A scab yesterday, a quarter made him a union man today. That Is the snsis 
kind of 

It takes more sacrifices than that to be a real union man. It takes more 
to be a union man than the paying in of a quarter. Upon you rests the fate of the 
And so let every one of us become a carrier of light, a propagandist of Ideas, the 
of a cause, the prophet of a better dsy. strong men. strong women In this terrible crisis 
where the world Is being drowned in blood. We need every strong man. Wo need every 
Intelligent man, we need every intelligent woman and more energy, more faith, more love 
for humanity! 

A great ovation was given Congressman London upon the conclusion of his addreom. 

Resolutions Assigned 

Board Member Frank Rosenblum read the following resolutions, which wore then 
assigned to committees; 

Resolution No. 54 By delegation of Local S, New York, on tiuuifUittUli of General 
Executive Board. Referred to Committee on Law. 


Resolution No. 59 Boston Joint Board, on the eight-hour day. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 60 Pantsmakers' Delegation, New York, on organization campaign 
of pantsmakers. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 61 Chicago Joint Board, on organization campaign. Referred to 
Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 62 Local 230, Baltimore, as to Bohemian organizer. Referred to 
Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 63 Local 69. Baltimore, as to Polish organizer. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 64 Locals 4 and 9. New York; 61, Chicago; 116, Montreal; IS, 
Baltimore, as to cutter organizer. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 65 Local 30, New York, as to Russian organizer. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Organization. 

Resolution No. G6 Locals 15. 36. 69, 114 and 241, Baltimore, on organization of 
country shops. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 67 Local 157, New Yoi k, on organization of the Palm Beach 
workers. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 68- Local 69, Baltimore, on Industrial organization with national 
branches. Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 69 Locals 16, 186 and 262, New York, on thanks to Socialist press. 
Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 70 Local 244. New York, on abolition of sub-contracting. Referred 
to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 71 Local 144, Chicago, on bonding of financial officers. Referred 
to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 72 Chicago delegation, on financial support to "Dally World." 
Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 73 Local 114. Baltimore, on financial support to Public Ownership. 
Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 74 Toronto Joint Board, on financial support Naye Welt. Referred 
to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 75 Toronto Joint Board, on financial support "Jewish Labor 
Gazette." Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 76 Locals 2 and 161, New York, on financial support of the Naye 
Welt Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 77 Local 61, Chicago, on books and pamphlets. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Education. 

Resolution No. 78 Local 3, New York, on political prisoners. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 79 Local 175, New York, thanks to Harry Cohen. Referred to 
Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 80 Locals 4 and 9, New York, thanks to Mrs. Blumberg for her 
most valuable services to the organization. Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 81 Local 61, Chicago, on tuberculosis sanatorium. Referred to 
Committee on Miscellaneous. 

Resolution No. 82 Local 61, Chicago, on organizing Chicago clothing workers. 
Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 83 Local 6, Chicago, on Czecho-Slovak Independence. Referred to 
Committee on Reports of Officers. 

Resolution No. 84 Local 156. New York, on uniform prices on military work. 
Referred to Committee on Miscellaneous. 

Resolution No. 85 Local 69, Baltimore, on representation by nationalities on the 
G. E. B. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 86 Local 156. New York, as to foremen and contractors. Referred 
to Committee on LAW. 

Resolution No. 87 Local 144. Chicago, on uniform bookkeeping system. Referred 
to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 88 Local 69, Baltimore, on subscription to official organs. Referred 
to Committee on Reports of Officers. 

Resolution No. 89 Local 15, Baltimore, on organizing work. Referred to Commit- 
tee on Organization. 



live Board. Referred to Committee on Law. 

Resolu 1 1- Locals 8. 8 and 1M. New York. OB week work. 

Committee on LAW. 

Reeoiotkm No. 92-Local lit. New York, endorsement of Socialist Party, 
red to Committee on Reeo. 

, M-LocaU 1U and 148. PhlladelpbU and New York 
organlxlng shirt and boys' waist worker*. Referred to 

Resolution No. 94- lx>cels 80 tnd 162. New York, on 
Custom Tailors of New York and Chicago. Referred to 

Resolution No. 95 Boston Joint Board, requesting organiser for 
States Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 9 Local 4, Nw York, on financial support to Naturalisation Aid 
League. Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 97 Local 120. Louisville, requesting a woman general organiser. 
Referred to Committee on Organization. 

Resolution No. 98 Locals 4. 175 and 248, New York, on financial support to the 
$1.000,000 fund of the Socialist Party. Referred to Committee on Finance, 

Resolution No. 99 Local 48. on financial support of Williamtburg (Brooklyn) 
Labor Lyceum Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 100 Locals 4. 7 and 142. New York, tbanks to the Contention 
Arrange men ta Committee. Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Resolution No. 101 Local 175, New York, as to financial support for the Diownj 
Tiile Labor Lyceum. Referred to Committee on Finance. 

Resolution No. 102 Local 152, Baltimore, providing a sinking fund of $1C4,*4. 
to Committee on Finance. 

No. 103 Local 12. New York, on salaries of general officers. Referred 
to Committee on Law. 

Resolution No. 104 Local S6, Baltimore, proponing a $5.000 fund for 
purposes. Referred to Committee on Education. 

Resolution No. 105 Locals 3. 4 and 175, endorsing the American 
Ileferred to Committee on Resolutions. 

Delegate RABINOWIT7. of Chicago, moved that all resolutions rand. 
favorably recommended by the Resolutions Committee or not. should be printed In tne 

HILLMAN announced that this would be done in the final repert 

Report of Credentials Committee 

Delegate POTOFSKY reported for the committee as follows: 

The Chairman of the Credentials Committee asked me to report In the case of 
Local 54. which local has refused to let the General Office audit Its books, and Is not 
paying per capita for all of its members. 

The committee ruled that the question of non-payment of the per capita slow 
not belong to theC redentials Committee, 

The Credentials Committee recommends that the two t*i*r* from Local 54 
are fully entitled to their seats on the basis of per capita paid. 

In the matter of the local's refusal to have their books audited by the General 
Office, the delegatese zplained that on account of the inefficiency of the former 
Secretary* ttoe books were not up-to-date, and as soon as they will be, la about a 
week or two. the General Office may audit their books. 

The delegates also stated that they never refused to have their books audited. 
but were unable to do it because of the above-mentioned reason. 

The Credentials Committee decided to aloow Local 54 four weeks in which to 
bring their books to the General Office for auditing purposes. 

Report of the committee was accepted. 

The Credentials Committee heard an appeal on behalf of 
in whose case action was taken at the second 



gate from Local ISO, with a voice but no vote. The committee decided to ask the 
convention to reopen the case with the understanding that no precedent is thereby 

The Credentials Committee also recommended the seating of Brother I. Kessler 
as delegate from Local 167. Montreal. 

Delegate 6kala, member of the Credentials Committee, moved that Brother 
Morrelli be seated and given a vote, without setting any precedent for the future 

Delegates Arnone, Marcovltz and Gold spoke for the motion; Delegates Goodman 
and Rieger spoke against It. All who spoke for giving a vote to Morrelli insisted that 
it should be clearly understood that that is not to be made a precedent for the future. 

The motion was carried, and session adjourned at 12.80. 



Fifth Session. 

Baltimore, Md.. Wednesday Afternoon. May 16, 1918 

The Convention was called to order at 2.10 P. M.. President Hlllmaa presiding 
Secretary Senloesburg read the following messages: 

Boston. Mass . May 14. Hi*. 

Massachusetts State Committee of the Jewish Socialist Labor Party Poalet 

Zlon. representing thousands of Jewish workingmen. send greetings from the bottom of 

their hearts to the convention at large. Congratulations to your leaders upon your 

vements. Wish you success and hope that you stand solidly for Jewish 

emancipation emancipation of the working class. 

i HA.VI/N. Secretary. 

Boston. Mass . May IS. ItU. 

Accept our heartiest wishes for your Third Annual Convention. May 
effort in both industrial and social endeavors be crowned with success. 


Philadelphia. Pa.. May IS. 1118. 

We. the strikers of Wanamaker ft Brown, who have been locked out by the 
are extending our heartiest congratulations to your Third Biennial Convention. We 
are full of confidence and best spirit for our victory, knowing that your 
organization is behind us. 

SAMUEL KiaBMEP. Chairman. Wanamaker ft Brown. 

New York. N Y . May 14. 1118. 

The Wage Earners' Institute of New York City sends greetings to 
assembled In convention and wishes them success in their endeavors on behalf of 
organized labor. Your organization has from the very start taken an active Interest 
in the education of the working people. Permit me. therefore, on behalf of tne 
organizing committee to extend to you an invitation to the conference for the 
education of working people to be held In New York City May 30 and 31st It Is 
requested that your organization be officially represented. Will you bring this to the 
of the convention. 


New York. N. Y . May II. ItlS. 

In the name of the Bushlers' Branch of Local 2. New York, we congratulate you 
the work you did for our membership. 


Brooklyn, N. Y. May IS. 1118 

We send our heartiest greetings and best wishes to the Third Biennial Conven- 
tion, and trust that the spirit which made our organization strong and leading win 
always prevail In our midst 

LOCAL 72. A. C. W of A. 

May 18. 1118 
Our congratulations to your Third Convention. Best wishes to your future 



Baltimore, Md., May 15, 1918. 

May the result of your deliberation! bear the fruits at good work that will never 
decay in the history of labor. Beet wishes to all delegates. 

POLISH LOCAL 69, A. C. W. of A. 
H. BUDACZ, Vice president , 
J. WISNIKWSKI, Secretary 

New York, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

We. the employees of London's shop, send our best greetings and good wishes. 
Yomr noble work of the pa*t is known. We hope you will continue it also in the future. 


Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 15, 1918. 

Heartiest wishes for success in all your plans for better conditions of labor. 


New York, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

We. the employees of Henry Davies, send our best greetings. Forty-four hours 
hall be our motto. 


Baltimore, Md., May 15, 1918. 

The workers of Strouse & Brothers send their hearty congratulations to the 
Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W. of A. Let the forty-four-hour week be 
our slogan. We send our personal greetings to President S. Hillman. Sec: 
Schlosskerg and Judge Panken. We hope that this will be the most successful convention. 


Brooklyn, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

Beet wishes and congratulations from the members of Local 214, A. C. W. of A. 


New York, N. Y., Ma- 15, 1918. 

Accept our sincere congratulations and best wishes for a success. ul and result- 
bringing convention. 

Jacob Bloom, Chairman. 

New York. May 15, 191 S. 

Heartiest congratulations Third Biennial Amalgamated Convention. May onr or- 
ganization thrive and prosper in the future as it did in the past. 
Greetings to Manager Blumberg, of District Council, No. 3, Baltimore, Md.: 

A. YELOWITZ, Secretary, 
Locals 43 and 85, A. C. W. of A. 

Baltimore, Md., May 15. 1918. 

We. the workers of Strouse & Bros., wish to call attention of the convention to 
the splendid work done in Baltimore city. Three oheers for Blumberg. 


President HILLMAN: I shall ask the delegation to pay close attention to the 
proceedings at this session. General Secretary Schlossberg will read the report of 
the General Executive Board a report that will cover the ..ctivitiea of our international 
organization for the last two years. I take pleasure in calling upon Brother Schlossberg 
to read the report. (Applause.) 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: Mr. President and Delegates This report was com- 
pleted and printed this week. It reached us from the printer last night. Under these 
circumstances, I am sure, you will pardon the omission of names of persons entitled 
to credit for work done, and of details. 


Report of the General Executive Board 

iir limd Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 



cond coi iu M May, 1916, in Rochester, N. 

with lung a forty-eight hour week for the clothing 

..ivr tin- * report that your command has been carried out faithfully 

access fully, in letter and in spirit. The forty -eight hour week is now so 

'irm!\ in our industry that a beginning has already been made for 

ur hour week, a real eight hour day. This distinction belongs to our 

did orp.v in Toronto, Canada. 

Our speedy and universal triumph in the forty-eight hour drive was no 
.vie. It vitable corollary of the loyalty, militancy 

iigence of our membership. It was the unavoidable outcome of that 
same magnificent spirit which has enabled our organization to successfully 
conduct all 01 k during the past two years, as well as since its inception 

Tin- more conspicuous than the many other 

. -v by its \ cry nature, not being a part of the daily routine, 
li out in greatest relief. 

..u-t be remembered, however, that the past twenty-four months con- 

itense battling for the rights of the workers in our industry. 

Our path was w -\ ith roses, but we have always come out with flying 

Through the Crisis in New York 

In our report to the Second Convention we discussed the crisis then pre- 

ikj in the relations between our organization and the American Clothing 

s' Association in New York. Though we had hoped for a speedy 

reestablishment of normal relations, the situation was growing ever 

i ted for some time until the employers realised that there are 

certain methods which, if applied by them against organized labor, carry 

their own penalty with them. 



The relations between employers and employees, under the best of cir- 
cumstances, are not those of a family circle or an ethical culture society. 
They are the relations of two opposing sets of relentless economic interests. 
When the workers are unorganized the relations and conditions arc deter- 
mined in the simplest, most primitive and the most ruthless manner: The 
emplover commands without giving reasons and the workers obey without 

LT questions. Where the workers are < <1 they do fr 

questions and the employers arc often obliged to give reasons. The 
and persistency of the compelling questions depend upon the power of the 
orga: >rkers. Where the workers are organized the employers are 

bound to take cognizance of their attitude in all such matters in which both 
parties are mutually concerned. The great task then is the rstaMishing 
of an equilibrium that would be sustained by the relative strength of the 
The opposing material interests of the employers and the 
workers will necessitate adjustments and readjustments. Where cffor 
made in good faith to maintain said equilibrium it is possible to meet the 
changing requirements of the situation as the mutual relations continue. 
Our relations with the largest firms in the industry have worked out in that 

In the New York situation, however, there were some factors that were 
absent in the others and they made for serious complications. The most 
irritating of them was the notion entertained by the employers that a Judas 
to the working class would succeed where others have failed, namely to 
break our organization. That notion took such hold of them that it required 
i most convincing demonstration of its futility in order to disillusion them. 

Our organization did all it could, without injuring the interests of its 
members, to facilitate the successful working out of our agreement with 
the Association, in spite of all obstacles purposely and intentionally placed in 
the way, but failed. 

The obstructions were made against both organizations, ours and the 
employers', by the party who knew of but one policy, to artificially stir up 
trouble between us and the employers so that he might be able to fish 
in troubled waters. We saw the situation clearly, but any suggestion that 
came from us indicating it was taken by the deluded manufacturers as a 
show of "fear" on our part and they proceeded on the "old and tried" theory 
that what we did not like must be good for them. 

The following illustration will give an idea of the diabolic methods used 
to keep both parties in hot water continuously. 

One of our shop chairmen was discharged. The firm charged him with 
incompetency. We had sufficient proof to show that it was a case of dis- 
crimination because of union activity. The outside chairman ruled against 
us. We accepted his ruling and the matter would have ended there. But 
the case was reported in the manufacturers' trade paper giving the name of 
the member and the cause given for his discharge. That was tantamount 



to placing thr discharged member on the black clings naturally ran 


it asking us to agree to a modification of the agreement, annou: 
ment was suddenly ma<l " Association to the effect that the cutters' 

organization was no longer included in the agreement. 

order to leave no gap in the long chain of mischief making the fol- 
's suddenly made their appearance in the cutting rooms of the 
rs of the associati* ; 
"1 I-'.-: .veek's w 

is paid at the rate of time and a half 
"3. This is a union cutting and trimming department. 

No discrimin uitsoever, against any man belonging to a bona 

fide labor 01 

it was a challenge in the face of the organization announcing the em- 
ployment of United Garment Workers' scabs. 

In one cav --re forced to call a strike in order to i ruling 

of the Board of Mod< to return securities of fifty dollars to each worker 

a member of the association had forced his employees to pay. 

Most of our difficulties arose from the fact that the employers failed to 

carry out the decisions and rulings of the Board of Moderators. Nor is it to 

>ndcred ere firms of all sizes, standings and calibers, 

including such who were absolutely unscrupulous in their methods, were 

ne agrc< ith our organization which was in all cases 

and under all circumstances uniform in interests, policies and methods. The 

.idc particularly difficult by the manufacturers conveniently 

shifting responsibility to the contractor. 

Such was the atmosphere as between us and the American Clothing Man- 
ufacturers' Association at the time of the last convention. 

The professional mischicfmaker, whom the Board of Moderators on one 

ion correctly described as a "sinister influence", continued his old prac- 

is intensely interested in discrediting and destroying the Board 

of Mode: vho proved a serious obstacle in his way, inasmuch as it 

n opportunity to submit facts and grievances and throw light on 

prevailing conditions, even if we failed to secure redress. The exposure 

methods was most embarrassing to the "sinister and secret influence" and 

could not but reflect upon his employers. We went much out < \j in 

order to assist the Board of Moderators in the hope of re-establishing a 

normal situation But the Board did not rise to its task and opportunity. It 

>f the "sinister influence" and permitted haelf 
to be d by him. On May 25, 1916, the Board of Moderators, cor 

f Dr. J. L. Magnes. Dr. Henry Moscowitz and Mr. Charles L. Bern- 
heirner. announced its resignation. 

The Board of Moderators was created under the agreement with the 
thing Manufacturers' Association in July, 1915. The unwilling- 


ness of the Association to carry out the provisions of the agreement and the 
rulings of the Moderators nearly precipitated a general strike in January, 
1916. The resignation of the Board of Moderators followed a futile attempt 
on their part to revive the agreement which had been destroyed by the methods 
of the Association. 

In that situation we were not in the least worried about any ill i 
quences to ourselves. We felt perfectly safe. We were, howe 
much concerned about the possible effect on th Union, . 

was d hting a :\ thousand members in New 

Great efforts were made by the cloak manufacturers' association to exploit 
the resignation of the Board of Moderators in order to prejudice the public 
mind against labor unions generally. Fortunately all those attempts failed. 

But while the cloak manufacturers did not succeed in securing any aid 
and comfort for the; our 

employers benefited greatly by the struggle in the cloak industry. The 
magnitude of the cloak strike and the necessity of giving the strikers all the 
moral and financial support po: our menil 

demands for wage increases, though there was ample justification I<T it 
larly in the coatmaking branch. 

In the city of New York the men's clothing industry is still linin^ly 

a contracting industry. The sweat shop of old is gone, but the contractor is 
still there. Our members are not in the immediate employ of the manufacturer. 
The Union holds the mai.ii.'.-icturer responsible for its members' \\ 
working conditions, but it is from the contractor's hand that the worker* receive 
their pay envelopes. 

The cut-throat competition among the contractors enables the manufacturers 
to force prices down to the breaking point. Where the workers are not organ- 
ized, the contractor helps himself to their wages to reimburse himself so that 
he is not the loser. Under such a condition the capacity for competition is 
determined by the power to exploit the workers. Thus the manufacturers en- 
joy the full benefit of the ruthless exploitation and bear none of the responsi- 
bilities for it. When wage reductions are carried to the starvation point a 
spontaneous revolt is the natural and unavoidable outcome. Many a strike in 
former years was just such a desperate outbreak to which the workers were 
literally driven by the pangs of hunger. 

Where the workers are organized, they resist all attempts at wage reduc- 
tions, and the contractors must conduct tl ^le of competition at th 
pense of their own profits. But the constant and growing pressure of the 
manufacturer upon the contractor must ultimately affect the workers employed 
by the latter. In some cases reductions in wages are forced on the workers, in 
others the contractor absconds with the entire payroll, reduced or other 
The cut throat competition among the contractors, fostered and encouraged by 
the manufacturers, who are the only beneficiaries of the mad scramble, 
keeps the union busy collecting the hard earned wages for its members who 
must also lose working time looking for new jobs. 



We should be happy to sec the contracting system abolished. So long 
as there must be employers and wage workers, we should like to see our 
industry on the same basis at other large industries, the workers employed 
y and immediately by the manufacturers. But while it is not within 
our power to eradicate the evil, we have tried to regulate it and remove 
at least its most objectionable features, make it less brutalizing for the 
contractors, who are human beings like the rest of us. and less, degrading 
for the workers. We have no solidarity tor as an employer, 

but we are interested in his protection in so far as that means protection 
for our members employed by him. Accordingly, we made our renewed 
agreement with Clothing Manufacturers' Association in 

:<)i6, a -he contractors, through 

their organizations, in all such matters in which they might be concerned 
If the agreement had not been intended by the "sinister influences" men- 
ried above to be no more than a scrap of paper, a sound machinery to 
regulate conditions in the industry would have been established. As it was. 
we could do no more than expound the principle, lay out the plan and 
commit it to writing. It naturally remained a dead letter. The contractor 
continued the old grab-as-grab-you-can system. A point was reached where 
the coat contractors, who seemed to have suffered most, could stand it no longer. 
They organized and instituted a lockout on August i, iqi6. 

A Lockout That Brings a Wage Increase 

In a letter to the New York Joint Board they stated that the lockout was 
not intended against the workers. The contractors only dosed the shops in 
order to secure concessions from the manufactur 

The New York Joint Board immediately took hold of the situation as 
far as our members were concerned. Th< n of our organi/ation was 

defined substantially as follows: In the quarrel between our immediate and 
mediate employers, the contractors and the manufacturers, we can not be silent 
nesses >v: arc losing earnings by idleness. We cannot force you. em- 

ployers, to open your shops continue our work and earn our wages. 

you choose to keep them closed, but if we must lose our earnings while you arc 
fighting out your own disj> serve notice on you that when you call us 

back into your shops we shall return only if our wages are increased by one 
dollar a week. We did not quit work to demand higher wages lest we embarrass 

but now that we are forced into idleness by your 

action, we take this occasion to get the increase that we should have got some 
time ago. 

< lockout was c :. When our memlM-r< returned 

to the shops it was on ! .ise was general throughout the 

coat ma king trade. 

Relations With the Manufacturers' Association Restored 
In the meantime the relations between our organization and the Ameri- 
Clothing Manufacturers' Associa' -e restored. There was no 

written agreement and no formal machinery for adjusting disputes, but 


some informal modus vivcndi has grown out of the daily relation be- 
tween our organization and the leading members of the association for the 
adjustment of disputes as they arose. 


The resignation of the Board of Moderators was completely forgotten. 
Those who had hoped that the wide publicity given to the statement of the 
Board and the antagonistic interpretation placed on it would injure the 
organization found themselves bitterly disappointed. We proceeded with 
our work undisturbed, calling strikes and winning them where strikes could 
not be avoided, and preventing strikes where that could be done without 
depriving our members of the protection and benefits due them from their 
organization. We continued this routine with vigor and energy, but with 
no occasion for any great demonstration of our power until the movement 
began for the forty-eight hour week. The time came for the carrying out of 
the mandate of the Rochester Convention. 

Committees representing the New York Joint Board and the Joint Board 
of the Children's Clothing Trades appeared before the General Executive 
Board at its session in New York, October, 1916, and asked that we en- 
dorse a movement they wished to initiate for a forty-eight hour week. The 
General Executive Board promptly authorized such a movement and the 
campaign opened immediately with mass meetings, literature and general 
propaganda. The membership had a full opportunity to discuss all the 
issues involved. They were discussed at Joint Board meetings, local meetings, 
shop meetings, in the press, and they were topics for discussion wherever 
our members congregated. 

When the movement assumed definite form and it was clear that the 
membership stood behind it as a unit, the following communication was 
sent to the employers : 

The undersigned has been authorized by the New York Joint Board of the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers of America to inform you that demands have been for- 
mulated by our membership for the coming season, as stated below. 

The increase in the cost of living has been so great that it is impossible for our 
members to meet it out of the wages they now receive. And wages are the only 
ource of income our members have. 

The lowest possible increase in wages to enable our members to meet to any 
appreciable extent the constantly growing prices of the necessaries of life is two 
dollars per week. Our membership has decided to make that one of its principal 

We also ask that the working week be reduced to forty-eight hours. 

The trend of the clothing markets throughout the country is towards a forty- 
eight hour week. In some cases the employers have already granted this shorter 
week; in others movements and negotiations are on foot towards that end. 

The rising prices on necessaries of life make an increase in wages inevitable. 

The development of the methods of production makes a reduction in the working 
week imperative. 

Some employers in the clothing industry have already recognized the justice of 
the workers' demands along these lines and conceded them. 

There are also other changes in the working conditions that hare become neces- 
sary and that our members ask to establish. 

To sum up, the demands we submit are: 

a. A minimum wage increase of two dollars per week. 

b. A 48-hour week. 

c. Such changes in the working conditions as are necessary. 



We submit the above to you in the hope that you the proper light 

and enable us to put the changed conditions into effect for the ensuring acasom. We 
hope to be able to reach a tatUfactory agreement with vou and avoid a struggle. 

ike this matter up with the undersigned on or before 
December i, 1916. 



A similar letter was sent out by the Children's Clothing Joint Board, 
oards co-ofx making the movement a success throughout 

The Joint Board of Children's Clothing Trades was, however, more 

mted than was its sister organization, the larger body, because 

of th ig week \va.s airs, while the working week 

of the men's c was fifty hours. The Children's Clothing organiza- 

ulso had the a- of having no such disturbing elements in its 

industry as the nun's clothing organization was afflicted with. Its agreement 

Associated Boys' Clothing Manufacturers worked out satisfactorily 

and all matt- :her routine or demands for new conditions, were taken 

v representatives of both organizations for negotiation and adjudication. 

The new demands were taken up in the same manner. After a series 

of conferences between our representatives and those of the Association, the 

: hour week, an increase of $2 a week in the 

wages of the cutters and $i a week in the wages of the tailors. That went 
into effect December 12, 1916. The entering wedge for the 48 hour week 
for the tailors was made without the necessity of resorting to a strike. 

We conferred with the manufacturers in the men's clothing in- 

hopc of avoiding there too, but that proved an impossibility. 

After a number of conferences this final compromise offer was made 

to us on Decemlxr 4th, 1916: 'A wage increase of one dollar a week; 

a forty-nine hour working week imme<! nd a forty-eight hour week 

in June, 1917. The proposition was submitted to representatives of our 

membership at a special joint meeting of the New York Joint Board and the 

Committees of all of its affiliated locals on December 5th. The 

compromise on the working hours was unanimously rejected, and this action was 

''.i* general membership at about twenty monster mass meetings 

held in the afternoon of December 'h a unanimity that denoted inflexible 


The memory of those meetings will forever remain green with those who 
had the privilege of witnessing them. 

'iraries have been filled with hooks on both sides of the Labor Ques- 
Speeches without number have been made hi support of and in oppo- 
stion to the Labor Movement. But none of those books and speeches can 
give the student such a deep insight into the great Social Problem as meet- 
ings such as those. The non-diplomatic and unsophisticated but straight- 
forward and genuinely human arguments of those sons of toil who came 



directly from the workshop to attend the parliament of their industry reveal 
the true soul of the modern and intelligently organized proletariat. It is 
at such meetings that one can see industrial democracy in the making. 
Books may be a chronicle of events or an interpretation of them. But our 
meetings show the events as they occur, in their actual social, ethical and 
psychological settings and the moral forces guiding them. This is not 
meant to detract from the value of books and book education. On the con- 
trary, we hope to see the workers read and study ever more. But with 
the growth of the intelligent labor movement, books alone do not cover all 
the ground. Happy is he who can supplement his book study with actual 
touch with the class struggle and vice versa. 

The meetings through which the masses who carry the industry on 
their backs were legislating for their industry demonstrated courage and 
intelligence which were truly inspiring. 

The Argument For the Forty-Eight Hour Week 

The stock argument usually advanced in favor of the forty-eight hour 
week is that a worker can produce more under it than under a longer 
working week. In short, it pays the employer. A workingman less 
fatigued will produce more than a workingman more fatigued. But the 
moment that argument is translated into terms of money it can appeal 
to the employer only. In this particular instance the worker is interested 
in the matter of fatigue, not in dollars and cents, just as the employer is 
interested in money, which is his, and not in fatigue, which is the worker's. 
If in any case the employer should succeed in disproving the contention 
that a shorter working day means more production the woncer has no leg 
to stand on. Compare that shorter-work-day-and-more-production argur 
ment with the following point made at the joint meeting that rejected the 
compromise, made by a man who came to the meeting straight from the 
ironing board. He said : "When this war is over, our unfortunate 
fellow humans now suffering in the war stricken countries on the other 
side of the ocean will come here in search of their livelihood. We want to 
provide now so that when they come here they may find an opportunity to 
work and honestly and dignifiedly earn their bread and butter. By reducing 
our working week by two hours we will enable many of them to find em- 
ployment alongside of us. We may not be able to do it then, but we can 
do it now. We cannot do more, but this much we can and must do." 

Of course that was not the only argument. Nor was it one that was 
based on an immediate economic cause, which is always the compelling 
cause. But while the former argument reveals the tool and commodity 
status of the worker, which is his present status, the latter argument dis- 
closes the beauty of the human soul in the worker, his striving to a human 
status, to a condition where the worker will be a human being in full stature 
and not a flesh and blood machine, more often a skin and bone machine, 
for the production of goods and profits. 


The underlying economic cause for the demand for a shorter working 
week was the same in our case as in the case of all other organized workers : 
not less fatigue in order to produce more, but less exacting toil in order to 
live more, better and happier. 

The case for the forty-eight hour week was defined in our press when 
the great struggle in New York was imminent, and may well be reproduced 

It was as follows: 

Twenty-seven years ago the first International Socialist Congress called 
upon the workers to fight for an eight hour working day and dedicated to 
that struggle a special labor day, the First of May. At that time and for 
a Ion eafter, t v.mrnt of the eight hour working day was 

looked upon as an ideal which would probably be realized some day in the 
very distant future. Since 1889, however, large numbers of workers havt 
(1 the eight hour day and it has ceased to be a dream. 
blic opinion, which is always timid and the last to abandon old tradi- 
. now also sanctions the eight hour day. 

Our own industry, too. last reached the eight hour day stage. 

With us it is still a forty-eight hour week. Years ago an eight houi 
day did mean a forty-eight hour week. But the Saturday half holiday if 
becoming a universal custom, and a real eight hour day now means forty- 
four hours a week. 

In the clothing industry, particularly in New York, where there was 
practically no limitation to the working time a few years ago, except physical 
endurance, the introduction of the fifty hour week was a radical revolution. 
But we have passed that stage and arc now entering the era of the universal 
forty-eight hour week for the entire indust 

Why a forty-eight hour week? 

Some say t are lazy, that we do not wish to work more and earn 

more. Others say that the workers arc not interested in the shorter hours, 
that the agitation of the leaders alone is responsible for the issue having 
been raised. 

But the situation is such that it calls to us: You will either reduce your 
working time or your lives ! 

The technical development in the clothing industry has been quite rapid 
of late. While improved machinery and division of labor make it easy to 
learn a given operation, they also make work so much more intense and 

One does not exert himself to the same extent while making a complete 
garment as he docs while working constantly at one and the same operation. 

The mechanic who made a complete garment was naturally fatigued aftei 

c hours of continuous toil. But in the course of those ten or 

twelve hours he was obliged to pass from one operation to another, which 

afforded him some measure of relief. Also, his personal interest in construct- 

lie garment helped to sustain the master mechanic in his hard work 



The worker who is always making one small part of the garment has no 
occasion to move from one operation to another. His work is monotonous, 
tedious and, because of that, exceedingly burdensome. 

There is also another factor adding to the hardships of the modern cloth- 
ing worker, i. c., the neckbreaking speed. The full-fledged tailor, making th<> 

re garment, must keep pace with himself only. If he is slower lu earns 
less; if he is faster he makes more. He can work side by side with a slower 
or faster neighbor without hampering or being hampered. 

It is different, however, with the clothing worker of to-day, who is only 
a cog in the huge wheel of the modern process of labor. He who performs 
only one operation finds his work more exacting not only because of the mo- 
notony and lack of mental interest, but also because he must maintain a constant 
race with the worker that "feeds" him, whose operation precedes his, and also 
with the one that is "fed" by him, whose operation follows his. They, in 
turn, are situated exactly as he is. Unless he keeps fully apace with them, and 
they with the others, the labor process will be disrupted and production demo- 
ralized. The greater the division of labor the more monotonous the work 
and the higher the speed and the strain. 

Under such conditions human strength must be quickly exhausted. Under 
the system in vogue in the olden days tailors, though working hard, lived 
to an advanced age. Under the modern system that is impossible. We only 
age quickly, even as we do our work speedily, much ahead of time. It being 
impossible to abolish the health wrecking and life destroying system, in- 
creased rest becomes a most vital matter. Accordingly, there is but one remedy 
in sight: Reducing the working time. Two hours more freedom from such 
strenuous toil literally means two hours more life. 

There is still another factor to be reckoned with. 

The worker earns approximately as much as he needs for his sustenance. 
His earnings may fluctuate from time to time, but they always tend to th- 
irreducible minimum without which the worker cannot sustain himself and 
his family. His earnings are what they are at a given time, regardless of 
the standard working time. A fifty-four hour standard week does not in- 
crease earnings and a forty-eight hour standard week does not reduce them. 
On the contrary, for obvious reasons, the shorter working week makes for 
higher earnings, for their greater stability and for an advanced standard of 
living, which in turn raises the irreducible minimum. In a word, the modern 
labor process in the clothing industry has compelled the clothing worker to 
fight for a forty-eight hour week in order to conserve both his health and 1 
earnings and all that they mean for general human happiness. He must raise 
his standard ever higher or it will be forced down ever lower. 

The above statement of the situation establishes the foundation under- 
lying our forty-eight hour movement in particular, and all movemens for 
improved conditions in general. It is clear that the movement for the shorter 
working week was no whim or caprice. It was a compellling necessity. 

It will be easy to understand now why our members rejected the com- 



promise offered them. The resolution which we herewith reproduce, rejecting 
>cs willingness to compromise in the matter of wages but 
not in the matter of working hours. 

un as adopted at the joint meeting of the New York 

Hoar, and unanimously approved by the sub- 

sequent mass meeting, was as follows: 

- the member ,,f ihc .\v w York Joint Board and of the loc >m- 

aigamated ( of America, assembled in Forward 

.trd the report of our officers, who had cor. 

irers. to the effect that the latter have 
of one dollar a v%eck *ages, a reduction of one bow 

of one hour in June, 1917. 

.ally declare that we consider the forty-eiRht hour week at the most 
- meant in order to afford some relief to the workers in our 
n strain they are beinjf subjected to by the increasing sp- 

Muitry have already achieved the forty -eight hour 
se who have not si >< 'r it with reliiout enthusiasm. 

* organic ~* York, feel that 

by procla - i* immc!: - >lUhment of the forty-eight 

!ly and conscientiously represent our fellow workers. The 

our organized power make* it pot- 

the banner of \\\* r k and pledge ourselves 

to carry it on >erured, without a fight if possible, with a fight 


We herewith authorise our officials to do all that they may deem fit in order to 
enfor, - r of this declaration and to negotiate with our employers on all 

other demands submitted by us. 

All further conference'; with the employers proved fruitless. They were 
inflexible in their opposition to the forty-eight hour week. A strike became 

Children's Clothing Workers Win Forty-eight Hour Week 

During all that time the children's clothing workers' organization was in 
conference with the Association of their employers. On December I2th, by 
agreement between our organization and the Associated Boys' Clothing Manu- 
facturers, the for hour week became the law of the Children's Cloth- 
ing Industry, to take effect December 25th. Strikes were declared against 
such independent firms as had refused to abide by that very important piece 
lustrial legislation. The strikes were of short duration and the new 
working week became an accomplished fact for the entire boys' clothing in- 
y before the New Year began. 

General Strike in the Men's Clothing Industry 

December i3th, the morrow after the forty-eight hour week was granted 
to th- . saw the beginning of the general strike of 

Mien's clothing work* 

:kc better organized and more efficiently conducted. That 

was also t general strike of clothing workers in New York that was 

not a sp ak of starved slaves driven to desperation by their 

n'on did not plead the members' poverty as justification for 



the strike and did not appeal to pity and charity. On the contrary, it proudly 
announced that the workers by their organized power wire well able to 
take care of their fundamental wants, which alone caused strikes in former 
years, but that the time had come for the workers to strike for the satisfac- 
tion of the higher human wants; to strike not only for a living but for a 
better and happier It: 

No sooner was the strike proclaimed, and no sooner did the workers leave 
the shops, than the American Clothing Manufacturers' Association announced 
through the public press an agreement with the scab agency known as t In- 
United Garment Workers of America, which We reproduce here for the 
amusement of our members and the historian. The treacherous nature of the 
document speaks for itself and requires no comment from us. 

The "agreement 

I. The hours of labor shall be 48 hours a week in the cutting depart- 
ment, and 50 hours a week in the tailoring departments. On June I, 1917, at 
the complete conclusion of the spring season, the working hours shall be 49 
hours per week in the tailoring shops, and at the beginning of the following 
spring season, not later than December 25, 1917, the working hours in the 
tailoring shops shall constitute 48 hours per week. 

II. Increase in Wages: The Association, in order to carry out in detail 
its pledge for the third increase during the year 1916, to all workers in the 
clothing trade, regardless of union or non-union, hereby reaffirms: 

A. That all employees in the cutting department will receive an increase 
in wages i. e., a minimum of $i and a maximum of $2, beginning with 
the week of December 18. 

B. That all such tailors working for members of this association 
directly, will receive an additional increase in their wages beginning 
December 18, a minimum of $i and a maximum of $2. 

C. That all the members of the American Clothing Manufacturers' 
Association will advance on all contract work sent to their respective shops, 
from December 18, an increase of a minimum of 10 per cent and a maximum 
of twelve per cent for the purpose of enabling them to grant an increase 
to their respective workers, union or non-union, a minimum of $i and a 
maximum of $2 per week. 

III. Status of the Union: The American Clothing Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion will give preference in employment to members of the United Garment 
Workers of America. In turn the United Garment Workers of America will 
not discriminate against any employee who may be affiliated with another organ- 
ization, or refuse to join any organization. 

IV. Adjustment of Disputes: The parties hereby constitute a Committee 
of Two one representing each side, as hereinafter provided, to be regarded 
as a permanent standing committee, whose duties it shall be to adjust all matters 
of dispute that may arise between members of the association and the union. 



V. Should the Committee of Two fail to agree on tome specific case, 
the matter shall be referred to a committee on immediate action as her* 
.ifi.-r JT <Aided for settlement. 

VI. Immediate Action: A committee on Immediate Action, consist- 
ing of three representatives of each side, with an impartial chairman, shall 
be selected. Said committee on Immediate Action may be called by either 
wembrr of the l< of the latter'* disagree- 
ment on the disputes in question. 

agreed that pending the adjustment of disputes through the 
machinery provided for in this agreement, there shall be no strike or lock- 
out by the parties thereto. 

VII. The parties hereby agree to create within 60 days a council of 
Moderators who shall be chosen as follows: 

A. On the part of the Union, an official of the American Federation 
of Labor. 

B. On mfacturers, a representative employer 
from the Chamber of Commerce or the Merchants' Association. 

C. One who shall be chosen by the first named two individuals. 
The Board of Moderators shall act on an official appeal from the com- 
mittee on Immediate Action on such matters where they have failed to 
agree and their decision shall be final with no appeal from it. 

VIII. It is mutually agreed that the parties to this agreement 

cor iin f,n committee on revision, consisting of three 

representatives of each side whose duties it shall be to study the develop- 
ments of trade and trade conditions, etc., and from time to time submit 
their reports to both organizations for such revisions of this agreement, as 
may be to the best interests of all concerned. 

IX. This agreement shall continue at least until January i, 1918. 

X. No later than three months prior to the expiration of this agree- 
ment, representatives of the association and union shall meet in conference 
to consider the question of its renewal or modification. 

The expected stampede of the s 1 Sack to the factories as a result 

of the "agreement" did not materialize. On the contrary, the injection of 

blc scab crew served to fire still more the enthusiasm of the 

Mrik< hing was at all lacking in order to raise the strikers' ardor 

ic highest degree, that "agreement" filled the gap admirably. 

The elements opposing us in that memorable struggle were more than 

!ly savage and brutal. The guerillas, police, private detectives and pro- 
fessional strikebreakers are no strangers to the clothing workers, and in this 
case they were extraordinarily ruthless. But the fight was continued in the 
tooth of all opposition, prosecution and persecution. 

Immediately before calling the strike \\v addressed the following letter to 
Police Commissioner Woods: 


Arthur Woods, Esq., 

I'olicc Commissioner, Dec. 9, 1916. 

New Vorl;. X. V. 
Dear Sir: 

Sixty thousand men and women in the men's and children's clothing industry of 
Greater N< w York may be called on strike next week. They have voted to demand 
a 48-hour week and a wage increase of $2.00 a week to meet the increased cost of 
living. It is our wish that this general strike, if it be called, be free from disorder 
kind. In the past strikes manufacturers have recruited private armies of 
gangsters from notorious strikebreaking agencies to terrorize our pick n and 

women have been attacked near struck factories by these gangsters while in the 
lawful exercise of their rights. 

Unfortunately the police have not co-operated with us in our efforts to maintain 
peace during past strikes. The attitude of you and the department we know is neu- 
tral But there arc a number of policemen who have no sympathy with organized 
labor. Instead they arc partial to the gangsters and the scabs and strikebreakers. 
The manufacturers win the friendship of these policemen by providing them with 
lunches in their buildings and doing other favors for them while they are on duty. 

Such favoritism would not be tolerated by you if you were aware of it, so we are 
asking that you issue a special order to the police of the city to be neutral in this 
contest. We know that we will win out without one act of disorder or violence, 
worker has been warned to obey the orders of the general strike and picketing 
committees. If the police will do the same there will be no complaint against either 
party in the strike. 

Private armies of big corporations always cause trouble, as we have seen in 
Colorado, Bayonne, West Virginia, Michigan and other places of extensive strikers. 
If such can be kept from this strike we promise you the police will have no difficulty 
in preserving order. 

Respectfully yours, 

(Signed) SIDNEY HILLMAN, General President, 

JOSEPH SCHLOSSBERG, General Secretary. 

Woods was reputed to be a liberal minded official. He probably wished 
to see us get a square deal. But in a conflict between capital and labor 
he could not be stronger than the "system" and we received our full 
measure of police "attention." 

Our fellow workers in other industries took a deep interest in our great 
struggle. The following correspondence will serve as an illustration of the 
fraternal spirit shown by them. 

New York, Dec. 18, 1916. 
General Strike Committee, 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 

32 Union Square. New York City. 

Your present fight for better conditions and humane treatment is the chief topic 
of discussion by the civilized and modern workers of America. Our Joint Board 
was with you at all events whenever you fought for better conditions, which arc the 
fundamental principles of the human race. We realize that we arc in duty bound to 
be with you at the present time because your fight is our fight, and your victory is our 
victory. The cloakmakers recall the attack on them last summer by their enemies 
and the attitude taken by you and your members in the factories in their struggle. 

There was a time when the Jewish and Italian workers were submissive and 
devoted to all promises of the employers and ignored the labor agitator who is the 
yeast of human progress and nature. A change took place. Economic suppr 
caused the workers to become organized and not to be dependent upon the mercy 
of the employers. The struggle for economic freedom will not cease as long as the 
worker will be deprived of the necessities of life. No doubt in your present fight, 
there will be no sect and the Italian and Jewish brothers will not be captured by 
traitors and spies who are paid by the employers and who have the task of con- 
signing the workers to dark, cheerless and comfortless homes. 

The cloakmakers are again with you in your grave hour and you may expect the 
moral as well as the financial support of our Union to its largest extent. 



\Vc trust and hope that unity and folidarity will prevail amongst your workers 
and that you will come c a* in the present fight, which is for a higher 

standard of human living. 


.ed) LOUIS LANCER, Secretary 

.< Lanfer, Sec'y, New York. Dec. 19. 1916. 

Joint Board Cloak and Skin Makers Union. 

40 East New York i 

Dear Sir and Brother: 

Your letter of December 18th, extending to our striking members the greetings 
r of the Cloakmakers* Union and the offer of financial and moral 
support, was r !.> Its publication will be received by our members with 

pride and happiness. 

are all proud of the great Cloakmakers' Union, of its magnificent record as a 

:.t body of organized workers, of it readiness to defend the interests of its 

icmbcrs and lend a helping hand to other members of the working class in their 

battles with capitalism. We are happy over the fact thaj this great body of labor 

.tnd shares with us our joys and our sorrows )ust as we share theirs 

. ver entertained any doubt at to the feelings of the great many 

of organized cloakmakers about the mighty struggle that we are now engaged in. 

It that we can depend upon your fullest support in the event it 

should become necessary. Your letter strengthens our confidence still more and raise* 

our > 

We feel that the progressive labor movement, of which you and we are important 
factors, is no sordid, materialistic affair for selfish purposes, but that we are ali 
working jointly in the interests of our class as a whole, extending our help wherevet 

rvcn if outside of our immediate rank*. 

all feel that our cause is one and that whether we are fighting as cloak 
workers against cloak manufacturers, or as clothing workers against clothing manu- 
facturers. \\e are all fighting for working class interests, for the elevation of our 
t such and against the oppression of the capitalistic class as such. 

have always felt that any success achieved by you must naturally redound 
to our benefit and vice versa. Your present message to us is new proof of the fact 
that vou feel and strive with us for the same purpose. 

c fight now conducted by us is for a great principle, to make the life of the 

worker worth living. The establishment of the 48-hour week, which is our principal 

.ill be an important step in that direction. Our victory in this struggle will. 

as of necessity it must, strengthen your hands in improving your working condi- 

t us take this occasion to assure yo6 that when our members contributed 
many thousands of dollars to the support of your strike last summer, it was done 
of happiness, affection and true brotherly love, with a feeling also that 
cloakmakers' and the organized clothing workers are one. 

that we belong to you and you belong to us. We hope that a 
time will come when, instead of a number of separate international organizations, 
there will be one great powerful and all embracing body of needle workers. 

Thanking you in behalf of our striking members in New York and our member- 
ship generally, I am. 

Fraternally yours, 


General Secretary. 

With all the workers out, with all the nationalities standing together as 
a unit, and led by a powerful organization, the outcome of the gigantic 
gle was never in doubt. 

Proud of their organization and convinced of the justice of their Cause 
and its ultimate triumph, our members fought like Trojans in spite of the tre- 
mendous obstacles. 

At the end of the second week of the struggle we received the fol- 
lowing lett' 



New York, December 28, 1916. 
Mr. Max Friedman, Chairman of Labor Committee. 

American Clothing Manufacturers' Association, and 
Mr. Sidney Hillman, President 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 

As citizens deeply interested in the peaceful solution of industrial conflicts, 
primarily and possible, by a full and frank conference of the parties imme- 

diately "intere-te.!. we take thr - of offering to you but a single suggestion 
towards the settlement of the pending strike in the men's clothing trade. 

- make the suggestion because experience has shown the difficulty of the par- 
tics themselves gf . -thrr without interposition of a third i-crs-m; r;u : 
is restrained lest its initiative seem a sign of weakness. And thus the very difficulty 
of meeting engenders new conflicts. 

We therefore tender to you our services in arranging a meeting of both I 
in bringing you together lor a joint o - .in the confident hope that a frank 

ssion by you of the differences between the two sides will enable you, alone or 
such outside aid as may be mutually agreeable to you, to end the strike and 
bring about a just and lasting peace. 

We suggest an immediate answer so that the meeting may be arranged before 
car ends. 

Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) JULIAN W. MACK, 


Care of Association of Bar, 
42 West 44th Street. 

We accepted the offer of Judge Mack and Mr. Thompson. The American 
Clothing Manufacturers' Association did likewise in spite of the "agreement" 
with the scab agency, having realized that we were determined not to be 

The conferences were held on December 3Oth, 1916, with the Judas 
Iscariot previously mentioned eliminated, and resulted in the following under- 
standing : 

The universal forty-eight hour week to go into effect January 22; $2 in- 
crease in the weekly wages to the cutters and $1 increase to the tailors to 
to go into effect immediately. 

The terms of settlement were accepted by the General Strike Committee 
and unanimously ratified by as many and as enthusiastic mass meetings of 
our membership as had rejected the forty-nine hour proposition. 

On January 22, 1917, the clothing industry in New York City became 
firmly and definitely established on the forty-eight hour basis. 

It was a remarkable coincidence that the revolutionary change in our in- 
dustry, that enlargement of freedom for our members should occur on a 
date which is a red letter day in the history of Freedom, January 22 being 
the anniversary of the Russian Red Sunday of 1905. 

Whoever has had the privilege of watching the clothing workers emerge 
from the black plague of sweat shopism with its unlimited hours, overlimited 
wages, complete absence of rights and hopes, as a compact and intelligently 
organized body, steadily gaining ground, always asserting their rights, and 
raising themselves to an ever higher standard of life, has seen the best 
demonstration of the disinherited proletariat coming into its own, and must 
find his faith in the emancipation of the working class confirmed and 



We feel that we arc justified in proudly emphasizing the fact that our 
great New York strike of nearly sixty thousand workers was financed 
throughout by ourstl m funds raised by our own members, without 

the need of calling upon our fellow workers in other organizations for as- 
out even the need of asking the help of the other local unions 
in our own International. That, too, was the first instance of its kind in 
the history of clothing workers' strikes in this cour. 

c New York strike was followed by movements in other clothing 
ters for the forty-eight hour week which were crowned with success all 
along the line. In some cases strikes were necessary ; in others they were not. 

The New York Call 

It may not be amiss at this juncture to record the fact that under its 
former editorship the "New York Call" had persistently opposed our organi- 
zation, even to the extent of suppressing the news of the historic class 
struggles under our banner in Chicago and in Baltimore, though we had 
upport of the Socialist Party in both cases. During the forty-ight 
hour strike in New York the then editor of the "Call" took every opportunity 
to try to stab us in the back and he brazenly encouraged scabbing upon 
the "agreement" with the scab agency. The members of the So- 
cialist Party finally rose in resentment against the outrageous conduct of 
the editor and forced a working class attitude of the paper towards our or- 
ganization The making of the "Call" what it was intended to be, a clear cut 
working class paper, has created an atmosphere in which the non-socialist 
Editor could not thrive. He has since come out in his true colors, as a 
vilifuT and defamer of the socialist movement in the interests of the reaction- 
ary powers of the country. Since Comrade Charles Erwin has been placed 
at the helm of the "Call," the paper has consistently and faithfully championed 
our cause to our mutual benefit. 


Two years ago we reported to the Rochester convention the con- 
spiracy formed against us by the A. F. of L.-I. W. W. hybrid in Baltimore. 
The wonderful fipht then conducted by our organization in that city is still 
fresh in our memory. We have made giant strides in Baltimore since then. 
will be happy to know that we arc now meeting in a city where the 
clothing industry is nearly one hundred per cent, organized under our ban- 
where the forty-eight hour week has been made universal for all our 
members since our last convention, and where our members have received 
substantial increases in their wages. But while the result achieved 
gladdening and inspiring, the road we had to travel in order to arrive where 

now are was far from inviting. 

A famous General in our Civil War said that "war is hell." If he had 
had in mind the war forced on us by the A. F. of L. and I. W. W. com- 
bination in Baltimore in the years 1916-17 he could not have given a more 



correct description of it. That war was literally an inferno. We emerged 
from it strong, powerful and in full command of the situation; the con- 
spirators remained there never to come again. 

Before the last convention it was at the Grcif factory that the conspira- 
tors had concentrated their forces against us. Since that convention they 
attempted to execute their nefarious schemes against our members at the 
Strouse & Bros/ factory. If the history of the labor misleaders in America will 
ever be written, their crimes against the clothing workers in Baltimore will 
bo among the blackest acts of treason committed by them against the work- 
ing cla 

The Baltimore "Public Ownership" of July 15, 1916, official organ of the 
Socialist Party of Baltimore. M<1., contains the following account of the Strouse 
affair, written by a member of our organization. We reproduce it here in full, 
headings, text and all: 

"Another Chapter in the History of the Notorious Strikebreakers Ferguson, 

Cohen and Gordon 


"Since the Greif strike, the I. W. W. who consistently scabbed during 
that time, have allied themselves, body and soul, with the Gordon and Fergu- 
son combination. The purpose in view is to destroy that splendid organiza- 
tion, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the organization which 
in the past two years has been successful in obtaining shorter hours and an 
increase in wages in all of the clothing centers in the United States. 

"The Amalgamated Clothing Workers' organization has always opposed 
sub-contracting, a system wherein one worker has charge of an operation 
ai'd exploits those working under him. It permits one man to employ helpers 
at a low wage from whose labors he reaps a big profit. Thus, the helper 
who may be just as good a mechanic as the sub-contractor, earns $15,00 a 
week, while the sub-contractor who does no more work than the helper, is earning 
from $40.00 to 50.00. a week. 

"I. W. W. Favors Sub- Contracting 

"This system is ENCOURAGED by the I. W. W.. and is in effect in the 
few coat shops that they control. 

"On Thursday, June 23, the Amalgamated shop committee of Strouse & 
Bros, waited upon the firm and insisted that sub-contracting be abolished 
in the shop. The firm agreed and submitted to the shop committee two 
propositions, one an increase in the price of the pocket from 13% cents to 
14 cents, on a piece work basis, or an increase of $2.00 each to all of the helpers 
on a week work basis. 

"The helpers were content with the concessions obtained by the com- 
mittee but the sub-contractors were dissatisfied. The sub-contractors de- 



clarcd to the committee when they left the office of the firm that they would 
be c<> work (or 13% cents per pocket instead of 14 cents, which was 

one-half cent less than the committee had obtained, provided the shop would 
agree to the maintenance of the sob-contracting system. 

" Profits Gone; Join I. W. W. 

The coi ised this offer and these two sub-contratcors, who 

belonged to the Amalgamated, joined the I. W. W. and persuaded the majority 
of their helpers, who arc the -ir blood relations, to go out on an individual 
iting the other workers in the shop. And the sad fact 
t* recorded that these foolish helpers, whose wages under the new arrange- 
ments were increased from 25 per cent to 30 per cent, permitted themselves 
to be misled. 

Monday, June 27, at 9 A. M., a shop meeting of all the workers in Strouse's 
shop was held at Fisher's Hall to hear the report of the committee. The com- 
mented t<> tlu- shop meeting tiu- final concession won from the firm, 
which was an increase from 13% cents to 14 cents per pocket or a $2.00 raise 

After a lengthy discussion by mem- 
bers of both organizations, the I. W. W., about 75 in number, left the hall 
before the vote was taken. Of the 700 workers who remained in the hall, only 
lie proposition submitted by the committee. 

'Illegal Strike Called 

"Soon after the meeting the people returned to work but the pocket 
makers remained out. The next day, Tuesday, at 2 o'clock, the workers foresee- 
ing t! < *t of the work would be tied up, those working on other operations 
1 to make pock p going. At this action the 
members of the I. W. \Y. walked out. 

"Shortly after the walkout the notorious strikebreaker, John Ferguson, 
and Abe Gordon, organizer for ti '<*d Garment Workers, called out the 

-s in support of the I. W. \V. This may seem strange company for Fergu- 
son to those who remember his former condemnation of fthe I. W. W.. and one 
worn! >hind his affiliation with them. Whatever it is, it is not for 

the welfare of the workers. 

' ' Ferguson Directs Strike 

"Tin- Strike' today --d by Ferguson, representing the A. F. of L., 

Cord- organizer of tl 1 Garment Workers, and Doree, organ- 

izer . W., and to verify this we attach an affidavit to the end of this 

!ned by one who was present the first day at the secret committee of 
the I. W. W. and the cutters. 

'The public can judge from this affidavit that this strike was called for 
the one purpose to protect the two sub-contractors who had joined the I. 



W. W. with the sole purpose in view to attempt to destroy the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America in Strouse's building. 


"Affidavit of \ Sala. which proves that John Ferguson advised the 

slugging of members of the Amalgamated. 


'Vincent Sala, being duly sworn, deposes and says: That he is a w< 
man in the pocket department at Strouse Brothers where the pocket mak- 
ers went out on a strike on the 27th day of June, 1916. A committee was 
appointed by the strikers, of which committee I was one, to go to the office 
of Abe Gordon, a representative of the United Garment Workers of Ani< r 
in the Emerson Tower Building, on the seventh floor, to inform him that 
the I. W. W. went on a strike. The committee, including myself, went to 
the office, where we met John H. Ferguson, Abe Gordon and Abe Cohen and 
informed them that the I. W. W. went out on a strike at Strouse Bros. Mr. 
Ferguson immediately signalled to the cutters' floor in/ Strouse's Building, 
which faces the office of the United Garment Workers of America, and im- 
mediately the cutters walked out. 

"After the walkout, they held a meeting and decided to stick to the I. W. 
W. until the I. W. W. got what they asked for. 

"After the cutters were through with their meeting Ferguson, Gordon 
and Cohen appeared at the Tailors' I. W. W. conference in Barrie's Hall, 
Barre iStreet, at about 5 145 P.M. 

"There Ferguson said that he had been waiting for this chance for some 
time and that every move made in that shop was reported to him by a spy 
who supplied him with all the news. He further said that the chance has now 
come, and that he will fight and fight, until the shop goes back as one organiza- 
tion; he also said that this is no more a question affecting the pocket makers 
but is a matter of driving out the so-called Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
from the Strouse shop. 

"It was then decided to have a secret conference to outline a plan for 
future action as to the future conduct of the strikers. The secret meeting 
was held on the next day, Wednesday, June 8, about 2:10 P.M., at the office 
of the United Garment Workers, Emerson Tower Building, seventh floor. 

"The second man to speak was Gordon. He stated that this present fight 
is going to be the last fight for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
and if the United Garment Workers' strikers and the I. W. W. tailors were 
not enough at this point Ferguson interrupted and said: he would get two 
hundred or three hundred of the husky guys of the Brewery Workers' Union 
to beat the heads off the Amalgamated Clothing Workers' members, just like 
they beat them down at Lombard Street, during the Greif strike. 

"It was arranged that circulars be distributed inviting those people belong- 
ing to the Amalgamated to join their ranks, and it was then said that against 



those who refused to come out with them by Saturday, they would start, 
on Monday, a rough house. 

hen said, '1C you want to get anybody, don't get them near 
the shop but slug them away from the place so that nothing should be known 
that the slugging was connected with the I. W. W. or Cutters' Union ' 


"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 6th day of July, 1916. 

"Notary Publ: 

This may be supplemented by the following report in the New York 
"\\Vrkly IVuplr" of Augu 1916, official organ of the Socialist Labor 

"The Greif strike in Baltimore is having its sequel a sequel written in 
violence and bloodshed. 

"Gencralled by John F. Ferguson, notorious strikebreaker and scab-herder, 
president of the Baltimore Federation of Labor and labor lieutenant of the 
capitali sts of Baltimore, there has been organized in Baltimore an 

association of gangsters who hesitate not at assassination to achieve their ne fa- 
Is. The name given to this body composed of gunrr.en, stilettomen and 
blackjack thugs, is "The I :nent Committee - composed of men 

affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and the Bummery Industrial 
Workers of the World. The leaders of these two organizations have co-ordi- 
nated their activities and efforts to attempt to crush out by violence, intimidation 
and assassination, when necessary to their purpose, any organization of work- 
ing people that refuses to submit to their domination in the interest of the 
employing class. 

"Amalgamated Workers Assaulted 

:ng the past seven weeks, particularly, they they have conducted a cam- 
paign of violence, attempted murder and terrorism against the Baltimore 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Within this period there have 
been not less than ten mass attacks in force upon groups of Amalgamated 
members going to and returning from their work and innumerable individual 
attempts made to assassinate members of this body of workers. Several per- 
sons have been shot, a number stabbed, several blackjacked, and others dis- 
abled by stones, brickbats, and clubs. The police ambulance has been kept 
busy carrying the wounded to hospitals and others to the police stations. 

nee the beginning of the strike at St rouse's on June 27 the police 

have been making special efforts to prevent clashes on the street between 

Amalgamated and the Fedcration-Bummery. Mass attacks by the latter 

have been made on groups of the Amalgamated in the presence of squads of 

police officers. 

"Blackjack and Stiletto Used 

is at assavsinatiun an* made upon Amalgamated mem- 
bers wherever they are found on the street. Two of the latest of these out- 
rages happened on crowded business thoroughfares of Baltimore on last Thurs- 
.n Blumberg, secretary-manager of District Council No. 
3, A. C. W. of A . \va> approached from behind at Front and Fayette Streets 
and blackjacked into insensibility and is now confined to his home as a result. 

"The other dastardly attempt at Baltimore and Howard Street on the same 
evening was witnessed by your correspondent. An Amalgamated cutter walk- 
ing on the street was stealthily approached and repeatedly stabbed with a 
stiletto by an Italian of the Bummery. The blood spurted, and with a cry he 
sank to the pavement. Probably fifty persons saw the act. Thinking he had 
killed his man the Bummeryite started to run, and nobody interfering with him 
he slowed his pace to a deliberate walk. In a few minutes he was arrested. 

"These are two examples of what has been happening in Baltimore right 
along, almost daily, for weeks. The newspapers make no mention of these 
outrages. Such stories as they print from time to time are inspired by the 
element of which Ferguson and his accomplices are the leaders. 

"Threatened with Death 

"Here is a copy of a letter received by J. Friedman, a member of the 
Amalgamated. Friedman spent some years in South America and speaks 
Italian fluently. Italians of the Bummery thought he was an Italian. Not 
long ago an Italian of the Bummery approached him and demanded of him 
that he leave the Amalgamated and join the Bummery. He refused and gave 
good reasons for doing so. The letter received by him is as follows : 

"Baltimore, Md., July 24, 1916. 
"'103 Eagle Street, 

' 'You are written down on our books as a dead man if you don't stop work, 
n, Friedman, you dirty scab from South America, if you keep it up I 
will catch you if not today I will get you tomorrow. I tell you to stop, for 
it will be better for you. 

" 'Committee, I. W. W. 

"This note of warning was written on mourning note paper (with black 
border) and enclosed in a black-bordered envelope. There is no question that 
the dastardly anonymous writer was a member of the 'Entertainment Com- 
mittee* and meant exactly what he said in the letter. 

"Attack on Amalgamated Headquarters 

"Last week the A. F. of L.-Bummery crowd made a mass attempt to enter 
and wreck the headquarters of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 108 N. 



This was f rostra ' . vigorous defense, the police taking 

A number of shots were fired m the melee, clubs were used, and stones 

and brickbats thrown. One of the attacking party was shot, and others also 

were made hospital cases. An Amalgamated roan was charged with firing 

that wounded a bystander, and summarily sentenced to eighteen months 

in prison. Baltimore police justice courts have power to sentence a prisoner 

for five years. 

"In thr newspaper stories the Amalgamated people are invariably referred 
to as 'strikebreakers'; the A. F. of L.-Bummery as 'strikers.' The capitalist 
newspapers simply will not use proper words to tell the real facts. This is 
because they allow themselves to be dominated by Ferguson, his fellow con- 
spirators of the A. F. of L. and the Bummcry I. W. W. 

rculars and public prints Ferguson never refers to the Amalgamated Workers of America. The members of this great, organized body of 
ng operatives he refers to as 'the strikebreakers who have been rioting 
along the streets of Baltimore and placing in jeopardy the lives of the innocent/ 
he designates the A. C. W. of A. as The Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of the World, an anarchistic body whose leaders are gunmen, of unsavory repu- 
tations.' Here is a deliberate attempt to mislead the public as to the identity of 
the organization attacked by the A. F. of L. and the Bummery I. W. W., led 
by himself. 

"Sequel to Greif Strike 

"The rioting, shooting, brick throwing, slugging, stabbing, and other forms 
of outrage perpetrated on members of the Amalgamated Gothing Workers 
fo America in Baltimore during the past two months by the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and the Bummery Industrial Workers of the World officered 
by John H. Ferguson, president of th Maryland, Baltimore, and District of 
Columbia Federations of Labor, is the sequence of a series of labor troubles 
that began with the Greif strike last spring. Labor troubles at the Strouse and 
Bros factory followed that strike. In the Greif affair the A. F. of L. (John 
Ferguson) combined with the Bummery I. W. W. to break the strike of the 
Amalgamated Gothing Workers of America in the plants of the Greif s. 

intimate connection between these two events. The Greif 

ries and the Strouse & Bros, factories manufacture the same line of 

product. The two concerns are business competitors. It is said by those 

who ought to know that the Strouse concern obtained business to the amount 

of hundreds of thousands of dollars that the Greifs had contracted for mak- 

ould not do on account of the strike in the plants the strike of 

\malgamatcd that Ferguson and his I. W. W. allies succeeded finally 
in breaking. 

"Ferguson is, according to affidavits in addition to the evidence of the 
'ances, the paid agent of the Grei 

"The Strouse & Bros, plant has been operated as an Amalgamated shop, 


with a sprinkling of the I. W. W., and the cutters who were members of the 
A. F. of L. The plant employs about 1,000 operatives, app iximately 90 per 
cent. Amalgamated. 

"Plot Behind the 'Strike' 

"All the evidence goes to prove that Ferguson and the Bummery officials 
conspired to attempt to bring about a strike in Strouse's, for two reasons: 

. to avenge the Greif concern, and, second, to destroy the Amalgamated 
in that shop and make it A. F. of L.-Bummery. 

"In a conference about the timo the Strouse strike began, B. Strouse, one 
of the firm, asked Ferguson what motive prompted him in organizing the 
sfrike in Strouse's. Ferguson answered: 'Because we owe a debt of gratitude 
to the I. W. W. for their assistance in breaking the Greif strike'." 

The Policy of Savage Bloodshed Extended 

A later issue of the "Weekly People" brings the following report from 
Baltimore, which shows to what acts of desperation the conspirators were 
driven by their impotent madness: 



"Garment Workers of the Independent Union Assailed with Bludgeon, Knife, 
and Gun by the Dupes of John H. Ferguson. 

"Baltimore, Md., August 26. The war for supremacy between the Ame- 
rican Federation of Labor and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
daily grows more intense and sanguinary. 

"John H. Ferguson, president of the Maryland and Washington and the 
Baltimore Federations of Labor, labor leader, scab-herder, strikebreaker, and 
all-around traitor to the working class which he misleads, is quoted in the 
Baltimore newspapers as having declared: 'The American Federation of Labor 
is going to fight the Amalgamated Clothing Workers until every member of 
that organization is driven out of town/ 

"Twenty- four hours after this announcement Saturday, August 26, 8:40 
a. m., Henry Sonneborn & Co., makers of the 'Styleplus' men's clothes, became 
the scene of a terrific battle, precipitated by the A. F. of L. forces in v/hich 
between 2,000 and 3,000 took part, the weapons for the most part being tailors' 
shears, knives, blackjacks, pistols, bottles, chairs, and other sorts of weapons. 
Six persons were taken to the hospitals and about fifty were given 'first aid' 
treatment in the hospital department of the Sonneborn plant. 

"The Sonneborn concern employs approximately 4,000 garment workers, 
being the largest individual factory of its kind in the world. It is an Amal- 



gamated plant. Of the 4,000 employes, the cutters, about 200 in number, 
are A. I The cutting department is on the ninth floor. Among the 

cutters were three members of the Amalgamated, After making hit declara- 
*f war to the knife, and the knife to the hilt, against the Amalgamated, 
Ferguson served notice on the .Sonneborn firm that unless the three Amal- 
gamated cutters ^charged forthwith there would be a strike of the 
A. F. of L. cutters. The firm refused to discharge the three Amalgamated 
rs. As soon as this word was brought to the ninth floor the signal for 
hostilities was given, and as one man the A. F. L. cutters began an assault on 
the three Amalgamated men. 

ree pistol shots notified those in the building and in the street that 
the battle was on. 

"The door - nth floor had been pushed open in some way, and 

the men, fighting with the fury of madmen, rolled down the long stairs. 
When they neared the first floor the office force jumped from the windows 

ran to a place of safety. At each floor the fighters were reinforced by 
men of both factions, until fully 2,000 men were engaged 

The police arrived to see men hacking at each other with the huge shears. 
Several onlookers say they saw one man actually try to cut his adversary's 
ami nil with a pair of shears nearly two feet long. The man screamed and 

.s>ailant was 1<M in tlu- -'.niggling mass. 

"Besides the wounded, at least 50 women swooned, and a corps of physi- 
cians from nearby hospitals was summoned. In several cases parts of the 
clothing of the girls had been torn from their bodies. Most of them were 
taken home in taxicabs. 

"A riot call quickly brought about 100 police and eight or ten patrol wagons, 
but only 12 arrests were made. 

"After the police had dispersed the belligerents, John Ferguson said: 'This 
is only the beginning, unless those gunmen leave the * 

"To Ferguson and his crowd 'gun-men* and Amalgamated men are syno- 
nyms. Notwithstanding that for eight weeks the armed thugs of the Federation 
and Bummery I. W. W. have systematically attempted murder in scores of 
individual and mass assaults on members of the Amalgamated who simply 
defended themselves, and the attacks, many of them, especially in mass, were 
made on the Amalgamated people while under police escort, the Ferguson 
crowd and newspapers persist in calling the Amalgamated workers 'gunmen.' 
crguson is outspoken in his defense of capitalist interests. He and 
I declare that he has done more than any other man to hold in 

'% that radical labor element tending toward Socialism." 

The violence and blood re also accompanied by a great deal of 

bluff and bluster. Thus John H. Ferguson, the evil genius of the bloody con- 
spiracy, threatened to call a per ke in all industries in Baltimore in 
order to destroy the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. We challenged htm to 


make good his bluff. Baltimore is still waiting for that much heralded general 

Brother Blumberg published the following official statement in the Balti- 
more press, which we reproduce from "The Baltimore Sun" of August 12, 


"The Thursday newspapers carried a statement of a general strike to be 
called in this city of all the unions affiliated with the A. F. of L. in support 
of the I. W. W. who left their places at Strouse Bros. 

"This statement is so ridiculous that the author of it, Mr. Ferguson, 
must have relied on the ignorance of the public at large in regards to labor 


"The A. F. of L. has no authority to call a strike of any National Or- 
ganization. It is hoped by Mr. Ferguson that by spreading these misstate- 
ments he may create enough confusion and bring public sympathy to his 
unholy cause. 

"It is well for the public to know that the issue between the I. W. W. 
and the Strouse firm could have been settled if not for the sinister motives 
of Mr. Ferguson in this whole matter. 

"The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, who are now work- 
ing in the shops of Strouse Bros., is recognized all over the country as i 
responsible labor organization. It controls the clothing industry and also 
90 per cent, of the workers in this city. 

"It maintains contractual relationship with the largest employers in the 
country. It has entered into agreements with the firm of Hart, Schaffner & 
Marx, of Chicago, for the last seven years, the largest clothing concern in 
the world, without any interruption of work. 

"Its agreements have been investigated and highly commended by the 
United States Industrial Relations Commission, and in this city the firm of 
Henry Sonneborn & Co. has an arbitration agreement with the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America. 

"Dr. Frank J. Goodnow, president of the Johns Hopkins University, is 
the arbitrator under that agreement for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America and Henry Sonneborn & Co. 

"Needless to state that all the talk about the 'gunmen 1 are unqualified 

"The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America refuse to be run by a 
few I. W. W. or to recognize the leadership of men of the type of Ferguson. 

"We were and are willing to let any impartial committee investigate the 
record of our organization in this and other cities. 

"Mr. Ferguson admitted to Mr. Eli Strouse that the cutters had no griev- 
ances and that he insisted on calling the cutters to help the I. W. W. His 
own statement was: 'I owe the I. W. W. a debt of gratitude for the assist- 



ancc they gave me in breaking the Greif strike of the Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers of America.' 

nay be < t to the public to investigate and find out the 1 


I W. W. 


r clary -Manager Council No. 3, 

inalgamatcd Clothing Workers of America." 

The conspirators were c and the Sonncborn and S f 

factories are now under the full jur of our organization. The crimi- 

nal tactics of the conspirators in their mad rush to exterminate us have helped 
to open the eyes of many of their followers to the fact that they had been 

J and betrayed. They abandoned the old wreck of the discredited crew 
and joined our forces, by whom they were receive- shout of joy. Those 

converts now constitute our live and energetic cutters' organization of Balti- 
more, Local 15, and are among the staunchest members of our International. 
A as through that baptism of blood and fire that our organization in 
Baltimore was called upon to pass in order to establish itself permanently and 
cone! ior the protection of the workers in the industry. Its success 

has been bravely fought for and won. The organization now stands ready 
to accept any challenge that may be flung at it. The traitors have been exposed 
and annihilated and the clothing workers enjoy the- full benefits of having 
made their enemies harmless and their organization strong and powerful. 

In some cases we were compelled to call strikes in Baltimore in order to 
secure for our members the forty-eight hour week and higher wages to meet 
the growing cost of living. In most cases, however, concessions were gained 
ut the necessity of resorting to 


Our Ka -ntion was requested by our Montreal members, who had 

a good r. -:i that city, to help them organize -the indu gave 

them wl. instance we could and a remarkable organization ar 

was quid-. loped. There were a number of strikes during the fir* 

montl our Rochester Convention. All of them were succr 

In each case the or^ is strengthened in numbers and in spirit. 

and the working con- deplorable, were considerably im- 

Montreal, like every other clothing center, has a polyglot industrial popu- 

lation. Scginnii nch Canadians, the English, 

the 1 with tlv rent languages, sympathies and 

1 in the efforts to form a cohesive body for a single pur- 



pose. But they succeeded wonderfully. The Fivnch Canadians in the cloth- 
ing industry, who had never been organized before, formed thrir own local 
union as a part of the Montreal Joint Board, which was the central adminis- 
trative body for all locals in that city. The conditions of the French t 
dians were particularly pitiful because of the large number of exceedingly 
young girls among them. The workers among the other nationalities are 
ically all immigrants and, therefore, adults. The French Canadians are 
natives, born and brought up in Canada. They need not wait until they are 
old and strong enough to undertake a long journey to a far and distant land 
in order to enter a clothing factory. They have the privilge of leaving school 
at a tender age and going straight into the factory in their home town. 

The union's representative mu>i always be prepared for sights and stories 
of misery when attending meetings of workers struggling for better condi- 
tions. In time one naturally becomes more or less hardened. And it is well 
that nature has made it so. Otherwise, human nerves would completely give 
way in a short time. But however seasoned and hardened a union representative 
. T be, however much his eyes may have become accustomed to look at faces 
with misery and sufferings deeply engraven in them, and however much his ears 
may become adapted to hearing their stories of distress, he can't avoid a 
severe shock when coming to a shop meeting of his fellow members he finds 
an audience of little girls, some of them still below their teens, their children's 
locks hanging over their shoulders and their dresses barely covering their 
knees. The union's representative, being himself a father, and thinking of 
his own pink-cheeeked little girl while addressing those child slaves, cannot help 
renewing his pledge to fight the cannibalistic industrial system, which, not 
contented with undermining the health of the manhood and womanhood 
of the nation and sending them into early graves, also feeds upon helpless 

It was not within our power to abolish child labor. What was the result 
of many years, possibly generations, of industrial thraldom, could not be 
removed by a few months of resistance. We were happy, however, to succeed 
ir. lightening the burdens for the workers and making life somewhat brighter 
for the little slaves. We were doubly happy for the sake of the little ones. 

For the first time the Montreal clothing workers were strongly united, 
had a model organization, secured a voice in the determination of their work- 
ing conditions, and rays of sunshine, of genuine human happiness, broke 
through the dark gray monotony of their lives of drudgery. Their very 
interest in the organization, which became so endeared to them, elevated their 
souk, brought to them a realization of the fact that they were not merely 
human tools fur production of merchandise, rightless, hopeless and aimless, 
but that they were human beings entitled to the blessings of life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness. They had not wished for the strikes they had gone 
through. They had to get some relief from the crushing oppression, and 


only way they could get -ing convincingly demonstrated the 

power of their organization to protect themselves they prevailed upon the 

>yers to deal with the union in ail matters concerning working conditions. 
The union had hoped that that sane and civilized method of dealing 

trial problems would continue and enable them in all cases peacefully to 
adjudicate any controversy that might arise. 

thr clothing manufacturers of Montreal had been accustomed to un- 
restr.i iu attempt on the part of the worker* to organize 

had been mercilessly defeated. The employers alone determined hours, wages, 
: conditions. While they accepted the labor organization in our 
case because there was at the time no a hey immediately began to 

prepare for a war to the knife to wipe it out 

On D' of a series of successful strikes was wound 

up. th< stnkr i^unst the 1 ; . Company, and on December 18, fire 

was opened on us. On that day the Semi-Ready Clothing Company forced its 
employees into a strike by refusing to pay them the wage increases agreed upon 
in a settlement made shortly prior thereto, and refusing also to permit our 
organization to take the matter up with it. That was the entering wedge, which 
the association of clothing manufacturers sought to drive deeper into the cleft 
by officially u our Montreal organization, on December 23, of the abro- 

\ of relations l> Ixxlies. It became increasingly clear that 

the Association, which controlled the largest part of the industry, was making 
efforts to force us into a conflict for which it had chosen its own time, and 
was trying to maneuver it in such a manner as to fasten responsibility on us. 
Our organization did all that could honorably be done to avoid a strike, but 
the other side was determined to have it and was in a position to enforc 
will. The only way a strike could have been prevented by us was by agreeing 
to the abolition of shop chairmen and accepting discrimination against active 
n short, by committing suicide. That we were unwilling to do. 
On January 9, 1917, the issue was forced by a carefully laid out plan of the 
Association. According to that plan the Freedman Company challenged its 
employees by a defiant act of discrimination compelling the workers to quit 
work. The Freedman Company work immediately and simultaneously made 
its appearance at the factories of all the other members of the Association, who 
openly and deliberately challenged their employees either to make the work 
of the struck house or quit their jobs. The challenge was made in such a 

ily provoking manner that it h hoice, even to those who might 

have otherwise wavered, but refuse to handle the work. Thirty-five hundred women and chilrren accepted the challenge and took up the fig? 
defence of tl '-.t to maintain their organization. It was not a strike. 

It was a lockout in every respect except in name. 

About fifteen hundred people, employed by the smaller and independent 
;-d at work. Within the next few weeks, however, the situation 


took such a turn that it became necessary to extend the strike to the entire 
industry. On February uth. the strike was made general. Settlements were 
soon made with independent firms and a settlement with tin 1 kkffl was 

made by mediation on March nth. 

Those were eight savage \v<-<k> never to be forgotten by any who partici- 
pated in the strike. 

Wherever there are employers and employees, wage payers and wage 
recievers, a strike or a lockout is likely to occur. Workers, when on strike, 
do not expect and do not receive any quarter from their employers. A strike 
is no Sunday school picnic. It is war. In all cases the employers as well as the 
strikers seek to present their case to the public in the most favorable li.^ht. 
But in Montreal an attempt was made to deceive the public as to tli 
the right of the workers to be organized, by injecting the race issue. That 
distinction belongs to one of the judges, Recorder Semple, before whom some 
of our pickets had the misfortune of being arraigned. The Recorder delivered 
himself of a bitter tirade against the union, in the course of which he said, 
referring to the union officials: "They draw fat salaries, which ought n 
to go to men of such deficient moral and mental capacity as exemplified in the 
Secretary before me, who, with the three Jewish defendants, stand up and give 
evidence directly contrary to that of five constables, who from their many 
years of experience know what it is to perjure themselves and are, at least, 

That was followed by denunciations in the press, in which the strikers 
were described as German- Jewish workers, who were engaged in a strike that 
> inspired and led by German agents. If we will remember that Canada, 
as a part of the British Empire, was then, as it still is, at war with Germany, 
we will realize the brutal motive behind the words "German Jewish Workers" 
and "German Agents/' 

The characterization of "German Jewish Workers" was applied to all 
strikers, including the Italians and French Canadians, there having been no 
Germans among the strikers or the other members of the Montreal organiza- 

The nearest approach to the Montreal appeal to racial prejudices was made 
by the A. F. of L. and I. W. W. conspiracy in Baltimore as a means of breaking 
the Greif strike. 

The Dominion Government was appealed to to deport our officers and 
organizers, who were, because of that, frequently called by the Immigration 

In addition to appealing to the Government the Association also made 
the same appeal in the press, declaring that "we have removed this element 
from our shops, and all we ask now is that such men lie removed from 
Canada as undesirables. They should be deported." (Gazette, January 15, 
1917.) The public was, of course, informed that we were not recognized by 
the American Federation of Labor, that we were a "scab organization," and 
that our official title was "German Tailors Union." During Secretary Schlossberg's 



btay in Montreal in connection with the strike the Association asked the New 

Department for his record, hoping that that would supply the 

eagerly sougi r his deportation, but the Police Department had no 

to furnish. 

The clothing manufacturers, who are also stockholders in munition plants, 
issued strict orders not to give employment to their striking clothing workers, 

a were badly in need of help. They had hoped in 
way to beat the workers into submission. 

Knowing that the wages pai r factories were not enough to sustain 

;loyees during any period of idleness the employers anticipated applt- 
is for relief to t u tions. As contributions to those in 

lions and officers of them the employers used their influence and author/ 
deny assistance to any ri cned to ask for 

The Manufacturers' Association published the following as a full-page paid 
ertiscment in all tin .il papers, and in all languages: 



Montreal is the greatest centre in the Dominion of Canada for the manufacture 
of clothing. It has some of the largest, most sanitary and up-to-date clothing 
factories on the Continent. It has built up an enviable reputation for the quality 
and workmanship of Ready-made Clothing. 

The clothing workers of Montreal are well paid, they have been well treated as 
regards hours and conditions of labor. The majority of them are, however, idle. 

a time when the interests of the Nation and of the Empire demand that 

one should put his shoulder to the wheel, when every citizen ought to do 

his share to keep the Home Fires Burning, and to upbuild British Industry and 

:sh Commerce, the clothing workers arc out on strike. 

The reason is, because professional alien agitators have cleverly organized Canadian 
workers for the purpose of imposing tyrannical and rumous conditions on Canadian 
manufacturers, conditions which would leave the manufacturers without a shred of 
author e internal organization of enterprises in which their capital is staked. 

The Alien Agitator* and Their Methods 

These agitators came here some months ago for the purpose of launching '. 
propaganda. They beK operations by making a few unimportant requests. 

The manufacturers granted the requests. Then demands were made, and on concessions 
being made, still further demands were forthcoming. Again and again the manufac- 
turers met the demands in a conciliatory spirit. But instead of satisfying the agitators, 
this only encouraged them, until at last their impositions became unbearable. 

Their ambition was to secure absolute control so that not a wheel would turn. 
unless by their sanction. 

In effect their demands meant that the direction of the whole productive processes 
of the clothing factories mt'st be handed over \vithout question to the appointed 
delegates of these foreign agitators, or not a soul would be allowed to work. 

day there is a strike of clothing workers in Montreal involving a loss of 
earning power of not less than $50,000 a week for the workers, and many thousands of 
dollars to the manufacturers. 

Why Haa This Strike Been Called? 

Not because of any grievances of the clothing workers themselves, who ar- . 
hard-working body, jealous of the good name of Canadian products, many 
m have - - igh intimidation into joining the Union. 

The following is the immediate - tor callii 

i man app'c<l for a povti^n in a clothing f He was given a place 

at Union wages. A Union-imposed shop "delegate" in an entirely different department 



appeared on the scene and enquired: "Have you got a ticket from the Uniom officials 
l>errmtting you to work in this shop?" 

Fancy the insolence of it! 

The worker replied that he had not, and was told by the delegate that he must 
cither get such permission at oner -mid not be allowed to work in the fad 

The foreman objected to this, but had no power to interfere, the delegate having 
usurped authority in the shop. 

As this particular delegate had already caused much trouble in the shop ami 
had been notified that his interferences would not be tolerated, and as discipline 
*as being absolutely undermined, the proprietor called in the delegate (who was 
a paid employee of the tirm), gave him a week's wages in lieu of notice and <i 
him. Although the employee was indebted to the manufacturer in a considerable sum, 
othing was deducted. 

His reinstatement was demanded by the Union, despite the fact that he had at 
once obtained employment elsewhere. The firm refused, and a strike was called in the 

The other clothing manufacturers undertook to assist the firm in carrying out 
its Spring orders, and the work was distributed among the various factories. Then 
the present strike was called. 

re is another instance of these imperious demands. 

A manufacturer operating a large plant in Montreal operates also a branch factory 
in another town in this province. On a certain day two shop delegates from the 
Montreal plant waited upon the employer to advise him that the first occasion after 
that date that any materials were sent to this branch factory to be cut and made, 
would be the signal for the calling out of the hands working in the Montreal factory. 
.Again, a man working in a certain factory was satisfied with conditions and gave 
satisfactory service to the employer. The labor agitator called on the employer 
one day and stated that he had objections to the man working in the establishment. 
He demanded that the man be dismissed, and failing to have the demand complied 
with, made the threat "I will tear the guts out of your building." Had the employer 
not complied, a strike would have been called. 
Another case: 

A worker was being instructed in a certain operation on a garment necessary 
to iis proper finish, and although much patience was expended the worker did not wish 
to learn, and finally refused to try any further. The proprietor told the worker 
that the garment would have to be made in the manner indicted or his services 
would not be required. The worker only laughed and retorted, "You can't discharge 
me anyway, the Union won't let you." To avoid a strike, the proprietor was compellled 
to swallow the pill. 

Intolerable Conditions Imposed by Alien Labor Autocrats 

These cases, however, are only a few of many leading up to this strike. A Cana< 
employer cannot employ a Canadian even if that worker is a Union man, without 
"permission" having first been obtained from an irresponsible labor trust. 

While employers cannot themselves engage workers, but must apply to an 
organziation dominated by alien agitators they are forbidden to discharge any worker 
who has been in their employ two weeks! No matter if the worker is unsuitable, 
no matter whether he is incompetent, insolent, a trouble-maker, or a consistent 
ker." if he has been employed two weeks, nothing short of actual crime for which 
conviction could be made in the criminal courts, can take him off the pay roll of the 
unfortunate employer! He is a standing charge against the firm for all time, and the 
amount the firm must pay him is fixed by this despotic Union. 

The manufacturer must retain the right to employ such efficient workers and 
increase or decrease their number, as the needs of his business dictate. To take 
away such rights and to force the manufacturer to employ those who are either 
unsuitable or no longer required would destroy discipline and efficiency and take 
the control out of the hands of those who are responsible for the success of the business. 
The following is an extract from an article which appeared in the "Labor World/' 
the official organ of the Montreal Trades and Labor Council, of the ijth of this 

liave great respect for Recorder Semple. and furthermore we do 

not approve of the way the members of the Garment Workers' Union have 

acted in this strike. We wish to state that the garment workers did not 

e usual course, and have not, as required by the Trades and Labor 



Council, to whom they did not apply, exhausted all means of conciliation 
before going on strike We are the first to deplore the disturbance* which 
have occurred and to blame those responsible i 


:.y demandi like the foregoing, the clothing manufacturers 
of this city ha to an Association, and they have determined that 

remt the-e demands to the end. 

Our shops <*rs who are welcome to return, and we 

giu h will be absolutely fair and just. 




TD. \KDNER ft CO. 

TD. !FG. CO.. LTD. 

SON A CO. & CO. 


& CO. i<T & SO 

To the above statement of the Clothing Manufacturers' Association the 

'<(! th- foil' ply as a paid advertisement: 


Our Position is Clear 

"The truth about the strike in the clothing industry of Montreal," is the 
of a full pax* 'it published by the Clothing Manufacturers' Association in 

the (! In that statement the charge is made 

that ' alien agitators have cleverly organized Canadian workers for the 

purpose of imposing tyrannical and ruinous conditions on Canadian Manufac 

' .? Manufacturers without a shred of authority in the 
internal organization of enterprises in which their capital is staked.** 

This c! 'rny in fto. \\ -.-ally declare that THE REAL ISSUE 


The C! mufacti:; -ciation shows no spirit of fair play in 

conceal the tr - lie cry of "Alien Agitators." There are no more ** Alien 

tors" on of the controversy than there are on the part of the Manufac - 


It is purely an industrial dispute Mfl employers and their employees, both 

of whom include pra< 'ie same nationalities, races and creeds. It is an 

indus* il dispute b< -cs such as have occurred in different 

countries and under variou- MS. To charge such a dispute, which is a natural 

>wth of the relations between employers and employees, to "Professional 
agitators," means not only running away from the truth, but also character assassi? 

No practical purpose will be - r airing in the public press of alleged 

of the Hirers* Association again > nion. and the Union's 

denying them, as we certainly do deny the charges of "Intolerable conditions ii 

.tlien labour ,v;t . \\ill not brin K - the issue any nearer a solution. 

I the problem - 1 by the . inp to cru-h the 

of th - -ihing policy does succeed, it only 

to plant the seeds for future it >n. 

W Me merits of the dispute we arc ready to meet the employers at a 

body or individually, as thr - * discuss the issue or issues; anything we 

may fail to at - -re willing to leave to arbitration. 

S. W. Jaco! both parties the services of Hon. Macken. 

former Minister of Labuor. \V',v are the Manufacturers afraid to trust him? He. 
surely, is not an "Alien Agitator." Nor can the Mayor of this city be classed as such. 
We a - - may easily be found a number of other 

fair-minded and publi - rns entitled to the confidence of both parties. 

The Amalga: lothtng Wor America has been working ui 


collective bargain agreements with a number of Clothing Manufacturers, among them 
the two largest clothing firms on the American Continent. Hart, Schaffner & Marx, 
of Chicago, employing about six thousand tailors and cutters, and Henry Sonneborn 
& Co., of Baltimore, employing about three thousand. The "Intolerable conditions 
imposed by the Labour Autocrats" arc found to be perfectly satisfactory by all those 
establishments. What is possible there cannot be impossible here. 

The workers are determined to defend their rights to organise. A right established 
by the free laws and institutions of this country they will not permit themselves 
to be deprived of by any set of men. But the organization of the workers stands 
ready to meet with the employers to confer and adjust. 

All that is necessary in order to reach a speedy adjustment is for the employers 
to agree to meet us. 



The following letters are self -explanatory: 

JOS. SCHLOSSBERG, Esq., Montreal, January i8th, 1917. 

General Secretary, 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

Dear Sir: With reference to the dispute which has arisen between the working 
men, members of your Association, who are now on strike, and the various Clothing 
Manufact nis. 1 should be glad to learn whether your Association would lie- 

prepared to meet, in conference. Members of the Clothing Manufacturers' Association, 
\viih a view of settlement, and in the event of the parties failing to agree, to submit 
such disagreements to the arbitration of the Hon. W. L. Mackenzie King, former 
Minister of Labour. I am dispatching a similar letter to the Clothing Manufacturers' 
Association, asking whether they would be prepared to fall in with this view. 

I have not been authorized by any of the parties to the dispute to interest myself 
in the matter and am acting purely with the object of endeavoring to bring about 
a settlement of the unfortunate trouble, through the means referred to above. 

May I have your reply immediately? 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) L. W. JACOBS . 

P. S. I have phoned Mr. King, who states that if both parties are agreeable 
to having him, he would be prepared to act. S. W. J. 

Montreal, January ipth, 1917. 
L. W. JACOBS, Esq., 83 Craig St., West, City 

Dear Sir: I have your favor of the i8th inst., asking whether my organization 
would meet in conference with members of the Clothing Manufacturers' Association 
with a view of settling the present controversy. 

I have not as yet had an opportunity to place your letter before my organization 
for official action. It has. however, been the policy of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America to confer with employers' Associations for the purpose of adjusting 
disputes. In line with that established policy I shall urge to agree to confer and am 
confident that it will be done if the other side is ready. 

It has been my experience that seeming unsolvable problems in the relations 
between employers and employees were satisfactorily solved by mutual understanding 
and agreement as a result of conferences. What was possible in many other cases 
should also be possible i-n the present case. 

Appreciating the high motive that has prompted your action, I thank you most 

Respectfully yours, 


General Secretary, 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 



The Labor World, organ of the Trades and Labor Council, in its issue of 
January 27, 1917, indignantly protested against the manufacturers' use < 
name in us. The Trades and Labor Council also adopted a 

resolution expressing its sympathy with the strikers. 

In a > given above the following correspondence will be 

of interest an<t will throw a strong light on the whole situation: 

Montreal, February 2. 1917 

Ge: inalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 


Dear S. . reference to the letters which 1 addressed on January ifkh to 

you, at r- - - .ited Clothing Workers of America, and to 

iiuctmrrs* Association, I have to say that the Manufacturer!' 

the same, and unofficially 1 am given to under- 

- not t)t<- : that body to take any cognizance of my com- 


In a letter addressed by the Associat ie Mayor this week, that body is 

good enough to refer t in attempting a conciliation, whict 

on the th' c*sed their sentiment, scarcely coincides with their failure 

to reply to courteous communication addressed with the best of intentions. While 

M understands that high motives may a 

parties e\ < -heir own body, a few simple lessons in qood manners, breeding 

and courtesy, which i easily learn from your Association, would, perhaps, 

make that organization a little more representative of the interests they are supposed 
to sc 

Yours truly. 

(Signed) I.. W. JACOBS . 

Public Statement of Mayor Martin of Montreal 

After his repeated efforts to bring about a settlement, which were frustrated 
<> employers' association, Mayor Martin of Montreal issued the following 
public statement, of which an official copy was furnished to us: 

As the attempts I have made to settle the differences which have 

en the clothing manufacturers and the clothing workers have been a 
complete failure, I believe it is necessary that the public should exactly know 
the nature of the steps I have taken and the reasons why the same have been 


On the 2/th of Jam. I received the following let!- 

Montreal, January *7. I9'7 
Us Worship Mederic i'.sq., M. P.. 

ntreal, < 

Honorable S of Montreal, who is daily brought into contact with 

the * rfce *! by the present clothing: feel justified in making on my 

personal i an urgent appeal to you to use the power and influence of your 

High Office of the Metropolitar Canada, as well as the friend of the working 

man. in order to effect a speedy settlement of the present unfortunat 

The strike i- ino.ilonlaMv damaging both to the manufacturer the worl 

to the former, by demoralizing one of the greatest and most productive ind-; 
in the community; and to the latter, l.y the uiu-rrtainties and losses due to unemploy- 
ment, and this at a per the hie!i living is such an important problem 

This economic lo*s and strife is : rly deplorable at a time when 


the burdens of war are falling so heavily on all classes, and when the interests of the 
nation and of the Empire, demand co-operation and un 

Experience in dealing with >trike condtions, has demonstrated, that the best 
results are often achieved by mediation and tion. 

1 assure you, that a large number of citizens, would welcome at the present 
juncture, your personal and official intervention and the nomination of a voluntary 
Board of Mediators, to be headed by yourself, and to include the Members of the 
Board of Commissioners of the City, and also Professor Stephen Leacock of the 
Faculty of Arts of Mctiill Univcrnty, for the purpose of carrying out an immediate, 
direct and impartial inquiry, in order that a basis of settlement, fair and equitable 
to both parties shall be arrived at. 

Such a finding would be backed by the full force of public opinion, and would 
command instant adhesion and respect. It would also eliminate future causes of 
disagreement and act as a salutary curb to stubbornness or bitterness on cither side. 
Prompt action cannot fail to be a boon to all interests involved, including the welfare 
of the public, which is exposed to unforeseen loss and suffering. 

The blame of prolonging the present struggle, would then be fixed definitely on 
the faction refusing to accept the verdict, which would in such event stand condemned 
before the Bar of Public Opinion. 

This appeal is made to you as a public man. who possesses in an eminmt 
degree, the courage, firmness and capacity to act authoritatively to save the situation, 
and I venture to hope, that it will receive your courteous and due consideration. 

I remain, Your Worship, 

Yours sincerely, 


Business Men's Strike Relief Committee. 

I replied to this letter as follows : 

Montreal, January 29th, 1917. 

Advocate, Barrister & Solicitor, 
Main Bulding, 

520 St. Lawrence Boulevard, City. 

Dear Sir: I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 27th inst.. with 
regard to the present strike in the Clothing Trade and, in reply I wish to inform 
you that I am writing to-day to the Clothing Manufacturers' Association and to the 
Joint Board of the Amalgamated Garment Workers, asking them to send representa- 
tives to meet me in my office at the City Hall, on Thursday, February ist, at 10 
o'clock A. M., for the purpose of stating whether they would be prepared to accept 
your suggestion of appointing a voluntary Board of Mediators to whom both factions 
would submit their respective grievances in order that a basis of settlement, fair and 
equitable to both parties, may be arrived at. 

Trusting you will be present at the meeting, I beg to remain, Dear Mr. Jacobs, 

Yours very truly, 


I instructed at the same time my Secretary to transmit the following 
letter to the Manufacturers: 

Clothing Manufacturers of Montreal, Montreal, January 29th, 1917. 

Attention of Mr. Lyon Cohen, 
c/o Freedman Company, 

Sohmer Bldg., Mayor Street, City. 

Dear Sir: With reference to a letter from Mr. Lyon W. Jacobs, B. C. L., 
Treasurer Business Men's Relief Committee addressed to His Worship the Mayor, 
and relative to the present strike in the Clothing Trades, I have been directed to 
ask you to send representatives to meet His Worship the Mayor, iji his office at 
the City Hall, on Thursday, February ist, at 10 o'clock A. M., for the purpose of 
stating whether they would be prepared to accept the suggestions of Mr. Lyon W. 
Jacobs of appointing a voluntary Board of 'Mediators to whom both factions would 


order that a bam of settlement, fair and equitable 

to both parties may - 

Trusting you *>!! *ivr IM- rr.juest your prompt attention, 1 bey to remain, 



Se - 
I thm n-rrived the following reply from the Manufacturers: 

8 Beaver Hall Hill. 

Worship Mederic Martin, Eta.., M. P. Montreal. January joth. 1917. 

Mayor of Montreal, 
Montreal, QIK 

Dear I I ::* the Clothing Manufacturers' 

Association t< - vet to the Or - iary itt. at 10 o'clock. 

<e of stating whether they would be willing to accept suggestions 

respecting apj .try Board of Mediator! in conne n the 

istry, was laid before a meeting of our Association held 

Aft - n and while appreciating the kind offices of gentlemen 

. 'Uirsrli. (. oiuroller R< .*. Mr nl others, who a 

prompted by the highest motives to int -i the present sit 

'c obliged to ad\ that they are unable to entertain the sugK 

relative to a Board of Mediators. 

Thr -rs of the Association, in the interest of peace and harmo 

already conceded :. with the exception of the right to control their own 

affair- a matter which may be arbitrated. 

Association's statement published in the press a few days ago fully 
, >sition and shows what our members have had to contend with. We can only 
ite what we Micly stated, : shops are open -mployee*. 

whom we will treat with fairness and justice at all times. 

ile. as tfully decline to submit the - lion of 

>f our business to any Committee, no matter how worthy, we shall be giad 
to wait upon Your Worship personally, if you so desire, at any time you may 
appoint, in order to explain our position more fully. 

Yours sincerely. 


Charles J. Harrod. Secretary. 

1 th<n invited i!i- manufacturers to come and discuss with me the causes 
of the confl 


The Clothing Manuf, Association, 

!! Hill. 

Dear Sir: 1 beg to ackr ,.f your letter of the joth ult.. and in 

would .1 representatives of your Association 

call at my ofnre this afternoon at 2 o'clock. If the delay is too snort to get your 
hers together, kindly let me know what time \\ 
Bcliexc me. Dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 


In the meantime I received the following letter from th<* nothing Work' 
Union : 




Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

Office: 37 Prince Arthur St., Est. B. Rishi4cof, Sec.-Treas. Phone: East 318 


Mayor of Montr < Montreal, February i, 1917. 

City Hall, ( 
Honorable Sir: 

Confirming our conversation of this morning at your office, I beg leave to state 
that if, as the Clothing Manufacturers say, the only issue of the present conflict 
between our organization and theirs is the discharge of the Shop Delegate of the 
Frccdman Company, I assure you that as far as we are concerned the matter will 
be easily adjusted if we meet in Conference with the Employers. 

I may also add that any other problem that may properly be placed before us 
will likewise be solved as a result of such conference. My confidence in this is based 
upon my experience with similar situations in the past. 

Thanking you for your kind interest, I beg to remain, 

Very respectfully yours, 


General Secretary, 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

I then had an interview with the representative of tlu Manufacturers' 
Association and I urged them to agree to meet their employees or their represen- 
ts to discuss the question at issue. 

Frcm what these gentlemen stated to me, I understand that the Manu- 
facturers were willing to meet their employees but that they did not want 
to have anything to do with outside representatives of the Clothing Workers' 

In the course of the interview, the representatives of the manufacturers 
declared that they could not comply with certain requests made by their emp- 
loyees and that they could not allow anyone to interfere with the internal 
administration of their work-shops. 

The manufacturers pointed out certain abuses which they had to suffer 
from their employees namely: 

1. That shop delegates quit their work and intervene each time anything happens. 

The manufacturers declared that they did not object to the presence of repre- 
sentatives of the union in the work-shops, provided that they attended to the business 
of the union outside of working hours. 

2. That the shop delegates refuse to allow any gang to dp the work of another 
gang, when the manufacturers are compelled to act thus owing to the absence of 

3. When a row employee is engaged in any work-shop, the shop delegate quits 
his work, goes over to this new employee and asks him if he has his Union Card; 
if the latter replies in the negative but adds that he will go and fetch it during 
lunch hour or in the evening, the shop delegate refuses to allow him to work and 
stirs up all the other employees. Moreover, if this new employee applies to the 
union for his card, they refuse to give him the same and he is told that there are 
unionists on the list before him and that he must wait for his return to get work. 

4. That they sought to prevent the manufacturers from discharging any employee 
even when there is not sufficient work for everybody, the workers contending that 
the shops should rather remain open only during three days per week. 

The representatives of the manufacturers then withdrew after stating that 

they would again discuss the matter with the other members of their association. 

On the 4th of February, I had an interview with about thirty representa- 


lives of the C and 1 submitted to them the stat 

made to me by the representatives of the employers. These gentlemen asserted 
that all the differences might be easily settled if the unionists could meet the 


I then promised that I would again communicate with the manufacturers 
and hem to prevail upon loyers to meet the workers. 

I thereupon wrote the following letters: 

\KROD, Esq.. SecreU: r^ry 5, 1917. 

The Clothing Manufacturer*' Association of Montreal, 
8 U. :i Hill. 

ar Sir: I had a long interview, yesterday, in my office, with about thirty 
representatives of the Garmrnt Workers' Union, and I stated to them that the 
uo Hirer* iiployees but were refuting to have 

mg to d< .es of any labor organize 

H statcni i*e I understood from the representatives of the 

tac Hirers' Association of Montreal, whom I met last Friday, in the 
t this was the decision of their association. 

If the members of your association have not changed their views on the matter, 
to arrange to have three workers of every shop meet their employ- 
cans to i - unfortunate strike which is paralyzing the 
v and bringing sufferings to such a large number of our 
good citizens. 

Yours very truly, 

LYON W. JACOBS, Esq., K. C. Treasurer, 

Business Men's Strike Relief Commit t Montreal, February 5. 1917. 


Dear Sir: In pursuance with the understanding arrived at yesterday, during 
the Conference with the representatives of the Clothing Workers' Union. I may say 
it I have been told, I believe that the Clothing Manufacturers would 
: ling to meet their own workers if such meeting can be arranged. 

1 you kindly lay this matter immediately before the Garment Workers who 
are presently on strike, to find out if they would be willing to appoint a Committee 
of, say three workers from each shop, to meet their employers. 
An early reply will oblige. 

Yours very t: 

The manufacturers transmitted to me the following reply: 


.Vorship MEDKRIC MARTIN, Esq.. M. P.. 
Mayor of Montreal, February 5. 1917. 

Montreal. Quebec. 

.tr Sir: Your letter of the sth inst., was submitted to a meeting of the Clothing 
Manufacturers' Association held this afternoon and I have been requested to reply 
ns fallows: 

The manufacturers have not in any respect changed their minds relative to the 

K their employees at their respective offices, and in order that 

their position may be made perfectly clear in the matter, they beg to refer you to 

the clause dealing with that i : their general statement appearing in the 

of January 25th. and also to the letter to Controller Ross of date of 

2d, a copy of which is herewith enclosed. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) HARROD. 

Honorary Secretary. 


1 thereupon wrote to the manufacturers the following letter: 

CHARLES J. HARROD, Esq., Secretary, 

The Clothing Manufacturers' Association of Montreal, 
8 Beaver Hall Hill. Montreal. 

mr Sir: I beg to acknowledge receipt of your reply to my letter of the sth., 
.t. I am sorry to see that the Clothing Manufacturers' Association do not think 
.ible to meet a delegation of their employees as rcpre>r 

to which they belong but are only willing to receive them in the office of the respective 
shops where they used to work. 

I never understood that such was the way your Association had decided to act, 
otherwise. I would not have pressed the matter any further. 

I fail t" see the reluctance of your Association to discuss the different questions 
at issue with a body of men representing those directly intere.ste.i in i < ttlement of 
the present difficulties; on the other hand I quite realize the objection of the Workers 

ital importance to them without proper sup; 

1 admit that the manufacturers may have had cause for complaints against certain 
of their employees, but, nobody can deny that if all the grievances which the workers 
have suffered were put before the public, these grievances would be found far more 
serious than the complaints of the employers. 

I \\us tokl thi> morning that the Union had practically decided that the whole 
>n of the rights of their members being at stakq it was advisable to immediately 
ask for additional wages and shorter hours to which they claim they are entitled. 
I succeeded this morning to have this matter postponed and I promised to write 
a^ain to your association to urge once more the advantage of having a m- 
between the employers and the employees, both as representing their respective 

I sincerely hope that you will reconsider your decision and that you will give 
me the necessary help to arrive at an early settlement o the present difficulties. 
I Relieve me, dear 

Yours very truly. 


After sending this letter I had a further interview with the representatives 
of the manufacturers which said interview had no result. 

As a l.i-t shift I tried to prevail upon the interested parties to agree to 
the appointment of a Board of Arbitration, as shown by the following correspon- 

This suggestion was accepted by the workers and rejected by the manu- 

MR. LYOX \V. .1 Ac OBS, Treasurer. Montreal, February 9, 1917. 

Busines Strike Relief Committee, 

520 St. Lawrence Boulevard, Montreal. 

Dear Sir: I am very sorry to see that all my attempts to effect a settlement 
of the present difficulties between the clothing manufacturers and their workers, have 

now met with no success. 

I had deckled therefore to abandon, further negotiations and to lay before the 
public the whole situation as I understand it. Nevertheless, before doing so I will 
make one last suggestion to put an end to the present situation and, if this suggestion 
is rejected the public will judge who is responsible for the present state of affairs. 

.rgestion is simply the appointment of an arbitration board composed of 

three members, one to be appointed by the workers, one by the manufacturers and 
these two arbitrators to select the third one. 

This method of settling difficulties is nothing new and should be accepted by 
both parties. 

I am writing a similar letter to the Clothing Manufacturers' Association, and I 
am anxiously awaiting their reply as well as yours. 

Yours very truly, 



The same letter was sent to the Clothing Manufacturers' A 

MKDERIC MARTIN. Eq. ( M r Montreal, February u. 1917. 

Mayor of Montreal. 

Honor.*' - I beg le*\r !-. knnwledjce recrijit f o your favor of 

.tng Worker ' Strike in which you suggest the appointment 
of an Art Hoard composed of three members one to be apt> y the 

*!id these ar1>: a thr: 

1 I this con I have duly submitted this matter 

Kamated Clothing Workers { America 

sideration and rm you that in line with the estab- 

f thai organization that the Joint Board are quite willing to accept 

an Ar Board for the purpose of 

i*pute, with the exception however of the recognition of 

the Union or the right of the Workers to be organized which is a mat'.' uciple 

J m.iv nt Hoard will be pleased to meet your Worship at any 

n t" y> >" this connection. 

mking you for the interest you have taken in this strike and deeply appreciating 
the high mot .ive prompted you to endeavor to regulate thi* mat! 

Hehexr :nr. with kind respects, 

Yours very truly. 

(Signed) )N W. JACOBS. 


.Vorship Mi Dl KK MARTIN, Esq., M 

Mayor of Montreal, Montreal, February ijth. 1917. 

-.!, Uue. 

Your lr he otfi \ni.. suggesting the appointment of an arbisration board 

composed of three members, one appointed by the Workers, one by the Manufacturers' 

:<> select the third, was duly placed before a full meeting of the Associa- 

After careful consideration and while appreciating your further efforts, it was 

felt that the Ass .id in thrir letters to you of joth January, plain 

the fact that the Manufacturers had already conceded | the 

<>f the right to control their own affairs, which is not a matter that may be 

In our several interview*, with Your Worship, you have stated that the 
\va r of wages, hours or working c and Controller Ross in his 

last statement publicly advised the men to return to work. 

must again say that having made our case plain, we respectfully decline to 
submit our affairs to a board of mediators. 

Yours sincerely. 


(Signed) \RROD. 

Hon. Secretary. 

The main fact which the above correspondence discloses is that the employees 
- that their I'nion be recognized and that the employers. whUe they do not seem 
to formally refuse to recognize such Union, seek the means of supprc* 
refusing to confer with those whose have organized the same and are the principal 
supporters thereof. 

have always been an ardent Unionist, and today, more tha - i am of 

Mian should organize, inasmuch as this is the only means he 
mg his condition. 

The workers desire that their Union be recognized; I approve them, for if such 
--r suppressed, they would be at the mercy of the employers and treated as 

Why do the manufactur ^e to meet their employees, as Unionists, and 

ss with them the terms of an arrangement which would permit of the employers 



being masters in their work-shops and which would ensure for the workers the 
protection of their rights against the abuses of power or caprices of a foreman or 

an only find one answer to this question, namely, that the employer i.i 
sincerity when he says that he is in favor of the Union formed by his employ 

The manufacturers refuse to concede anything; they decline to discuss with their 
employees, as and object to arbitration. In view of this st >s on 

their part, I can only repeat to the workers what I already said to them, ti 
that they should act with calm, but energetically insist on the upholding and recog- 
D of their rights. 

ll just and will ultimately triumph. 


M ;iyor, 

The Strike Spreads 

We had a number of conferences with the Mayor and other pu ited 

citizens who were anxious to assist in bringing about a settlement of tin- <trike, 
but the manufacturers stubbornly clung to the famous Pullman formula of 
"Nothing to Arbitrate," and refused to listen to anyone, not even excepting 
iayor of the city. Their srtihbcrniv 'he fact that bu 

lull during the strike period. That was also the reason they selected that 
time for the contest. The organization realized that as for itself it was a 
question of endurance. The problem was then, Can we hold out until sometime 
in March? At the tiinc the Mayor made his statement public the strike was 
general throughout the industry, including fifteen hundred workers in the 
independent shops. While the extension of the strike had its advantages, in 
other ways it had this one disadvantage that removed an important source of 
revenue while it increased the number of people who required assistance. There 
were then 5,000 strikers instead of 3,500. 

. The rigors of the Montreal winter are well known. To do picket duty at 
six o'clock in the morning with a temperature of twenty-eight degrees below zero 
requires a high sense of duty and a spirit of self-sacrifice. Nor was the 
inclemency of the weather the only hardship. The police displayed the usual 
brutality towards the strikers except that in addition to making effective use of 
their clubs they, being mounted police, literally rode roughshod over the strikers, 
who were trampled under the hoofs of the horses. The aged, the your.; 
men and the women, were alike clubbed, ridden over, beaten up and otht 
prosecuted and persecuted. 

The distress was acute. The Montreal organization, very young and con- 
stantly on the firing line, had not an opportunity to prepare itself financially 
for such an onslaught. The manufacturers depended on the poverty of the 
organization and its members to break the spirit. They had hoped to starve 
them into submission. Financial relief came from our general membership and 
also from a Business Men's Relief Conference organized in Montreal. The 
General Office contributed large sums of money. Still larger sums would have 
been contributed were it not for the general strike in Philadelphia that was on 
at the same time and required liberal support. 



The financial assistance received t 'rikers was far from suffkie: 

they fought bravely on. The lines remained intact and the spirit strong until 
We are happy to attest to the fact the Montreal strikers proved 
equal to the very be he battles of our organization. They 

conducted a magnificent fight again le odds. 

The Settlement 

!e course oi ;u> individual settlements were made 

firms and on March 7, after a number of attempts at mediation, 

iiuluin was signed referring <versy to a Committee of 

It took eight weeks to prove to the manufacturers that the workers 

could not be pounded into renouncing their right to organize. Business was 

beginning to revive and >r the employers to agree to end the 


The ".tlinn of agreement which ended the strike was signed for the 

Board I its attorney and member of the Provincial 

nd for the Manufacturers' Association by Mr. Michael Hirsch. 
a prominent business man. The memorandum was as follows: 

"Whereas Mr. Mirliael Hirsch and Mr. iVter Bercovitch have discussed ways and 

- of adji:- -lie differences that exist between the following dot hmg 

manufacturers to wit: Joh- k. Ltd.. Semi-Ready. Ltd.. Fashion 

Craft. Ltd., Sa; ncr & Co.. Ltd., S. Levinson & Co.. The Frcedraan Co., Samuel 

Hart & Co., K. A. Small Co., Ltd.. Christie Clothing Co.. Ltd., B. Card: 

1 Mfg. Co.. Ltd.. Kaplan Samuelsohn & Co.. Saxe Clothing 
Co., H. Keller: & Sons and their employees, and 

"Whereas, they deem it advisable to reduce to writing the suggestions that they 
are prepared to offer to both manufacturers and employees as a basis for an amicable 
settlement of the difference and grievances which employer and employee pretend to 
- against each oil - 

re submit to the clothing manufacturers and their employees the 
following suggestions: 

"I. A C f Inquiry is to be appointed in the manner hereinafter stated 

with power to im; all differences between employer and employee. 

;it that the disagreement occurred; 
(b) Into all other grievances of both part: 

nmittee may make such recommendations as in their opinion will 
remedy the differences or grievances that exist, and suggest such means as may avoid 
all such differences or grievances arising in the fut 

osed of five gentlemen, none of 

i are to he . either directly or indirectly with the clothing industry. 

The Commit- be appointed as follows: 

rsch. and two by Mr. Peter Bercovitch. 

and the fifth, who will also act as Chairman, is to be selected by the four appointed 
as aforesaid. 

The employees >rk forthwith without >f any kind. 

The Committee will report within four weeks from date, if possible, and in 
any event not Liter than the first or 

Both of the parties hereto undertake to use erery effort to have the report of 
mniittee and the remedies suggested carried out by both employer and employee. 
"8. The report of the Committee is to be delivered to Messrs. Hirsch and Berco- 
vitch as soon as it is rendered. 

rt of the Committee, any misunderstanding that may arise 
v Hirsch and Bercovitch whose decision in all matters 
em is to he final. 

"Thus done and passed at the city of on this seventh day of March. 1917. 




When Brother Hillman, who represented the Union in those proceedings, 
submitted the report to the Joint Board it was accepted and subsequently 
ratified by the membership at a large mass meeting. Our im-mbcrs returned 
to work, and the following gentlemen, chosen as a Committee of Inquiry took 
he task assigned to them: John T. Foster, Secretary of the Trades and 
Labor Council of Montreal, and J. C. Remmeon, Professor nomics in 

McGill University, for the Union; Issac Freedman and W. N. Wyrnim fur the 
Association, and A. Falconer chairman. On May nth they submitted the 
following report: 

Montreal, May nth, 1917 

Dear Sirs: 

The Committee of Inquiry appointed in accordance with the memorandum signed 
by you, dated 7th March, 1917, have the honor to report as folio. 

By the reference we are given power to enquire into all differences "between 
employer and employee; (a) up to the moment the disagreement occurred, (b) iito all 
other grievances of both parties; and it is also stated that "the Committee may make 
such recommendations as in their opinion will remedy the differences or griex 
arising in the future." 

We have held almost daily sessions from the 24th April and at the first sitting 
representatives of both parties appeared before us. For the employees it was stated 
that no enquiry or report was asked with regard to the past save such as the Committee 
might think necessary for the purpose of dealing with the demands under Clause (b) 
or of making suggestions, and no evidence was offered. 

Grievances under clause (b) were put in the form of demands as follows: 

1. Union shops. 

2. 46 hours to constitute a week's work. 

3. A $2 increase of salary per week for all workers. 

4. Time and a half for overtime. 

5. Sanitary conditions in the shops. 

6. To be paid for all legal holidays. 

For the manufacturers witnesses were called who testified as to what had happened 
in a number of instances given as illustrations of the general situation and their 
grievances were summed up later as follows: 

The manufacturers objected to any interference by any outside individual. <T 
set of individuals, dictating to them as regards the policy on which the factory is to be 
run, as regards hiring and discharge of employees, or as regards wages or manner 
of employment. The manufacturers have no objection to discussing individual diffe- 
rences or complaints that might arise between the particular manufacturer and 1m 
particular employee or employees, and that such differences or complaints of the 
employees be made either by individuals or a Committee of employees," and we were 
asked to fix the blame for the strike. 

Under (b) it was stated that there was nothing additional to offer, and the Com- 
mittee was asked to suggest means to prevent a recurrence of interference such as 
complained of. 

In reply for the employees it was state that except in one or two cases covering 
the incidents immediately preceding the strike in January, 1917, they were not in a 
position to bring witnesses. As regards the incidents on which no testimony was 
offered, their position was stated, namely: that some of the acts of interference 
complained of were in accordance with what they claimed to be their rights, while 
others, if they occurred, were unjustifiable. 

When the employees were called on to present their case as regards the fir-t 
demand made under (b) "Union Shops" the manufacturers objected that the Committee 
should not deal with this question as it was not covered by the references. They 
claimed that the parties to the references were fourteen named employers and the r 
respective employees; that the former had throughout refused to discuss differences 
with their employees with any organization and that it was understood that the Union 
question would not be introduced. Your Committee by a majority of three to two, 



ruled that although the reference was undoubtedly between fourteen employers and 
employees, yet the breadth of its wording permitted the bringing up of this part 
Kficvance, especially at it had been a real question of dr 

jpon the manufacturers a: adjournments to give time for consideration. 

then had no option but to proceed. nfnmmi|a|y 
hear one side on 

Their case was presented without calling witne*f> - ,/ stated that reliance 

was made on such facts a- -slight accept as being generally known. 

<*r which could be easily ascertained by the ( -if by reteren - 

Your Comt -: for the proper understanding of the case tome short 

t necessary. 

there had been differences, gradually increasing in number 
the manufacturers and their employee . the majority of whom, 
the case of two or three factories wrr- Members. 

Shop i <anization. but elected solely ! - -iployees 

of the shop or *rt m which thry them -elves worked, from time to time claimed and 
insisted or - 'half of the employee*. - e decision o: 

K r es, engagement or dismissal of employees, conditions of labor and e.- 

tnces of questions in which it was admitted that the:- 

The employers consistently, save in a few cases, wheh serious trouble 

- ned their position as above stated, or refusing to recognize the 
organization in any way ami in many cases made special objection to the time and 
rr of intr 

M ally a delegate . ufter warning, was dismissed for improper 

.1 hrt-arh >f discipline. The employees demanded his replacement, 
.- the ground that the real reason of his dismissal was that he was an oft 
the Union, and that an attempt was being made to destroy the influence o: 
organization. On reinstatement being refused the employee} went ot 

At this t!"ir the factory in question had on hand work under contract nearing 
- ately made arrangements for its completion in other factories 
These factories gave directions to their employees to complete these unfinished 
articles, were met with a refusal and as a consequence there was a general cessation 
of work. At thi< date there was pending no claim for increase of wages or grir 
of any kind, other than as above stated. 

- . of the step towards a compromise later on referred to. your Comn 
iat no good purpose can - -by attempting to apportion blame for this 

condition of affair 

During the adjournment taken to enable the manufacturers to consider their 
conferences were held between the representatives of both parties with . 

he manufacturers' withdrawal Though unsuccessful fr that purpose 
they led to a subsequent appearance before us of representatives of the manufa 

ns indicating their readr ' - to me*- 

s demands and on some specific points on which the two had not been 
able to come together, to abide by the Committee's decision. Although the empl 

had left town it was made clear to the Committee that he took a 
- Me. 

This action of both parties has been of great help in avoiding what might have 
u long inquiry into disputed facts and in enabling us to reach an early decision 
Dealing first with the specific demands made by the employees we report as 
follows, taking them in reverse ord- 

Po be paid for all Legal Holidays: This was admitted to be a somewhat 
complicated question in local conditions and we feel that no sufficient evidence 

to justify a suggestion that this demand should be acceded to: 
>r that it should not now be pressed. 

Your committee agrees that the employees have such a right, but in fairness to 
the manufacturers concerned deems it proper to state that no specific grievance of 

M put br 

4 Time and a half for overtime: The Committee approve of time and a half 
:ne: all difiic noved by the manufacturers' declaration of tbdr 

> accede to this reqw 



3. Forty-six hours to constitute a week's work: Your Committee recommends 
that after the first of August, 1917, forty-six hours shall constitute a week's work. 

2. Wages: That there has been a very heavy increase in the cost of living, one 
beyond any increase that up to the date of the reference had been granted to the 
employees, we think is clear. To determine exactly what advance in wages should 
be approved would involve a long and difficult investigation, and the Committee is glad 
to have been saved this through mutual concessions made by both parti 
enable it to recommend that an immediate increase of a minimum of One Dollar per 
week be granted and that the manufacturers should give special consideration to 
requests that may be made for an additional increase in special cases. 

A difficulty has arisen owing to a statement made to us that a number of increases 
have been made since tl h, 1917. We feel that it is impossible to lay down 

a general rule which will be fair in all cases, but we suggest that in all cases in 
a general increase has been made since the ist of March, 1917, such increases 
be deducted from any increase which may be made in order to comply with our 
recommendations. By general increase we mean an increase granted to all the members 
of a set of employees. 

i. UNION SHOP: On some of the questions involved in this claim the Committee 
cannot fairly be expected to report with the material put before ft. On the other 
'ved, the suggestions made by the manufacturers and the evidence we 
have of the willingness of the employees to accept for the present a partial measure 
of their demands enable us to make the following recommendations to aviod future 

We suggest that a Conference Committee be established in each factory; that 
this Committee be composed of one or more employees of the factory interested, not 
exceeding four in all unless there be more than four sets in the factory in which 
case this number may be proportionately increased; the rules governing the election 
other than as herein laid down to be fixed entirely by such employees provided that 
all employees shall have an equal voice. 

No member of the firm, foreman or outsider shall be present at the election, 
except that a foreman or member of the firm may be present if invited. Such election 
to take place every six months or at the beginning of each season. Should any 
employee elected refuse to act or should he leave the firm, another employee shall 
be elected in his or her place. 

If in any factory be a minority, however limited in number, they shall 
have the right to select in any way they see fit, one additional member of the Committee. 

It shall be the duty of the Committee to examine into and report upon such 
requests, complaints and grievances as any worker or body of workers may have 
from time to time with one another or with the firm. 

The Committee shall bring these grievances to the attention of the executive 
heads of the firrq, who shall after conference with the Committee, deal with them with 
a view to bringing about an amicable adjustment if possible. 

All mp.tters of dispute shall be dealt with out of working hours and shall be 
indicated and examined in a way that will not distract the attention of employees 
from their work or otherwise interfere with the operations of the factory. 

e pleasure in stating that the foregoing recommendations and suggestions 
while they cannot be said to embody an agreement between the parties to the reference, 
are nevertheless for the most part based upon suggestions made by both in a spirit 
indicating a willingness to compromise existing differences .is regards; wapres and 
conditions of work and to assist as a means of adjustment of future difficult; 
abstaining for the present from urging all that they think themselves entitled to. 

We believe that the suggested Conference Committee will assist both employer 
and employee to a better understanding of th< other's point of view and in thi 
should be of appreciable service in securing a friendly adjustment of future difficulties 
and we ask that it be given a fair trial. 

We feel, however, that if we left the matter here we should not be doinc: our 
full duty. Our enquiry has made clear to us that underlying all difficulties and standing 
in the way of both their prevention and their settlement have been: 

1. The want of some means satisfactory to both employer and employee that 
would permit of full and friendly discussion of differences with a view to settling them 
by mutual agreement; and 

2. The want of some provision for overcoming deadlocks in which unless there 



be tome third person or body authorized to decide between conflicting views, a 
frequent con^ -he lockout with their attendant suffering and 

lots until the weaker is compelled to yield. 

'tg the first difficulty the ( < Committee hat been 

suggested It differs .-ner practice in that it calls for presentation of 

incc* through repress: >ole body of employees of the par 

fact. ts bringing to bear on the discussion of any uuettion 

i the influent - ho mav be able to take a broader view than the 

oyee or group immediately u 

The second difficulty i-. more serious and we offer no solution. Bat we suggest 

<lo something towards finding at least a 
permitting a* an exj>eriroent a 
reference to arbitration of some difficulty in which a deadlock has been reached. 

naele elsewhere in connection with both these difficu 

We express no opinion as to whether or not they have proved successful as we have 
had no opportunity of informing ourselves fully about them. But we believe that 
much good would come from a better knowledge of what they were and of the 

hat a careful and systematic study of these 

:ts he made with the object of adopting and putting in force any ideas 
successful in practice or may otherwise commend themselves as 
likely to jrve useful. 

Submitted as the unanimous report of the Committee. 

ned) :. Chairman. 



W. ! 

On May 14, mir members at a monster mass meeting accepted the report 
of the Committtee. 

The right to organize has been vindicated by our Montreal menrix 

convincing manner that it is doubtful whether it will ever again be 
assailed by the employers. 


The Philadelphia clothing workers were not at the beginning in the front 
ranks among the wide awake men and women in the clothing industry. While 
other clothing centers were rapidly organizing, successfully rebelling against 
y and affecting considerable improvements in their conditions. Phila- 
delphia was looking on helplessly and hopelessly, and. true to the "rduea- 
n them by the Bil islcaders, dared not move a muscle 

c rattle of their chains disturb the peace of their masters. But freedom 
is contagious. Once it footing somewhere it spreads and "contami- 


\Y York, Baltimore and other clothing centers marching onward 

Philadclphi? was bound, sooner or l;r n line. And it did. It repu- 

diated the ursurpcrs, as did the other clothing workers throughout the 
country, and began a mobilization for better working conditions. 

Immediately before the General Executive Board meeting in February, 
1916, the first large mass meeting was held. Lyric Hall was filled to capacity 



and proved to be far too small for all who sought admission. A fighting 
spirit not seen in that city for a long time asserted itself unmistakably. It 
was intended to be a demonstration of the Philadelphia clothing workers. 
Such demonstrations, on the eve of a big strike, arc usually dramatic. This 
one. however, had also an element of the tragic in it. One of the largest 
firms in the city, whose factory resembled more a penitentiary than a working 
place for free citizens, fearing that its employees might hear the Union's 
message at the meeting, sent its lackeys in full uniform to Lyric hall. The 
purpose was not to spy on "disloyal" workers. A conspicuous uniform is a 
poor disguise for a spy. The purpose was to terrorize the workers. And that 
was accomplished. No sooner did an employee of that firm notice the familiar 
uniform upon his entering the hall than he rushed back with all speed before 
the wearer of the uniform could eye him. But while the workers were fright- 
ened away from the meeting the brutal action of the masters engendered feel- 
ings in them that were far from advantageous to the firm. It is not at all 
unlikely that the employer's agents purposely made themselves provokingly 
conspicuous with their lackey's uniforms and brazen manners in order to 
"pull something off." With such a vast audience demonstrating its resent- 
ment and protest against prevailing conditions the slightest provocation 
might prove to be a spark in a keg of powder. It was due to the intelligence 
and consciousness of the audience and the managers of the meeting that the 
employers' agents did not succeed in "pulling" anything off. 

A committee from District Council No. 2, appeared before the General 
Executive Board, who met in February in that city, described the deplorable 
conditions in the industry, and asked for permission to call a general strike. 
The General Strike Executive Board, after thoroughly going into the matter, 
took whatever action the situation called for and a general strike was declared 
at the end of February, 1916. 

As was expected, the Bible House outfit, true to their record of crime 
and treason, immediately rushed to the employers with offers of assistance. 
They sent letters and emissaries promising to break the strike, but they 
could get no strikebreakers to carry out their promises. They also invoked 
the co-operation of Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation 
of Labor, who, according to newspaper reports, sent a telegram to Phila- 
delphia admonishing the employers not to grant improvements in our work- 
ing conditions. But promises and telegrams make no garments. Members 
of the Amalgamated are required to do it. 

The strike lasted about two weeks. It was wound up by an agreement 
with an association of contractors, limiting the hitherto outrageously long 
working week to 51 hours, and granting an increase of 15 per cent in the 

Under the circumstances that was the most we dared hope for and 
we got all that the most optimistic amongst us had expected. 

The greatest gain, however, was the firm establishment of the organiza- 



tion. The concessions st . the ser and the spirit thry ^a\ - 

to amon^ the members left no d ne's mind that the Amalgamated 

has come to Philadelphia t May It has become a factor in the indust 
that city not to be dislodged by any power. But it was likewise clear that 
the progress made was but the beginning of a huge task. A good idea of 
what the situation in PluL the fact that a 

strike of Custom Tailors in November, 1916, resulted, besides an increase in 
wag of the working w< . 70 and 80 hours to 57. 

The conditions allowed to exist and constantly grow worse by the former 
of disorgai . n the part . f the workers, and of irresponsibility 

on the part of the officials, made of the Philadelphia clothing industry a veri- 
table Augean stable. /It required Herculean efforts to g: ; Toper clean- 
ing. The settlement of March, 1916, was a long step in that direction. But 
still morr, very much more, remained to be done. It required patient, arduous 
and continuous toil. The organization met the problem as good as it could. 
I general strike became necessary: (1) in order to maintain the 
fruits of the previous strike ; (2) in order to make further gains, particularly 
the 48 hour week. 

To those who knew Philadelphia in the years past, when sunrise, sunset 
and time had no meaning for the workers in the clothing industry, a demand 

cm for a 48 hour week sounded like a prim joke. Yet it was in * 
respect a reality. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. Once the 
Philadelphia tailors tasted the benefits of an honest and capable organiza- 
Icarned how to make the most of it. The splendid victory 
w York and the 48 hour movements in other clothing centers whetted 
their appetite. 

On January 11, 1917, the Philadelphia tailors began a general strike with 
the 48 hour week as the principal issue. 

On January 30, our victory was ! by the signing of an agree- 

ment with an association of the smaller manufacturers for the 48 hour 
week, one dollar increase in wages to the week workers and 20 per cent 
increase to the piece workers. 

thin a short time like settlements were made with individual firms 
outside of the association, including some of the larger houses in the city. 

The 1916 strike established the organization in Philadelphia and the 
settlement was made with the contractors only. The 1917 strike extended our 
'.iction. Settlements were made with the manufacurers and Philadelphia 
was brought in line with th< iothing centers by the intro- 

duction of the universal forty-eight hour week. 

In the course of the past year gratifying progress has been made in the 
internal affairs of the organization. Philadelphia can now boast of an 
organization which it had never hoped to 



Philadelphia is entitled to special congratulations on the manner in 
which the uniform work has been handled. The subject of military uniform 
labor will be fully discussed later. We shall, then -fore, not enlarge upon it 
here. But there is one matter in which Philadelphia has particularly dis- 
tinguished itself in this connection. In that city our organization has 
reached an understanding with the Cloakmakers Union, which is a branch of 
the International Ladies' Carmen Workers Union, for full and complete co- 
operation. Both organizations have jointly maintained a uniform labor 
department, with a labor bureau and a staff of business agents and cl 
workers. Through that joint department both organizations have worked 
harmoniously to organize the uniform workers and protect their interests to 
the fullest extent. The success attained and the benefits secured for the 
members of both bodies have fully compensated for the efforts made. Not 
only have the conditions of the workers been greatly improved but the fra- 
ternal feelings always prevailing between us and our sister organization 
have been very much strengthened. 


We reported to our Second Convention of the conspiracy of the notorious 
crew who betrayed the Boston clothing workers and brought about a lockout 
in that city, in 1915, in the hope of wiping out our organization. With the 
help of the employers, the official "labor leaders," the police, detectives, capi- 
talist press, traitors in our own midst, and all other enemies of the working 
class, they succeeded for the time being. But their joy was short lived. 
While not underestimating the degree of the ruin wrought by the destruc- 
tionists we lost no courage and time in taking up anew the task of again 
building up the organization. With the staunch support of a handful of mem- 
bers who had weathered all storms and clung to their posts in the face of all 
discouragements we struggled on and our efforts were rewarded. We have 
succeeded in raising a magnificent edifice on the ruins of the old one. Boston 
now has a strong organization to the great chagrin of all of our enemies and 
to the still greater benefit of the clothing workers in that city. Another illus- 
tration of the fact that the class struggle cannot be smothered. To the 
militant working class a defeat can only be temporary. So long as class rule 
and the wage system continue will the workers be forced to band themselves 
together in spite of all opposition and raise the banner of revolt, ever learn- 
ing and profiting from past experiences. 

That was what happened in Boston. 

The patient, steady and systematic organization work brought new 
life to the old members. They returned in a constant stream until they again 
formed solid ranks in a united army. 

The employers had not failed to take advantage of the organization's 



powerlessness and reduced the working conditions to the lowest possible 


':e oppressive policy of the employer* and the revival of the spirit of 
ncy among the workers made a general strike in that city unavoidable. 

And it camr 

In the first week of the st: Icments were made for fifteen hundred 

members, wh med to work with the following gains: Rec- 

ognition of the Unio: reduced from 52 and 54 hours, and 

wage increases of ten to ;>cr cent. Those who returned to work con- 

he support of those who remained on strike. 

On the Sixth of June, 1916, an ;i n agreement was signed with 

the Cltlnrrs' Associ Boston, providing for a fifty hour week, a ten 

per cent wage increase and machinery for the adjudication of disputes. 

Boston was again in line with the organized clothing workers through- 
out the r this time, however, with more life, more vigor and more 

An Injunction That Materially Failed and An Injunction That Failed 

to Materialize. 

Here we could write the won! "i. the story of the shortest, most 

fruitful and least eventful clothing workers strike in Boston, were it not for 

r<led here. It was the never ending 
Leopold Morse affair. 

In order to throw proper light on the matter we shall quote the follow- 
ing from our report to the Second Biennial Convention. 

bout the same time that we smashed the conspiracy between employers and 
traito :k and crowned our victory with an agreement between the manu- 

facturers' association and the union, an agreement was also entered into between 
the Leopold Morse Company of Boston and our organization. 

"We had not solicited that agreement. There was no strike on against the firm 
nor was one contemplated. All of the tailors employed by the firm were members 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, and the firm evidently believed 
that it would he to its advantage to establish a machinery for the adjudication of dis- 
To which we had no objection to raise. Hence the signing of the agree- 

"That was February 1st, 1915. 

"On the Eighth of March, 191 5, the workers -prised by an order from 

the firm to repudiate their own organization and pay tribute to the traitors lest they 
forfeit their jobs. 

"That came like a bolt from a clear sky. The workers were amazed. It was 
beyond anyone's comprehension! 

"The firm had but a few weeks ago voluntarily, without force or compulsion, 
ided an agreement with the Amalgamated Gotning Workers of America. The 

workers were called upon to vote upon the agreement and they did so, giving r 


"They had during those few weeks no quarrels with the firm, the latter making 
no change and the workers presenting no new demands. The same people 
emp! firm t'v and as time of fi^.ir 

apreemrnt. The firm served no notice upon the union that it would abrogate the 
agreemctr : prised the workers with an order to LEAVE the Amal- 

od Clothing of America and JOIN the United Garment V. 



America, with which later, the firm informed its employees, it had signed an agree- 
ment. How the firm could sign an agreement with that body almost immediately 
upon signing one with us; how the firm could sign an agreement with that so-called 
union at a time that none of the tailors in its employ were aftiliatcd with it, and how 
the firm could take it upon itself to choose a 'union* for the workers and 'assure' 
them that that was a 'real' union while the AMALGAMATED was not, were amoiiK 
the many puzzles of the situation that the workers failed to understand. 

.'lie amazement of the workers grew still more when they saw a so-called 
organizer of the 'union,' chosen for them by the firm, enter the shops with a re; 
tativc of the firm, and under the Chairmanship of the latter attempt to haraiiL; 
workers. The Judas in this case not only disgraced Organized Labor hut 
masquerading in the disguise of Socialism 

"The workers were curious to kno\\ why the 'organizer* could not call them 
to a meeting in the usual manner in which workers are called and address the- 
side of the august presence of the employer, as their own and real organizer 

were likewise inquisitive as to the nature of the 'better' agreement with the 
:-' union. When the agreement with our organization was drawn the workers 
every word of it, deliberated and voted on it. No signature was attached t<> i: 
for the union before the workers so ordered. They were anxious to know why they 
could not enjoy the same rights at the hands of the 'better' union. If the firm had 
the privilege of making and breaking agreements at r-rt will why could not 

the workers exercise their rights when the new agreement was made by somebody for 
them' But those were curiosities that neither the firm nor the 'organizer, ' both of 
whom acted in admirable unison, was capable of gratifying. The Dr. Jekyl masque 
was quickly dropped and the firm and 'organizer' appeared in the full hideousness 
of Mr Hyde. A few of the workers, the influence of whose presence was very much 
feared by both parties to the game of fettering the workers, were shanghaied away 
from the factory and a safe distance were told that they were discharged. The 
remaining workers were told bluntly and brutally that unless they stab their own 
organization in the back and go back to those who had betrayed them in the past, 
- would be condemned to starvation. 

"The workers, prompted by the feeling of resentment at the black act of treason 
against them, told the traitor who he was, showed the firm that workers are no 
contraband goods that may be stolen and passed on to pirates, and left the shops in 
a body. That was a splendid demonstration of what workers could da if imbued with 
a consciousness of self respect. 

it it was not the good fate of the Boston lockout to wind up so gloriously 
in favor of the workers as did the New York lockout about one month earlier." 

The Leopold Morse "Union" had given the firm carte blanche to impose 
on the workers such conditions as it saw fit. The firm reciprocated by lending 
Distance to the "Union" in the latter's efforts to keep the workers effectively 
muzzled, docile and submissive in the interests of both the firm and its "union." 
But somehow the workers could not be made dependable. They were bitter 
against the firm and cursed its "union." 

Under such circumstances it was little wonder that the doubly enslaved 
Leopold Morse workers were caught by the strike spirit the moment the 
general strike in Boston was proclaimed. 

We did not call them. We had quite sufficient work in the general field 
ai d were not in a position voluntarily to take up something that was bound 
to make our task more difficult. But the Leopold Morse workers came out of 
their own volition. The courage and spirit of their fellow workers gave strength 
to those slaves. They quit work in a body in spite of the strenuous efforts of 
the officials of the firm's "union" to hold them back. They went straight to 
the headquarters of their "enemy," the Amalgamated Gothing Workers of 
America. Our striking members naturally received them with joy and delight 

That was not the first test of the great "moral" value of the agreement 



Leopold Morse Co. and the United Garment Workers, but it 
was the first of such magnitude 

Instead of appc ponsible" officers of the "union" to live 

up to its agreement the firm took the strange course of appealing to the 
courts to compel us to enforce its agreement with the United Garment 
Workers. In its petition for an injunction against us the firm related of the 
existence of the agreement, and stated that one of the provisions was to 
the effect that "Should the employees of the company stop work in violation 
of this agreement the Union agrees to order their return to work or to fur- 

satisfact *.r place." 

Why did : firm demand of the "Union" to carry 


Those who know .-my thing at all about the labor movement know that 
a union who enters into an agreement with an employer guaranteeing that 
"should the employees of the company stop work the union would order 
return or furnish others in their place," must be in a position to exercise 
sufficient moral authority over its members to enforce such guarantee. It is 
clearly the business of the contracting union to sec to it that the members 
ins of the contract. It alone is responsible for it. But in 
this case the firm did not complain to the court that the organization which 
is a party to the agreement was < ; it but that some other organization. 

not a party to the contract, was guilty of such violation. The firm complained 
"that all or nearly all of said employees were willing to continue in plain- 
tiff's employ, but for the acts of the defendants and the members of the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America" who had "illegally, wrongfully 
and improperly pursuadcd and induced employees of the plaintiff who were 
members of the Union to break the contract entered into between the 
tiff and the Union." Indeed, a most unusual complaint for an employing 
firm to make to a court of 1 .e strange procedure becomes still more 

stranpe when we learn that the firm admitted that it did not ask its own 
"Union" to carry out the agreement before applying to the court for an 
order to compel us to carry it out. The strange procedure becomes exceed- 
ingly amusing when we remember that that same firm deliberately, inten- 
tionally and maliciously broke its agreement with our organization in order 
to make a "better one" with the United Garment Workers, and then 
demanded of us, whose agreement it broke, to enforce for the United Gar- 
ment Workers its agreement with the firm because the United Garment 
Workers was incapable of <! 

Our attorney asked the firm to produce along with the U. G. W. agr 
ment also the agreement it had made with us and broke, in order to make 
the case complete. But the firm did not think it wise to do so. If the case 

resented by the firm to the court meant anything at all it meant that 
while the firm was in a position to force its slaves to pay tribute to its 
"union" it was not in a position to destroy their spirit of loyalty to our 
organization. All that the firm's "union" can succeed in getting from its 



"members," and in an ever increasing measure, is enmity, heartfelt, soul <lt>q> 
and unqualified enmity. \\ tint the only hope for the workers in the 

indu \malgamated Clothing Workers of AHUM 

In its injunction application the firm repeated ad nauseum the story 
that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America refused to permit its 
employes to carry out the contract between it and its "union." It finally 
asked that we be enjoined not only from refusing permission to men 
of the firm's "union" to carry out that "union's" contract, but also from ask- 
ing them to leave the firm's "union" and become members of our organiza- 

At this juncture it may be well to quote a very significant passage from 
the report of the Master to whom the court referred the case for examination. 
It was as follows: 


The firm's pitiful prayer for an injunction only served to show the plight 
it was in. But instead of the very sweeping injunction that it had asked for 
it received one so utterly useless that it could find in it not the least consola- 

The injunction as granted to the firm by Justice Morton of the Superior 
Court was as follows: 

"They arc enjoined and restrained from preventing or attempting to prevent per- 
ons now or hereafter in the employ of Leopold Morse Company who are or 
hereafter be under contract as members of the United Garment Workers of America 
from working or continuing in the employ of the Leopold Morse Company by picket- 
ing in and around any of these shops of the Leopold Morse Company, or preventing or 
attempting to prevent by the use of violence, force, coercion, intimidation, threats or 
persuasion, such persons now or hereafter in the employ of the Leopold Morse 
Company from being employed or continuing in that employment." 

Our attorney in Boston, George E. Roewer, Jr., made the following com- 
ment in a letter to us informing us of the injunction : 

"This did not satisfy counsel for Leopold Morse for the reason that they wanted 
to prevent us from accepting members of the United Garment Workers into our 
organization and to compel us to relinquish all of those who have deserted the 
United Garment Workers and joined our organization since the beginning of the 
general strike in Boston. 

"The injunction simply prevents us from inducing by picketing or by the use 
of violence people now or hereafter working for the Leopold Morse Company who 
arc under contract "as members of the United Garment Workers of 
Since there arc very few now working in the shops of Leopold Morse Company who 
are under contract, and since this injunction does not apply to those who have 
already left the shops of the Leopold Morse Company, and who are not now under 
contract with them, it is apparent that the injunction is of no practical value to the 
Leopold Morse Company. 

"In other words we are not permitted to induce persons who are now under 
contract to work for Leopold Morse, all other persons we can induce by picketing to 
join our organization "-kirip for the Leopold Morse Company. 

"The injunction which the Leopold Morse Company desired contained eleven 
hundred words. They started proceedings on May 24th and expected to obtain an 
injunction immediately, but they received no assistance from the Courts until June 



and at thr injum lion will not affect the itrike one way or the other I have no 

On June 24, some time ar n the entire industry had beeo 

settled and the workers were all back at work, the firm was still struggling to 
uployees back. Though the injunction did not materialize in the 
swe? i 'i\ desired t company still tried its hand in utilizing the 

injunction as it was in order to intimidate its striking employees into 
ling back to work and, incidentally, deliver a blow to our organization. 
firm on above date instituted contempt proceedings against 
our local tl officers and other active members, charging them 

.; the injunction. In September, 1916, all those cases were dis- 

th the help of the official "labor leaders" the firm again succeeded in 

breaking the resistance of its workers to slavery and oppression. The workers 

remember well all the crimes committed against them by the firm's "union" 

and they will also remember them when the Day of Judgment will come for 

Judas Iscariots. 

Boston does not seem to have a favorable atmosphere for injunction 
culture. That has, at any rate, been our experience. Bad as the Leopold 
.my fared the story of another firm's injunction venture is still 

On January 2, 1917, the Barren Anderson Company wished to begin the 
New Year with a clean slate and therefore filed a petition for an injunction 
against us as the simplest and most direct means of winding up the strike 
that was then being conducted against it. The Judge thought that arbitra- 
tion might be a better way of doing it and suggested it to both parties. We 
accepted the suggestion immediately and the firm took it under considera- 
tion. On January 26, after the firm had uselessly waited for signs of 
weakening in the strike, it decided to accept the Judge's view and settled the 
strike by arbitration. 

Steady Progress in Boston 

In October, 1916, the custom tailors in Boston struck for the 48 hour 

week and got it; also a ten per cent increase in iges. Since then the 

48 hour week has been made general for the clothing industry in that city. 

Boston distinction of having the first overall workers locaJ under 

JUT bam. t is local union 150. In November, 1916, that local h. 

-trike and succeeded in making the following gains: Recognition of 
the union, reduction of the working week to 50 hours from anywhere between 
54 and 60 and increases in wages. The local had another strike in November. 
the 48 hour week and a ten per cent increase in wages. Shortly 
before this convention they secured a further ten per cent increase without a 

A general wage increase of 10 to 13 per cent was won by negotiation 
from the Clothing Manufacturers' Association of Boston, May 31, 1917. On 
September 20, 1917, the agreement with the association was renewed, making 



the 48 hour week definite and general. The agreement will continue in force 
until May, 1919. 

During the past two years Boston has given a good account of itself and 
we are confident that it will continue doing so. 



\\> rann.-t pass Boston without paying our respects to the robust and 
lively organization in Worcester, Mass., which is. for our organization pur- 
poses, in a sense a part of Greater Boston. The pantsmakers in that city, 
the only clothing branch there, are well organized and doing splendid work 
in promoting and protecting their conditions. By a strike in July, 1916, 
it increased wages and reduced the working hours from 60 to 55. That was 
for Worcester an unprecedented victory. But progress was made so rapidly 
that in September. 1917, the 50 h"ir \\.-(k was established through a g< 
strike of one week, securing also wage increases. Our Boston organi/ 
has frequently assisted its Worcester sister local. We are particularly 
grateful to Brother Lazarus Marcovitz, secretay of the Joint Board of Bos- 
ton, who is always ready to represent us in Worcester whenever our assis- 
tance is equired. 

In this connection we may point out that the small towns and country 
places outside of and away from the larger clothing centers have progress in 
the future. We can point with pride to such places as Vineland, also 
Passaic, N. J., where the workers are under the jurisdiction of the Children's 
Clothing Joint Board of New York, Woodbine, and Norma, N. J. We have 
good organizations in those towns, alive and active. We have also made 
progress in Norwich, Conn. The workers in all those places had always 
been used as strikebreakers, particularly against New York and Philadelphia. 
Sometimes the workers were unconscious of what they were doing against 
their fellow workers. It is different now. Not only do the workers refuse 
to act as strikebreakers because of their better understanding and of their 
sense of solidarity but they are also steadily improving their own conditions. 


Chicago had a most sensational year in 1915, when its general strike 
was the headliner in the clothing industry for three long months. A com- 
plete report of that memorable struggle was made to our 1916 convention. 
Over two thousand arrests were made. A number of those cases were still 
pending at the time of our last convention. They included charges of murder 
and conspiracy. They have all been dismissed since. The fact that there 
was not a single conviction on all of those most serious charges shows to 
what lengths our enemies went in their desperate efforts to prejudice the 
public mind against us and destroy our organization. 

While our Second Convention was in session in Rochester we received 
the report of a cutter strike in Chicago. We did not wish another 



big fight in that city so soon after the battle of 1915. But the As 

members precipitated the strike among the cutters by discharging all those 
of whom the firms lean II organization, who included 

in their number such as had failed to go out with us in the big strike of 
1915. We considt rol it .,m lut> to stand by the striking workers in spite of 
the past errors of a number of them, and our org.i :s fullest 

support to the strikers in their demand for the reinstatement of their dis- 
charged brothers. All cutters and trimmers walked out and fought bravely 
for v k But conditions were not such as to make a favorable 

outcome possible tight was a credit to the cutters even if the desired 

rcsv; d. 

On May 12, 1916, three days after the strike had begun, Judge Frederick 
:nith, of the Circuit Court of Cook County, issued the most sweeping 
injunction ever granted by a court to employers against their striking em- 
ployees. The court enjoined our organization and the strikers from doing 
-.ruing to work on tin* employers' conditions. The fact 
that the strikers held out for seven long weeks in the face of that injunction, 
besides other serious obstacles, is proof of the bitterness that had accumulated 
r breasts of the workers during the years of unmitigated slavery under 
the barbaric despotism of the industrial tyrants who still rule with the iron 
rod of the blacklist. 

The peculiar spirit of justice and conception of equality before the law 

ich the injunction was issued against us may be seen from the fact 

that while no hearing at all was granted us before issuing the temporary 

order the hearing for making the injunction permanent was set for the end of 

Ive weeks after the date of the temporary injunction. That was 

justice with a vengeance! 

We herewith reproduce the injunction in full: 


In the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois. 
B. 20601 

& Company, a corporation; Rosen wald and Weil, a corporation; 
'pold, Solomon & Eisendrath. a corporation; Hirsch. Wickwire Co., a corpora- 
tion; Schoenberg Bros., a corporation; Ederheimer Stein Company, a corpora- 
tion; Kuhn, Nathan & Fischer Co . a corporation; Chas Kaufman and Aaron K 
man. partners, doing business as Chas. Kaufman & Bros.; Alfred Decker. Abe Cohn 
and A. G. Peine, partners, doing business as Alfred Decker & Cohn; Joseph 
Mayer, Edward Mayer and Milton Mayer, partners, doing business as Mayer 
Bros.; Solomon L. Abt, Herman Abt and Jacob Abt. partners, doing business 
as L. Abt & Sons, 

Complain aatft, 


Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, a voluntary association, herer 

referred to as the union; Sidney Hillman, individually and as president of said 
union; Samuel Levin, individually and as manager of the Chicago joint board of 
said union; Frank Rosenblun .ally and as member of the general execu- 

- board of the said union; Sam Rissman, individually and as president of Local 
61 of said union; A. P. Marimpietri, individually and as member of the general 
executive board of said union; Stephen Skala, individually and as organizer of 
said union: Hyman Schneid. individually and as organizer of said union: Jacob 
Pot of sky. individually and as treasurer of the joint board of said union; Sam 
nry Friedman: S. Rubin; I \k; B. Kleisner: E. Sestak; O. B. 

Rohden; Jos. Gregor; G. Lagerholm; W. Kobleski; George Carroll; Harry Wicks; 


Joe Abrams; Arnold Abel; Frank Niematz; Harry Goldberg; Frank Hanus; Joe 

Tomanck; E. Ulmcr; Robert Kucera; William Runge; Jack Nussbaum; Sam 

Singer; Sam Goldberg; individually and as members and representatives of said 

union and the local branches thereof, 


To Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, a voluntary association, herein- 
after referred to as the union; Sidney Hillman, individually and as president of said 
union; Samuel Levin, individually and as manager of the Chicago Joint Board of said 
Union; Frank Koscnblum, individually and as member of general executive board 
of the said union; Sam Rissman, individually and as president of Local No. 61 of 
said union; A. D. Marimpietri, individually and as member of the general executive 
board of said union; Stephen Skala, individually and as organizer of said union; 
Jacob Potofsky, individually and as treasurer of the joint board of said union; Sol 
Barnctt; Henry Friedman; S. Rubin; L. Kanak; B. Klcisncr; E. Scstak O. B. Rohden; 
Jos. Gregor; G. Lagerholm; W. Koblcski; George Carroll; ; Joe Al> 

Arnold Abel; Frank N Harry Goldberg BUS; .lor 

Ulnier; Robert Kucera; William Runge; Jack Nussbaum; Sam Singer; Sam Goldberg, 
individually and as members and representatives of said union and the local branches 
thereof, defendants, and to all associations, firms and persons, assisting, aiding, 
confederating or conspiring with them, or HAVING KNOWLEDGE HEREOF, and 
to each and every one of them, GREETING: 

\Y HERE AS. it hath been represented to the Honorable Judges of the Circuit 
Court of Cook County in the State aforesaid, on the part of B. Kuppenheimer & 
Company, a corporation; Rosenwald and Weil, a corporation; Leopold Solomon & 
Eisendrath, a corporation; Hirsh, Wickwirc Co., a corporation; Schocnberg Bros, 
a corporation; Ederheimer, Stein Company, a corporation; Kuhn, Nathan & Fischer 
Co., a corporation; Chas. Kaufman and Aaron Kaufman, partners, doing business 
as Chas. Kaufman & Bros.; Alfred Decker, Abe Cohn & A. G. Peine, partners, 
doing business as Alfred Decker & Cohn; Joseph Mayer, Edward Mayer and Milton 
Mayer, partners, doin^ cr Bros.; Solomon L. Abt, Herman II. Al>i, 

and Jacob H. Abt, partners, doing business as L. Abt & Sons, complainants, in their 
certain bill of complaint, exhibited before said Judges, and filed in said court against 
you, the said above named defendants, among other things, that you are combining 
and confederating with others to injure the complainant, touching the matter set 
forth in said bill, and that your actings and doings in the premises arc contrary to 
equity and good conscience. And Honorable Frederick A. Smith, one of said judges, 
having entered an order that a Writ of Injunction issue out of said Court, according 
to the prayer of said bill. We, therefore, in consideration thereof, and of the par- 
ticular matters in said bill set forth, DO STRICTLY COMMAND YOU, the said 
above named defendants, and the persons before mentioned, and each and every one 
of you, that you do absolutely DESIST AND REFRAIN: 

From in any manner interfering with, hindering, obstructing or stopping the 
business of the complainants, respectively, or of their respective agents, servants 
or employees in the operation of the business of the complainants, respectively; 

From picketing or maintaining any picket or pickets at or near the promises 
of the complainants, respectively, or along the routes followed by the employees 
of the complainants, respectively, in going to and from their homes and to and from 
the place of business of the complainants, respectively; 

From watching or spying upon the complainants' places of business, and upon the 
employees of the complainants, resp- and from watching or spying upon those 

who enter or leave said places of business, or who seek to enter the employment 
of the complainants, respectively, or who seek to do business with the complainants, 

From assaulting or intimidating by threats or otherwise the employees of the 
complainants, respectively, or any persons who may become or seek to become 
employees of tl*c - nts, rcsj 

From congregating about, or near the places of business of the complainants, 
respectively, or ?.ny place where the employees of the complainants, respectively, 
are lodged or boarded, for the purpose of compelling, inducing or soliciting the 
employees of the complainants, respectively, to leave their employment or to refuse 
to work for the complainants, respectively, or for the purpose of preventing, or 
attempting to prevent, persons from freely entering into the employment of the 
complainants, respectively; 

From entering upon the grounds or places where the employees of the com- 
plainants, respectively, are at work for the purpose, or with the effect, of hindering, 
interfering with or obstructing the business of such employees or of the complainants, 



From interfering with, or attempting to hinder the complainants, respectively, 
in ca >n their respect way; 

From following the employee! of the complainants, res, to their ho: 

or to <>r from calling upon such employees for the purpose, or with the 

effect, of inducinK them to lei\ complainant*, respec. 

or for the purpose, or with the effect of : jch employees or 

their families; 

or promise of money, employment or other reward*. 

Fr< ting or maintaining any boycott or boycotts against the complainant*. 

From compelling or inducing, or attempting to compel or induce, any of the 
employees of t .man is. r >se or to fail to do their .. 

m sending any circulars or other communications to customers of the com- 
<>r to other persons who might deal or transact business with 

the complainants, respectively, for the purpose, or with the effect of dissuading such 
us from so d< 

h subjects any of the complainants' employees to ha 1 
sgrace or annoyance because of their employment t 

complainants. resp<- util this Honorable Court in Chancery sitting, shall make 

order to the contrary. Hereof fail not, under penalty of what the law directs. 
To the Sheriff of said County to execute and return in due form of law. 

(Seal) ness, JOHN W. RA : Oerk of the said Court and 

the Seal thereof, at Chicago, aforesaid, this 12th day of May. 
A. D. 1916. 


Solicitors for Complainants. 

lie who will succeed in improving on this injunction as an instrument 
for c earned immoi 

The big strike of 1915 broke the ground so completely that nothing can 
close it again to pr< seeds of our propaganda, provided 

the ( : t up steadily. Chicago now needs patient, con- 

tinuous and nt constructive work. This work is now being done. 

It has al <d results. The prospects are good for more effective 

work and more encouraging results in the future. 

Inroads have been made into m he industry. Thus the 

bushclmsn in the department stores on State street and the Northwest Side 
have been organized, their considerably reduced and their 

wages raised. Agreements have been made with the Associated Whole- 
Tailors, emploving about 1500 workers and with others of the smaller 

In 1 n New York made the 48 hour 

rd wuj) ic indu>- asked for the same 

standard in the factories t Schaffncr & Marx. The provisions of our 

agreement of May 1, 1916. make such a change possible during the life of 

the agreement. In those factories and in others the 48 hour week was estab- 

'1 by our direct jurisdiction; in the non-union houses it was introduced 

by our indirect juri i e. the fear of the employers that refusal to 

-"voluntarily," of course would add strength to the Union. The 

of the v. continr the injunction and blacklist em- 

In May. 1917. we asked for a wage increase for the employees of Hart 



Schaffner & Marx. The Board of Arbitration granted a ten per cent increase, 
rendering the following interesting opinion : 

An application is made to the Board of Arbitration of the Hart Schaffner & 

agreement for a readjustment of the wage scale adopted for the three year 

period succeeding May 1, 1916. The application is made by the workers, and is based 

on the clause of the agreement entitled "Emergency Powers," which is as follows: 

"If there shall be a general change in wages or hours in the clothing industry, 

which shall be sufficiently permanent to warrant the belief that the change is no't 

temporary, then the board shall have power to determine whether such change is of 

so extraordinary a nature as to justify a consideration of the question of making a 

change in the present agreement, and, if so, then the Board shall have power to make 

such changes in wages or hours as in its judgment shall be proper." 

The claims of the workers were explained to the Board by Mr. Sidney Hillman, 
international president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. He stated 
that the application was made primarily because of the enormously increased cost of 
living which had so diminished the pu power of money that it 

tually equivalent to a reduction in wages. He stated also that in response to this 
condition wages had been generally advanced in the clothing industry, that so far as 
human foresight could perceive the condition was a permanent one, and that the extra- 
ordinary situation which existed fully met the requirements of the provision of the 
agreement under which application for a readjustment of wages was brought. He 
made no specific demand, nor did he expect a full equivalent for the losses sustained 
by the workers by reason of war prices and conditions, but he maintained that a 
measure of relief should be granted, and that the workers should not be required 
to bear all the burden of a common calamity. 

The company, through its representatives, acknowledged the claim of increased 
cost of living but called attention to the fact that since 1915 the average earnings of 
the people had increased from thirty to thirty-five per cent., due to the fuller employ- 
ment brought about by a larger volume of business. 

More important, however, was the fact that the goods in the process of manu- 
facture for the fall season were already sold at prices that were agreed on before the 
present claim was made, and this fact should be taken into consideration by the 
arbitrators in adjudicating the case. 

The Board of Arbitration approaches the decision of the question submitted to 
it with a deep sense of responsibility. The cause of our common distress is a national 
calamity which it is not in the power of the Board to remove or ameliorate. All 
that it has power to do is to readjust the burden so that it may not fall too heavily 
on the weaker party. 

It admits the truth of the claim that any advance granted in midseason must 
come out of the company, and it recognizes the fact that ordinarily, increased wages 
should be added to the cost of the goods, and passed on to the consumer. But this 
is an extraordinary occasion. The workers have already suffered heavily in the 
diminished purchasing power of their wages, and throughout the clothing and other 
industries wage increases have been made in response to the war prices which afflict 
the country. The Board believes that, on reflection, the company can hardly expect 
to pass through the present war crisis and not share a part of the loss which falls 
so heavily on its workers, and, indeed, on all members of the community. It accord- 
ingly decides that the company shall pive its workers a general advance of ten per 
cent to be paid in the following manner: 

All workers under the jurisdiction of this Board, except the cutters, shall receive 
a horizontal advance in wages of ten per cent, to take effect July 1, 1917. 

The cutters shall receive an equivalent of ten per cent converted into a uniform 
flat weekly increase, which is agreed to be $2.35 per week for each cutter, whether 
temporary or permanent, and also apprentices. In view of the fact that other depart- 
ments have received more direct advances of wages than the cutters, it is decided 
that the cutters' increase shall go into effect on June 1, 1917. 

It is decided that these increases shall be recorded separately by the company; 
that it shall take the place of the increase of pay asked for on behalf of the week 
workers in the tailor shops: and in the event of any other rbim being made under the 
emergency clause of the agreement, that such claims must be made in advance 
of sales for the affected season being made by the company in order to be entitled 
to recognition by the Board of Arbitration. 

In the case of week-workers, the increase shall be calculated from the pay roll 
of the last week in May, 1917. 

June 2. 1917. 



With the spectre of the union always before them the Association houses 
vise announced a ten per cent increase to their employees, hoping in that 
way to continue k< out from the organization. 

When negotiations uith the firm of Hart Schaffner & Marx for a wage 
increase were taken up thi-, *pring the Association houses thought they would 
a march on us by announcing t notary" wage increase before the 

union had an op port he increase to the employees of Hart 

Schaffner & Marx. They considered that particularly good policy this time 
because . c organization campaign that has developed of late. Accord- 

ingly they announced a ten per crease. But those increases are mis- 

leading. In the first place, they are not given as increases but as bonuses. 
As such they may b .iwn at any time. In the second place, while the 

>yers speak of ten per cent, those so-called increases actually amount to 
abount seven per cent. The increases or bonuses arc computed not upon the 
basis of the wages as paid at the time the increase is granted but of wages as 
they existed before the series of fraudulent increases began. On the other 
hand, the increases secured by us are bona fide as they arc not bonuses and 
become incorporated into the wage scale. In the case of the Association the 
wage scale at best rcmai .nary in spite of all M-S" ; in our case 

every increase permanently raises the wage scale. 

.liter the Association employers announced their fake ten per cent. 
wage c we reached an agreement with the firm of Hart Schaffner & 

Marx for a ten and fifteen per cent, increase as is shown by the following 
report we received from the Chicago organization : 

For the second time during the life of the present agreement between Hart 
Schaffner & Marx and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, it b*c 
necessary to demand an i; :i wages due to the high cost of living, 

CM the present agreement was signed in May, 1916, a 10 per cent, increase 
secured and distributed by the Union to the many sections, giving higher r 
the lower paid sections. In the fall of 1916, a 2 per cent, increase was added to the 
workers on account of reducing the hours from 49 to 48 per week. In May. 
1917, an additional 10 per cent, increase .red through the Arbitration Board 

and was applied horizontally throughout the shops. 

Some time ago it became evident that another increase was essential in order to 

keep up, somehow, with the constantly rising cost of commodities. Accordingly, a 

demand for a wage increase was made. The Joint Board found it advisable to call our 

.t! President. Brother Sidney Hillman. to Chicago, and to conduct the negotia- 

Ilr arrived in Chicago on Monday, April 22. and immediately proceeded to make 

arrangements that resulted in a conference called * F William*, the Chairman 

of the Board of Arbitration, at which the representatives of the Amalgamated and 

the firm \sr:<- j-n-vrut V ms presided. 

In justice to t? - "f the company, it must be said that from the 

the necessity of giving an increase to keep, as they stated. 

contented and happy and each of the high prices. This * - ,. 

the c.i Mons \\< T limited to a discussion of how much the firm could gire 

.p with its competitors; how little could the workers accept under the 

circumstances; and how could the increase be applied to be of equal benefit to all 

workers' After a long bt; nendly discussion the following agreement was 



A conference of the chairman of the Board of Arbitration with repre* 
tives of Hart Schaffner & Marx and the Amalgamated Clothing \ of 

America reports an addition to wages in the form of a payment to be made 
during the life of the present agreement, in addition to the increase granted in 
June and July, 1917. 

KK5: All cutters, ipp- temporary and regular, on the pay roll 



on May 2, 1918, shall be granted an additional increase at the rate of $3 per 
48-hour week, beginning ' '18. 

TRIMMING ROOM: All employes of the trimming room on the trimmers' 
pay roll on May 2, 1918, shall be granted an additional increase at the rate of $3 
per 48-hour week, beginning May 2, 1918. 

TAILOR SHOPS: All week workers in the tailor shops on May 2, 1918, 
whose work is directly productive, not including foremen, section heads, exam- 
iners or attendants, shall receive an increase at the rate of $3 per 48-hour week, 
beginning on the first day of the pay roll week after May 1. Persons who arc 
working at piece rate operations on a minimum weekly guarantee shall be 
considered as piece workers. 

INCREASE IN WAGES: All piece workers in the coat, vr-t ami trousers 
factories beginning on the first day of the pay roll week after May 1, 1918. shall 
be paid ?.n additional percentage on t! earnings, including the ten 

per cer- of 1917, as folio 

A list of section 1 by the sub-committee, which includes all 

'ly lower earning* during the past, shall 
v be granted an additional payment of fifteen per 

Sections not in --hided in the above list shall be granted an additional 
payment of ten per cent. 

Thr njrrr received and approved by the Joint Board and 

it will a great stimulus in t!ie r>- .;n of on 

on in this city. The Amalgamated in this < again, true to its p f 

equality, thought of the lower paid workers, as it can be seen that a much larger 
increase was given to those sections earning less, thus gradually raising them to a 
level of equality with the higher paid workers. 

The above increases were announced at a very successful May Day cele- 
bration of the Chicago Joint Board at Guyon's Paradise. 


Toronto is next to Montreal as a clothing center in the Dominion of 
Canada. The experiences of the Toronto Clothing Workers with organization 
matters in previous years were in line with those of all other clothing cen- 
ters. When we entered the field we found the workers discouraged and hope- 
less. After the usual hardships of pioneering we succeeded in arousing a 
strong sentiment for organization. The situation developed steadily until the 
organization was ready for action to secure improvements in the working 
conditions of its members. Immediately after the conclusion of the Mont- 
real strike, in March, 1917, the Toronto Joint Board sent a set of demands 
to the employers. On March 22, 1917, the demands were granted as follows: 
A 44-hour week, reduced from 49, and a wage increase of one dollar a week. 
A compromise was made in the wage increase, the demand having been for 

In Toronto as elsewhere our members considered a bigger reduction 
in the working hours as of relatively greater importance than a larger in- 
crease in wages. 

As already mentioned above Toronto holds the palm for the shortest 
working week. It is the first, and so far the only city in the clothing 
industry in North America to have a real eight-hour day, a forty-four hour 
week. Nor was a big fight necessary to get it. 

In Toronto, the same as in other clothing cities, all local unions are 
welded together by a Joint Board, which is the central body in the city. The 
Joint Board is always active, dealing with organization and individual prob- 



lems as they present themselves and the members appreciate the benefits 


Canada, which i* near Toronto, was also brought within 
our folds. There we succeeded in establishing the 48-hour week and secur- 
ing wage increases. Conditions were not as favorable there as they we- 
Ton- establishment of the 44-hour week. 

In July, I'M 6 1 1 of Davis Bros., locked out its employees. The 


Dundas. a small -i. with om- clothing factory, was 

organized by tlu H.ii:iilt n local and made a branch of it 


The clothing vorkcrs in St. Louis have had more than their full share 

:aitors. A number of years 

ago the rank and isrulc and corruption. In its efforts 

to destroy oppov 1 stifle criticism the ruling clique revoked charters 

of locals and blacklisted members. An agreement was forced on the workers 
of one firm which meant slavery and oppression to them. 

The ma! m the destinies of the three thousand workers in the 

industry had been entrusted, fought bitterly, as head of the Knights of 
Labor in that cit >rescntativcs came some twenty-three years ago 

to dt- ( K. of L. locals of the clothing workers by forming rival organi- 

zaion ncceeded the "vanquished" assimilated himself with the 

"conquerors" so well that you cann- < 11 mr fnm the other. 

The spirit of the St. Louis clothing workers seemed so low as a result 
of all they had gone through that we were greatly surprised when we received 
from them a charter application in May, 1916, shortly after our last conven- 

The workers who formed the Amalgamated local were no members of 
the United Garment Workers and were employed by the firm of Loth and 

The U. G. W., who were quite willing to let the workers stay unor- 
ganized, were touched to the quit jealized that the workers 
joined our organ ikebreaking crew quickly succeeded in con- 
:ie firm that it will l>e to its advantage to force its employees into the 
"Union" they did not wish to join. Accordingly, the firm suddenly dis- 
covered that it entertained a special ;>ffectin for "organized labor" and 
workers to withdraw from our organization and join the firm's 
"urn The first man who refused was promptly discharged. That was 
June 29, 1916. The other workers met and decided to defend their right to 

ig to their own union. On June 30, the entire force, nearly three hundred 
in number, half of them worm: : out on strike demanding the rein- 

statement of their fellow worker and the right to be organized. 

The scab agency relieved the firm of the task of fighting the strikers; 
it took over that noble mission itself. All efforts of the scab agency to fill 



the shop with scabs having failed f<>r more than a month the agency decided 

to be good to the strikers and give them an opportunity to make good the 

bargain struck between the agency and the firm. On July 5, they sent 

warning to the strikers that unless they returned to work by July 12th, 

their places would be filled with other workers. Note, it was not thr struck 

firm that sent that warning, nor was it the firm that did many of the other 

criminal things against the workers; n<>. it was not the firm, it was the firm's 

"union." The workers, in self-r< lid not reply to the scab ai^-ncy's 

rung, and continued the strike long after the 12th of July. 

Threats having failed the firm's "union" changed its tactics. It opened 

!la warfare against the striker ng them up at every occasion, 

treating, in that men and women on a basis of equality. The fol- 

S quotation from one of the r by us will serve as an 


'This was an awful day. The U. G. W. of A gangsters, about 40 in number, 
lugged our pickets at every opportunity, with the police winking. Total arrests for 
the day, eight. The picketing is done by girls only now." 

Please remember again that that was done not by the firm but by its 

Not only were the strikers beaten up by the scab agency's sluggers 
but they were also persecuted by the politicians, with whom the scab agency 
has exercised considerable influence. Throughout the strike large numbers 
of strikers were arrested, big fines were paid and several of our members 
were sent to jail, where they were compelled to spend some time before we 
succeeded in liberating them. 

Some local politicians who are posing as socialists, one of whom is the 
editor of a local labor paper, assisted the strikebreaking agency against the 

The wonder is not that the strike was lost. The wonder is that the young 
local organization, just formed, displayed such wonderful fighting spirit 
and vitality as to hold out about three months against such terrible odds. 

We now have a good nucleus in St. Louis and are confident that sooner 
or later St. Louis, too, will be a well organized clothing center. 


Few of our members knew that Louisville, Ky., had any sort of cloth- 
ing industry worth speaking of. We had never heard of a clothing workers 
organization or a strike in that city. In our minds Kentucky had been so 
much associated with romance and folksong that it would have seemed almost 
a sacrilege to think of the "Old Kentucky Home" as housing an industry 
that was built on sweat shopism as its cornerstone, and of "Kentucky Eyes" 
as those of a garment maker stitching her life away for $3.50 a week. 

We know better now. 

Somehow the romanticism and poetry of Old Kentucky have failed 
to afford the workers any protection from overwork, underpayment and other 



When the rising cost of living began to press too forcibly on ihe 
waist line, and new holes had to be pierced in the belt, the workers, though 
unorganized, made demands for higher wages, and receiving no satisfaction 
were compc .ike action. The employees of the largest firm in the 

-rmulatc demands. They asked 

for a wages. When that was refused they all 

t out or. . 250 strong. 

Some . ! the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

i tea, and sent us a request for help. We directed Bro. Samuel Levin of 

go to i vi lie and make an investigation. He found a 

mostly women, who were ready to organize 

and stay organized. Bro Frank Roscnblum was then placed in charge of the 

1 "ii the ground until the end of the year when the 

It was found that th^ ample room for improvement in the working 

cond 'ding houses in the city. As soon as a local union was 

fon task of securing improvements was undertake 

The is mailed to all clothing manufacturing firms, 

including th . rn : 

Louiiville. Ky . July 20. 1917. 

4 copy of the demand* formulated and adopted by tne 
Clot! of I .GUI- Meeting held Thursday evening. July 19. 

". your employees participated. 

The undersigned was instructed to foruurd the demands to the Clothing Manu- 
facturers of 1 - .< st for a conference. 

It s t) <>rkers and their officers to maintain peace with 

honor . Industry in tin* city, and. with that object in view, we re- 

spectfully ask that you give tier your careful consideration and prompt atten- 

tion, and meet us in conference for the purpose of adjusting any and all questions 


Trusting this will meet with your approval, and that you will favor us with an 
early reply on or before Tuesday. July 24 I am 

pectfully yours, 

Member General Executive Board. 
Amalgamated Clothing \Vor, 
of America. 


AT ! A. HALL. 

1 48 hours shall constitute a week's work. 

2. Time and one-half shall be paid for overtime. 

3. A general increase in wages of IS per cent. 

num wage of $8.00 per week for women apprentice*. 

5. Minimum wage of $1600 per week for men. 

6. There shall be no discharge without just cause. 

7. Sanitary condition* to be established, with emergency rest rooms in shops. 

8. of all tines and blacklists. 

9. Recognition of Union. 

10. The following legal holiday* to be observed, with pay: New Year's Day; 
Decoration Day, Fourth of July. Labor Day. Thanksgiving Day and Christmas, 

11 That an Arbitration Board be established to adjust all future grievances 
where both parties cannot agr - 

The employers did not As the strike continued it extended in 

scope until it included the following houses in addition to Shymanski & Sons: 



Moses Rothschild & Co., Falls City Clothing Company and M. Cohen & 
Sons. The aggregate number of strikers was nearly six hundred. 

We cannot speak too highly of the courage and loyalty of the strikers. 
particularly since that was their first experience in organization and strike. 

The Socialist Party of Louisville generously placed its large Karl Marx 
Hall at the disposal of the strikers as their headquarters, where the striker^ 
met, sang and danced when not on picket duty. The Socialist Party also 
furnished speakers to encourage the strikers and educate them. 

We also received the liberal support of the United Trades and Labor 
Assembly, the central trade union body in Louisville. 

The strikers participated in the Labor Day parade of the United Trades 
and Labor Assembly and made a most favorable showing. 

The strikers enlivened the city by their wide awakeness and aroused gen- 
eral interest. Thus they were on several occasions the official guests of 
various organizations in the c 

The United Trades and Labor Assembly and a number of individuals 
made efforts to bring about a settlement, but the employers were so obdur- 
ate that no progress could be made. It was evident that the clohing manu- 
facturers, never having seen any labor organization in their industry before, 
were determined to prevent it from gaining a foothold. But the workers 
were no less determined to uphold their organization. The wholehearted 
support they received from us has so encouraged the strikers that they would 
not under any circumstances go back to the old conditions. They saw the 
light of working class unionism and were inspired by it. 

In October they had the joy of achieving the first victory. The firm of 
M. Cohen & Sons made a settlement with the new local union, granting the 
48 hour week, one dollar increase in wages, and other concessions. The 
fruits of victory are always sweet, but the fruits of the first victory have a 
particular relish, the invigorating effect of which lasts very long. The reali- 
zation of the fact that they, the newly organized workers, cannot only fight 
but also win, gave birth to a new spirit of self reliance. And though the 
strike had already become drawn out and protracted, the struggle becoming 
more difficult as the days, the weeks and the months passed, the backbone 
of the strike was stiffened by that first victory. 

The employers, as usual, made desperate efforts to break the strike. They 
tried to get work made in other cities and partly succeeded. In Cleve- 
land they were blocked by our Cleveland local union. They imported scabs 
from other cities. In this they were particularly unfortunate. When the 
"scabs" arrived in Louisville they proved to be active members of our Chi- 
cago organization, whom the firms gave an opportunity to visit their fac- 
tories and report the exact conditions to the strikers. 

The strikers made their acquaintance with the "chivalry" of the police 
and found out where the courts stood as between employers and strikers. 

The brutal conduct of the police compelled our local union to send the 



lett r to l.lwari : nc, chairman of the Board of Public 

July 9, of this year, ftftcr our demand for an increase in wage* to meet the 
increased con .. had been by our emplovm. we declared a strike. Our 

strike ha* . orderly aud lawful manner although we 

have been opprcs- officers and private watchman. 

to coin; .our board concerning the 

outrageous conduct of several members of the Louisville police force who have been 
static Snead Building at Ninth and Market Streets. 1 

man ' tmerous occasions cursed and abused us in an outrageous 

manner and has even gone so far as to take hold of bodily and maliciously and 
violently to \>- rk us about and to shove us from the sidewalk into the street 

.Is us "streetwalkers" and his manner is alwavs malicious and 

Sergeant Lee has cursed and abused us unmercifully and his attitude and man- 
ner ' ug. 

A patrolman bearing badge No. 180, has cursed and abused us and threatened 
us wi: tor no cause. This officer when told by a young lady that she had done 

no wrong and had violated no law informed her that his word would go further than 
her word. He made a statement that "we make the law as we go along." 

:ig this ll have conducted ourselves in a lawful, quiet and dignified 

man n c officers no cause for the abuse heaped upon us, and we. 

ore, request that your board make an investigation of these charges and further 
ask that we be protected in our legal rights. 

On last Tuesday, October 24, our books and records were stolen from our head- 
quarters in Karl Marx Hall; the theft was immediately reported to the authorities, 
but no steps have been taken to recover the stolen propc. 

Trusting you will use your authority to protect us Irom the insults and abuses 
<>fore suffered at the hands of the police and that you will cause the 
icnt to make an effort to locate our stole* records and to bring to 
e the parties of this theft, we beg to remain, etc. 

(Signed) ELNORA SAUER. Secretary." 

j may be seen from the above letter the union's headquarters v. 

burglarized and ransacked. Books and records were stolen. There can be no 

ke as to the p;: cd in stealing them. But that theft servexl 

no useful purpose. There was nothing in the records to embarrass the 

organization. Nor could their absence hamper the organization's work, as a 

catc set of records was kept at another place in order to meet just such 
an emergetu 

On December 12, a settlement was effected with Shvmanski & Sons. 
All the strikers returned to v.. rk with one dollar a week increase in their 
wages, pay for legal holidays, time and one-half for overtime, and provisions 
for jcducing the working time. More wage increases have been secured 
since. The fonr cck has by this time been reduced to fifty- 

:h an understanding for an ultimate forty-eight hour week. The 
forty-eight hour week is in force at M. Cohen & Sons. 

The as improved conditions in that factory to such an extent that 

although the settlement was not formally made with the organization the 
workers realize that their bet conditions of today are due entirely 

to their united power, and they jealously guard that power. 

ve a very good, lively and thriving local union in Louisville 
to the pride and benefit of the local membership and to the joy of the general 



We had no organization in Cleveland, and no connection of any sort, until 
late in 1915, when the big strike was on in Chicago. One day we received 
a telegram from a friend of our organization informing us that Chicago work 
made its appearance in Cleveland shoj >-. \Ve sent P. Xuckerman into 

that city, \\hilr there he organized a local union. It grew slowly 
made steady progr->v In a few cases strikes were called and won. Agreements 
were signed with several of the smaller houses for better wages than had been 
paid before and for a shorter working week, reduced in some cases from as 
many as sixty-four hours. 

The organization activity was not kept up constantly and the local union 
in that city was considerably weakened. 

Recently, however, local activity has been revived and the ts are 

good for continued and fruitful work. 

On March 30, agreements with three firms were renewed, bringing the 
workers increased wages and introducing the forty-eight hour week, which 
was reduced from 50 and 52 hours. 


We have grown so accustomed to continued and rapid progress and to 
frequent and great victories that an occasional adverse experience seems almost 
unnatural. Yet, as a fighting organization we must be prepared at times to 
sustain a setback here and there. Milwaukee and Cincinnati happened to fall 
into that category for the time being. 

Milwaukee had a fairly good organization and conducted and won strikes. 
A strike of the 600 employees of Adler Bros., began May J. 1917, ended 
unfavorably July 11. K/IJ, and had a discouraging effect on the membership. 

In Cincinnati, too, the local organization conducted strikes and gained 
concessions for its members. But conditions were otherwise unfavorable and 
the progress made was not supported by further organization work. 

As a result both organizations failed to hold what they had achieved, 
which confirms the rule that eternal vigilance is not only the price of liberty 
but also of security. 

We shall take up anew the organization work in those two cities and 
1 ring them back into the column of the organized clothim-. centers. 


Rochester is still within the unchecked power of the Clothiers' Exchange. 

We have not made the progress we had a right to expect in that city 
since the last convention. But progress has been made nevertheless. We 
have extended the influence of the organization, raised 1! , t of the 
workers generally and aroused their faith in the Union. Satisfactory prog- 
ress has been made among the cutters, an unapproachable element in the 



past. Our Rochester organization has gained quite a number of them into 
in ranks. 

The Syracuse organization is hopeful of good progress in the near future. 

I likewise be possible to organize the clothing workers. 

Until recently two organizers were maintained for Western New York 

with headquarters in Rochester. They are not on the staff now. At the 

mg a new campaign of organization has been mapped out for 

ive confidence that more rapid progress 

\vill be madi ititure as the way has been paved for more effective and 

constructive work. 



The cost of living has been rising steadily for many years, but since 
the beginning of the European war the upward rush of prices of the neces- 
( >f life has been such as if they were consciously hastening to get 
he reach of the people^. A situation was created by both natural 
trtificial causes, mainly the latter, which became menacing to the Amer- 
kers. Repeated demands for wage increases were dictated by the 
'aw of self preservation. One of the strongest counts in the indictment 
will be its violent efforts to reduce the conditions of American 
labor at a hen the working class was being called to make its greatest 

for the country, give up its sturdiest sons, work hardest and in- 
crease still more its thriftiness, which means more self abnegation, in order 
to contribute to the Country's war chest. The interests of the Naiton and 
the ii lid not require the deterioration of the workers' con- 

s; the i < sts alone required it. Yet attempts were made 

to discourage the workers' outcry for relief by the charge of "treason" and 
"disl< i shouter of "treason" has swelled his fortune by the mis- 

fortunes of the human race. 

It is a very hopeful sign, and to the great credit of the American work- 
ingmen, that they have not permitted the "stop thief" cry of "treason" and 
"disloyalty" to intimidate them. 

The high cost of living is of all other economic issues, the burning ques- 
tion of the day for the people. In our efforts to meet it we, the working class, 
are placed at a tragic disadvantage. 

We arc informed by the beneficiaries of the present social order that 
hi^h prices are incidental to prosperity. There may be many reasons for 
igh cost of things. It may be the European war. It may be the in- 
creased output of gold. It may be the trustification of the necessaries of 
life. It may be all that and more. For the worker's lean purse the cause of 
ising prices arc immaterial. The phenomenon of rising prices is the 
all-important matter. 

When high prices become general, when instead of the high cost of 
a given product we speak of the high cost of living, what does that mean in 



the final analysis? It means that we pay more for what we buy and receive 
more for what we sell. If Mr. Retailer must pay to Mr. Wholesaler fifty 
cents for what he formerly paid twenty-five cents and he receives from Mr. 
Consumer one dollar for what he formerly received fifty cents, Mr. Retailer 
is not the loser by the change in prices. Nor is there any disturbance in the 
relations between seller and buyer. 

Our grocer, our butcher, our dairyman, pay more now for their wares 
and they charge us more for them. If \vc refuse to pay an extra cent for the 
bottle of milk, we may permit our babies to go without it. If we wish to 
feed them and keep them in good health we must pay the raised price. 
There is no extraneous compulsion either on the part of the seller or the 
:. Likewise with bread, meat, clothing and all else. The prices have 
been raised automatically. No haggling will help. We may grumble, and 
our grocer and butcher may sympathetically grumble along with us, but we 
will pay the new price. We know that we must do it if we want to have 
the things that sustain life. Our dealer's argument: "It costs me more and 
I must get more" is unanswerable. The law that determines the increase 
in prices operates with wonderful precision all along the line. 

Yes, all along the line, except at one point, where it is suspended, as it 
were. That point is where the wage earner is located. A dealer in any line of 
goods may say: "It costs me more and I must get more" and without any 
exception he will get more. But not so with the workingman. 

The worker approaches his employer and tells him that the goods he 
must buy and consume in order to reproduce his labor from day to day food, 
clothing, shelter, etc. cost him more now than they did before. In order 
that he may be able to meet the higher cost he must be paid more for the 
thing he sells, his labor power. He applies to his case the very same formula 
that all others have applied to theirs: "It costs me more and I must get 
more." But here the law that automatically raises prices stops short. There 
is no automatic price raising for labor power. The employer informs the 
man with the hat in his hand, with indifference, contempt or rage, as the 
temperament of the employer or superintendent may be, that if the wages 
paid in that factory do not suit him he is at liberty to look for another 
job. The worker must pay the higher prices asked of him for all he buys, 
including the goods at the making of which he is himself employed. He must 
Arguments are superfluous and useless. But in order to get the increase 
due him he must fight! 

A tremendous machinery must be set in motion. Large mass meetings 
are called. Prominent speakers discuss with the workers the great injustice 
done to them. Demands upon the employers are formulated. A strike is 
called. The papers denounce the strikers as disturbers of the peace, dstroy- 
ers of our prosperity. Strikebreakers, thugs, guerillas, private detectives and 
all other tools of the employers, become the saviours of society. The police 
get busy clubbing and arresting strikers; the courts get busy convicting 
them ; the prison cells open wide to receive them. Feelings run high in the 



community. Onr set condemns the employers, another set the worker! 
The latter are subjected to hunger, cold, prosecution and persecution and 
must appeal to other members of their class for help. And all that for the 
only purpose of enforcing the economic law which is being self enforced as 
between a manufacturer and his customers and as between his customers 

When the workers succeed in wresting the much needed increa* 
wages and they make merry and rejoice over their victory, what was it that 
really won? An improvement in their condition? We call it so, but 
t-ality but a check upon depredation. We assume that the workers 
have secured a ten per cent increase in their wages. It is often less and 
seldom more With the cost of living fifty or sixty per cent higher and 
wages but ten per cent the improvement is real only as compared 

with yi-sterday and the day before, but not in the long run. The deteriora- 
tion of conditions has been checked to the extent of ten per cent. 

In our days it takes but a short time and the ten per cent in wages is 
more than wiped out by a new rise in the cost of living. The best organized 
workers cannot possibly strike for higher wages as often as the prices of 
necessities of life rise. 


In the face of that who is there so cruel as not to begrudge the wage 
earner's slight increase in his pay in order to at least partly restore its former 
purchasing power! In the face of that, too, what sane man could credit 
the possibility of employers repudiating a wage increase already granted 
by them 1 

Yet that is precisely what happened in New York. 

Early in the summer of 1917 we submitted to the New York Clothing 
Manufacturers a demand for a wa^e increase. After some conferences we 
agreed on an increase of one dollar a week. The Associated Boys' Clothing 
:facturcrs agreed to put the increase into effect June 18, and the men's 
clothing manufacturers July 1. At the proper time our children's clothing 
members received the increase as agreed. Not so in the larger branch of 
the industry. Hiding themselves behind the backs of the contractors a large 
number of manufacturers attempted to rob the workers of the increase due 
them. The circumstances made it quite apparent that it was the aim of 
those responsible for the manoeuvre to discredit the officers of the Union by 
conveying the impression that the wage increase report made by the officers 
to the members was a fabrication. The organization took the matter up 
with a firm hand. The members were called to a large number of mass 
meetings, Monday, July 16, where the situation was fully discussed. The fol- 

:ig resolution was unanimously adopted at all meetings: 

The rising cost of living has forced the workers everywhere to demand of their 
employers wage increases in order to at least check in some measure the deterioration 
of their standards of life. 

For the same reason our organization was also compelled to ask for raises in 



wages, which have been granted to our members in different parts of the country, 
in some cases to the extent of ten percent and more. 

In this city a conference between our Organization and our employers resulted 
in an agreement that wages be raised one dollar a week, beginning July ist, 1917. 

We did not insist on a higher rise in wages, such as were received by our fellow 
members in other parts of the country; nor did \ on the increase going into 

effect immediately. We agreed to concessions both as to the amount and the time 
because of our anxiety to avoid an industrial conflict. 

The first of July came and passed. We are now already in the third week of 
the month, but our employers still refuse to give us what has been promised to 
order to avoid a strike. 

We feel outraged at this show of bad faith. 

We resent most emphatically the conduct of our employers in trying to snatch 
from us what is justly ours by a definite and solemn understanding between our 
organization and them. 

By the action of our employers in withholding from us the increase guaranteed 
by them, a situation has been created in \vhich not the amount of money but a high 
principle is involved. 

The question for us to answer is: Shall tens of thousands of workin^men, 
organized in a strong Union using their organized power with due regard for the 
community as a whole shall these tens of thousands of workingmen and their families 
allow themselves to be made a football for the entertainment of their employer 

Our dignity as American citizens, as enlightened workers and as an organized 
body, calls for the strongest resentment at the insult and outrage perpetrated upon 

Our answer to the above question is: Our settlement for one dollar increase, to 
begin July ist, 1917, was made with our employers in perfect faith; we now, as a 
matter of honor, insist that that settlement be upheld. We, therefore, authorize the 
New York Joint Board and our officers to do all that may be necessary in order to 
enforce the settlement agreed to by us in honor, good faith and without any mental 

We hope that no extreme measures may be necessary, but we pledge ourselves to 
instantly respond to the call of our organization, in any emergency, in order to 
enforce the condition of the settlement and establish the fact that an understanding by 
our employers with us must be respected not only by ourselves but by the employers 
as well. 

The firm stand of the organization had the desired effect. In a number 
of cases the increase was immediately paid to our members ; in others strikes 
were necessary to enforce payments. Within a few weeks all paid. 


Our fervent hope that this country might be spared the horrors of war 
remained unfulfilled. In April, 1917, America became a co-belligerent of the 
Allies against Germany. The National Army authorized by Congress had to 
be clothed and the Government gave out contracts for the making of army 

We were immediately confronted with that distressing problem. 

Before the war the American people had been free from war industries. 
With relatively slight exceptions we were all occupied in the pursuits of peace. 
\Ve all lived in the happv illusion that this far and distant country was out 
of reach for the militaristic monster of Europe. We were harshly disillusioned. 
The world encircling flames of the groat conflagration caught us and made us 
a part of Europe. The Western Hemisphere became united with the Eastern in 
the great catastrophe. 

Greedy profiteers have seized upon the war as a godsend for their 
further enrichment. That has been so ever since men have learned to carry 
on warfare scientifically and in a "civilized" manner. Every war in the past 



has swelled old s and created new ones i duals who were 

perfectly willing t-. amass wealth through the misery of their fellow human 
beings. All that i* "proper, md "good business policy." 

however, war work docs not mean large dividends. To 

means labor, toil, an opportuity to convert their labor power into 

food for themselves and their families. They would much rather do work 

more to their liking. But they don't do the work they desire; they do the 

work they are hired to do. They do war work when that is required. 

That was the attitude of the workers to the making of army uniforms. 

unifoms made their appearance in the industry, replacing 
tan d Mibers fully realized the meaning of it. The young men 

sensible of the fact that they would be among the ones to 
wear them under fire and shell ; the older ones were likewise conscious that 
the very kh... ents they were going to make would be for their own 

sons, brothers and other dear ones. It is a part of the general and un; 

ly of today that with all that feeling and consciousness the workers 
were praying for the army uniform work in order that they might be able 

their bread. 

There was widespread unemployment in the industry. Very little 

civilian clothing was being manufactured. Partly because the market was 

dull : the young men did not buy new clothing because they expected to be 

d ; the older people made last year's suit do extra service because of the 

cost of and in some cases also, because the departure of the 

young men made general retrenchment necessary; partly, or largely also, 

because the mills were giving preference to the manufacture of cloth for the 


But when the making of Army Clothing was finally begun very few of 
our members had the good fortune of participating in it. It looked as if the 
Government '-n special pains to avoid the union's jurisdiction. The 

manufacturers certainly did. The highly specialized process of labor employed 
in the making of uniforms made possible the employment of unskilled labor. 
manufai vho had secured contracts, taking advantage of the gen- 

eral state of unemployment, hired workers from other industries at ridicu- 
s, employed children and sent work into tenement houses. 
Wages were slashed, th< <ht hour week, for which we fought so bit- 

terly, was abolished, and many thousands of our members walked the 
streets in id! tors were employers who had succeeded 

the jurisdiction of the union and were thus freed from the neces- 
sitv ,.f paying living wages, giving th oyes decent treatment, etc. 

\Vhc : .era sho v inclination to demand improvements the 

employers held the Government's contract as a club over their heads, threat- 
ening with arrest and imprisonment. 

The state of affairs was such that the New Republic of New York, 
was compelled to publish the following complaint (July 7, 1917) : 

Take the situation in the men's clothine industry. The government has gone 
into the market for tens of thousands of uniforms. The contracts for these uniforms 



arc let through the quartermaster's department in Philadelphia. For some unknown 
reason, the quartermaster's department has followed the practice of placing most of 
these contracts with unorganized factories where the cheapest labor is employed 
and with factories 10 ill equipped to do the work that their owners have resorted 
to sub-contraction which in turn has spilled over into the tenements. Since the 
beginning of the war there has been a conspicuous recrudescence of the old sweat- 
shop conditions which the best manufacturers and the unions have struggled for years 
to abolish. The quartermaster's department has taken the position that the govern- 
ment is not concerned whether or not union labor is employed. Most of the clothing 
on government account is manufactured in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
and it happens that in these cities approximately 85 per cent of the industry operates 
under the protocol agreements which provide not only for the maintenance of decent 
labor standards in the establishment of which the manufacturers, the workers and 
representatives of the outside public have had a voice, but which also provide a highly 
developed and effective machinery for the modification of standards in times of 
emergency and the adjustment of industrial disputes. With few exceptions, the fac- 
tories which have remained outside the scope of collective agreements operate under 
sub-standard conditions of wages and hours give the workers no voice in the control 
of the shop and provide no machinery for the correction of grievances. Yet it is 
such factories that appear to be getting most of the government contracts today with 
the result that unrest and resentment is rapidly spreading throughout the industry. 

Would not the government be following a wiser course if it called into consulta- 
tion the representatives of the manufacturers' associations and the union which con- 
trol 85 per cent of the industry, made preferential arrangements with them for the 
execution of government work and made them jointly responsible for the maintenance 
of uninterrupted production? 

The threats of the employers did not, however, prevent uprisings. When 
the conditions of slavery became unbearable the workers in a number of 
places struck. 

We took hold of the strikes wherever they occurred. We investigated 
conditions and caused others, such as the Mayor's Committee of National 
Defense, of New York, to make investigations. Most shocking conditions 
were revealed. The press gave publicity to our disclosures and called for 
immediate action by the Government: 

The Evening Post of New York said : 

"Investigation should be made of the charge that Government contracts for 
uniforms are being executed by contractors whose employees work under sweat- 
shop conditions. A good deal of the agitation has been backed by New York manu- 
facturers unable to meet out-of-town bids, and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers' 
Association, which sees garment makers attracted from a highly unionized centre, like 
New York, to towns where the union has comparatively little influence. But several 
disinterested and public-spirited citizens, after looking into the matter have declared 
themselves satisfied that unjust and unsanitary conditions prevail in many establish- 
ments engaged on government work. If conditions are upon inquiry, found to be as 
alleged, they should be remedied at once. If the allegations turn out to be untrue, 
a full report should be made of that fact to the public." 

When in one case little girls under sixteen years of age were pointed out 
to the naval officer who accompanied the investigators, and that they were 
working for four dollars a week, the officer said, "Well, those girls are doing 
their bit." That was the way the workers were looked upon by the em- 
ployers, the authorities and all who had charge of the situation. 

A photographer accompanied our investigators and took pictures wher- 
ever possible. We reproduce four of them here. Let these photographic 
records of capitalistic greed and industrial slavery be perpetuated for the 
coming generations. Those conditions would have prevailed to this day were 
it not for our efforts to abolish them. 















Each picture represents child labor in the making of military uniforms 
for the American Government 

One was taken in Red Bank, N. J , in front of the factory of the Sigmund 
Eisner Company, where a strike was on for humane working conditions. 

The young toiler in knee pants, whose right place is on the playground. 

may be one of trios- ave answered the Eisner Company's advertite- 

for "Boys Wanted" for the cutting department to work with machines 

that maim and cripple, to scab it upon the adult workers, upon brcadwin- 

nersners for their families. 

This picture, in order to tell its full story, should have been taken inside 
of the factory, but, for obvious reasons, that was not quite possible. It had 
to b< -n the outside where the child was happy to breathe free air 

again and be on his way home. 

For for our members, themselves heads of famil- 

ies, and themselves being forced into comp e children,, per- 

haps Iron, the significance of the picture is perfectly clear. 

child in the photograph is not only a young scab though in his 
sacred childish innocence he is unconscious of it against a full grown man 
who is fighting for sufficient food for his family so that he may not be com- 
pelled by the pinch of poverty to send his own children to the factory to 
r own bread ; he is not only a temporary club over the heads of the 
l>ut through the gate of the government's uniform contract, be is 
being brought into the industry to stay and compete with his father. 

The employment of children, which means the unemployment of their 
fat! because of that, self perpetuating. 

It is the other picture, hov .vhich was taken in our metropolis. 

that cries loudest to announce the brutish conditions under which the uni- 
forms for our National Army were being made. No more powerful indict- 
ment could be drawn against barbar ilism than that picture. If reve- 
lations such as those made by that picture should fail to make the lovers 
of true democracy and c >n rise in their wrath against those respoa 
sible for the shameful conditions, we may well wonder what will. 

Look at the picture carefully and you will see clearly both what the 
camera has reproduced and what it has not 

The fact that the two little girls arc taking the military coats home for 
finishing tells us plainly enough that there is a mother at the children's home 
to do the finishing, possibly with the assistance of these and other children. 
The mother could not go herself to the uniform factory to fetch the coats ss 
she, very likely, could not leave her baby alone, who may be sick with scar- 
let fever, diphtheria, infantile paralysis or small pox. She sent her two oldest 
children. But they are not strong enough to carry the bundle. The problem 
is easily solved. There is a baby carriage in the house, bought before the 
father was competed out of his job by child labor. 

Ordinarily the sight of a baby carriage gladdens one's heart I: 
him that there is in the family a little cherub to whose 



that carnage makes its contribution. The baby carriage never fails to 
bring what we may truly call a divine smile to the mother's face and a sacred 
glow in her eyes. 

The baby's carriage is pressed into service to assist in the manufac- 
turing of uniforms for the American Army by child labor. 

Not only is innocent childhood corrupted by child slavery, corrupted 
physically, mentally and morally, but the glory of infancy is desccrat 

An American army is organized of the best young sons of this nation 
to fight for world democracy, and the baby's carriage is used for the carting 
of uniforms for that army from the factory to a filthy and poverty and disra"- 
;cken "hom< 

The baby may by chance be well and healthy. It is allowed to roll in 
dirt because its carriage is needed for industrial purposes, to bring uniforms 
for mamma and the sisters to work on them. But the baby may also be sick, 
kept in the carriage whenever anyone can manage to take it out for an airing 
in those fine summer days, and then the germ ridden carriage is made to "do 
its bit," to infect the soldiers' uniforms while transporting them from the 
factory to the tenement and back again. 

Our efforts were rewarded. The Government heeded our protests and 
appointed a Board of Control to guard labor conditions in the manufacture 
of unifoms. The Board was composed of Louis E. Kirstein, manager of the 
department store of Filene & Co. of Boston; Mrs. Florence Kelly, general 
secretary of the National Consumers' League, and Capt. Walter Kreusi, of 
the Quartermasters Corps, tl. S. Reserves. 

Secretary Baker accompanied the accouncement of the creation of the 
Board of Control with the following statement: 

"Through this board the Quartermaster General will be enabled to enforce the 
maintenance of sound industrial and sanitary conditions in the manufacture of army 
clothes, to inspect factories, to see that proper standards are established on Govern- 
ment work, to pass upon the industrial standards maintained by bidders in army 
clothing and act so that just conditions will prevail. 

"The Government cannot permit its work to be done under sweatshop condi- 
tions and it cannot allow the evils complained of to go uncorrected. Only through 
the establishment of such a body as the Board of Control now created will the govern- 
ment be assured that army clothing is manufactured under recognized industrial 
standards and in an atmosphere of good will between manufacturers and operatives. 
This alone will assure fit clothing and its prompt delivery for army needs." 

The Government failed to give our organization representation on the 
Board. That constituted a just grievance on our part, to which we gave 
expression in our press in the following manner: 

The protest raised by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America against 
the enslaving and degrading conditions prevailing in the factories in which clothing 
is being made for the National Army has brought one definite result: The appoint- 
ment by the Federal Government of a committee to control labor conditions in the 
manufacture of uniforms. 

We are thankful for whatever the Government has done in order to close the 
fates which its army contracts had opened wide to child labor, tenement house labor 
and conditions of slavery all around. 

But we still have a very just grievance. 

No committee, such as was appointed by the Government, can be complete unless 
it includes a representative of our organization. It is a committee on conditions and 
standards of LABOR. Who, then, is more vitally interested in the work of such a 



than the workingmen? Soch a conissltlss should include an official repre- 
sentative of our organisation. But it does not 

Mr. Kirstem. of the big Boston department store firm of Filene * Sons, is a 
man of high character and will bring much strengt roamfttot, bot as 

ployer of labor he cannot and he does not assume to speak for labor. 
Mrs. KeUey is a most estimable lady, for many years active in the interests of 
the people in many ways, and a credit to any movement she is identified with, but she 
is not a repre- of labor. 

position oo the comsiittxr has beta oalarly iliiH as repre- 

seating the Army Quartermaster's 


f customer, if of sufficient commercial importance, could enforce 

:iane working con %o inclined. But wUk 

rhose highest principle is to buy cheap and sell dear, caaaot 

^ unrepresCBMu* 

The relations of the Government to the manufacturer are not those of an ordinary 
customer in ordinary times. 

i an ordinary customer, if of sufficient commercial importance, 
upon the manufacturer hui 

ate customer whose _ 

.irily be expected to concern himself with the hi 

of the condition* under which the goods he bought are being made, the 
must make that its concern. 

The Government is the organ of organized society. Its highest ai 
the v the people. 

If it is its business to enforce laws for the regulation of working 
production generally, how much more must that be its business in 
is carried on for the Government itself. 

In this case of Army clothing the Government is the actual employer. 

" manufacturer is the immediate employer of our members; while be is 
doing the hiring and the firing and is handing out the pay envelopes to the workers 
employed in the making of uniforms, he is. in the final analysis, the agent for the 
Govern t . as stated al> il employer. 

\Vr !,.i . - .re, a full right to turn to the Government with oar 

in connection with the work done for it. 

The conditions inaugurated by the uniform manufacturers were so 
to force the public press to call for immediate remedy. The committee 
by the Government has been charged with the task of applying such 
prevailing evils may call for. 

We regret sincerely that our organization was not granted representation in 
committee. We are. however, glad that the Government has heeded our 
and done as much as it has in order to free itself from the disgrace of 
clothing for the National Army made by child and tenement labor, and 
tions of long hours and starvation wages. 

The work of the Government committee, if carried out with energy and deter* 
mination, as we expect it will be. and supplemented by the united power of the 
organized Clothing Workers employed in the industry, will eradicate the evils which 
have crept into our industry through the Army contracts. 

The Gov : 's action has had a wholesome effect on conditions in the 

industry. Unorganized factories were brought under our jurisdiction, 
employers of our members received contracts, the 48 hour week was ffonni w 
and good wages established. In short, a situation was created enabling the 
workers to earn a living wage under the Union's protection. 

Onoe a Traitor Alwmyi a Traitor. 

It was but natural for employers to resist in all possible ways the influ- 
ence of the union and the introduction of better conditions for the workers, 
particularly so in the case of an employer whose factory was never unionized 
before. For an employer who had managed to withstand the progress of the 
labor movement and to keep intact the happy regime of absolute industrial 
sty as regards his employees, it is exceedingly difficult to accept 
the absurd and dangerous theory that workers have rights employers should 



The firm of Mark Cowen & Company in New York is such an employer. 
The worst evils known in the industry bloomed undisturbed in the Cowen 
factories, including the curse of subcontracting. There were many petty 
tyrants with the head of the firm as the Overlord. 

Our success in bettering the conditions of the clothing workers in 
other array uniform shops aroused the Cowen employees, who were also 
making army clothing, to the possibility of making their own lives a little 
less miserable. They naturally called on us to take up their cause. Follow- 
ing the usual course those of them who were not yet members became such 
and we assisted them in affecting a shop organization headed by a shop 
chairman. It was perfectly natural for the firm to feel outraged by such a 
"conspiracy" on the part of its industrial subjects even as it was natural for 
Nicholas Romanoff to feel outraged at conspiracies of his political subjects. 
But unlike Romanoff, Cowen had no Siberia to exile his rebels to. Nor did 
he have gallows. He did the next best thing. He discharged the shopchair- 
man, hoping thereby to set an example for the other rebels. The discharge 
was very impressively accompanied by physical blows administered by a 
gentleman who specialized in that line of activity. When the shop chair- 
man woke up to a full realization of the firm's attitude towards him as a 
representative of the workers he found himself minus his watch and chain. 

By that action the firm precipitated a strike in all of its shops involving 
about seven hundred workers, who not only demanded the reinstatement 
of the discharged chairman but also formulated their grievances and asked 
that they be remedied. 

Once the workers were forced into a strike to defend their right to be 
organized we were compelled to deal with the matter vigorously, and we 
gave it all the attention required. 

The Board of Control offered to mediate. We accepted the offer; the 
firm rejected it. 

Instead of allowing the Government's Board to affect an adjustment the 
firm, in whose factories union sympathy has always been considered a 
capital offense punishable by immediate discharge, turned for assistance to 
the scab agency doing business under the trade name of United Garment 
.Workers of America. 

The scab agency hastened to conclude an agreement with the firm to 
break the strike. 

With all the workers out on strike the scab agency declared the Cowen 
shop "unionized" and gave this latter fact the widest possible publicity. 
The agency had no scabs to furnish, and the agreement could not produce 
garments. So the firm sent the following letter to the striking employees : 

To the Employees of Mark Cowen & Co.: 

You will report for work on Thursday morning. 

We will give an increase of $1 per week to all employees, male and female, be- 
ginning with the week of September 24. 

The contracting system will be abolished in the shop and all the employees will 
work directly for and be paid by the firm. 



Any complaints or grievance! will be fettled by the employers' representative*. 
An agreement bat been made between the firm and the United Garment Worker* 
of America, which ogan nation is affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. 

It is interesting to sec the firm notify its striking employees that it 
an agreement with the "union" and asking them to return to work. The 
"union" <!i.| n.-t dare fa< rs with that message. 

Returning to work would have automatically converted the striken from 
Amalgamated members into members of the scab agency. They failed to 

opportune. Instead of going into the factory 

to scab against themselves they preferred to remain outside of it and prevent 
i-tl'.r- scabbing. And they did it like seasoned fighters. 

There was rse, the usual line up of scab agency, guerillas, police 

and the rest of the outfit, who beat up, maimed and arrested the officers and 

.is continued for three months, and the workers will forever 

remember the scab agency with the same feelings that outraged workers 

struggling for their rights always remember gangsters, traitors and strike- 

The stril ng agreement is in the firm's office and the 

Igamated union spirit is in the hearts and souls of the workers. They 

are ours to a man. 


The conspiracy to break the Mark Cowen strike was as good an illustra- 
tion as any of the maxim that "there is no ill wind that blows no good/' It 
served to bring two elements into our ranks which until then were under the 
domination of the scab agency. Those were the Shirtmakers and the Overall 

In our report to the Second Biennial Convention we said the following 
with regard to the Shirtmakers: 

It has been the fate of this organization to be tested in all possible ways 
emerged triumphantly from all One of them was in a sense the supreme test and oar 
organization was probably the only labor body in this country to be subjected to it 

We refer to the case of the shirtmakers. 

The workers in the shirt industry in New York had been disorganized for many 

Over a year ago a movement was begun to organize them. Through BO fault 
of the rank and file the shirtmakers' union was delivered to the United Garment 
Workers. Those responsible for it had clutched at a burnt straw. They had hoped 
to receive from those people strong financial support and also moral, inasmuch as the 
shirt cutters were organized under the United Garment Workers, and the 
of the American Federation of Labor was promised. But neither has mat< 
The United Garment Workers of America, not having been in the habit of 
their funds in the interests of the workers when they had money to burn, coul 
tainly mt In- expected to do it when thev needed whatever funds they had to meet 
their own payroll. The cutters stabbed the strike in its vitals at the very beginning. 
lining up with the employers against the strikers. But that did not invalidate their 
membership in the general organization. Scabbing is quite the natural thing m that 

The poor struggling shirtmakers were left stranded and they tamed to their 

.1 kin. to their own flesh and bone, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America. They appealed for help to our New York Joint Board. Remember that 
that happened at the very time when the entire machinery of the United 



Workers, assisted by Samuel Gompers, were busy trying to break pur strikes In 
Philadelphia and Baltimore, to mention nothing of the crimes committed by them 
against us in the past. Would it have been surprising if the accummulated feelings 
of bitterness and resentment had caused our members to give vent to them by visit- 
ing punishment upon those who owe allegiance to the people who had betrayed us? 
But our members acted with real working class nobility. 

It was a source of sacred inspiration to see these shopworkers rise to the lofty 
heights of true working class intelligence and solidarity. 

Our members argued thus to the shirt strikers: "We have nothing but con- 
tempt for your parent body and its officers, but we have no quarrel with you. You 
are engaged in a struggle with our common enemy. You are part of ourselves even 
if your organization Has been misplaced into the camp of our enemies instead of 
being brought into our ranks where you belong." 

That showed a degree of intelligence and revolutionary spirit that will be a credit 
to our entire movement. 

The New York Joint Board gave the striking shirtmakcrs three hundred dollars. 
Its only regret was that it could not make the amount bigger, as it had just given 
$1,300 to the Philadelphia and Baltimore strikers. 

When the shirtmakers called another time they received two hundred dollars 

They also received financial assistance from other subdivisions of our organization. 

We are proud of our membership and rejoice in their class loyalty. 

Our demonstration of solidarity was not lost. Its effect sank deep into 
the hearts of the shirtworkers and they proved it two years later. The 
Mark Cowen strike was the occasion for it. 

We had made no attempt to form shirt locals under our banner. We 
steered clear from that field and allowed the Shirtmakers to work out their 
own salvation under the banner that was supposed to be theirs. If the 
Shirtmakers were ever to free themselves from misrule and demoralization 
it was to be done upon their own initiative. 

But the ways of the labor misleaders are such that they inevitably make 
for the ultimate undoing of those misleaders. It is in such self destroying 
acts of traitors in all walks of life that the hope of the honest men lies. 

The Cowen firm has a shirt department, whose workers went out on 
strike along with the workers in the clothing departments. The scab agency 
finding itself incapable of carrying out its contract to break the strike, hit 
upon the idea of using the shirt department as an entering wedge. Is not 
shirtmaking its own and legitimate field? The Amalgamated has no shirt 
making organization and the scab agency has. Accordingly, the Shirtmak- 
ers' Union was directed by the scab agency to send its members to fill the 
vacant Cowen shops. The highly specialized system of labor made it pos- 
sible for shirtmakers to work also on many operations on army clothing 
outside of shirts. 

The Shirtmakers were put to a severe test: Would they pay us in our 
own coin; or would they pay us with stones for bread? Did they remember 
1915? Were they conscious of their duty to their striking fellow workers? 

Great was our joy when we learned that the Shirtmakers decided against 
their then general officers and in favor of the striking wage slaves. They 
decided not to become strikebreakers. Working class consciousness and self 
respect won out against treason. 

"The Forward" of September 25, 1918, reported the action of the Shirt- 
makers in the following news article: 




United Garment Workers are determined to become a 
compel innocent union men to become scabs. These creatures of the 
want to u*f the thin makers as a tool in their shameful attempt to break the stria 
of the Amilgu: - one of the Mark Cowen shops. 

According to information from reliable source* the United Garment Workers 
ordered thr shirt makers to organize Mark Cowen's shirtshops. The executive board 

of that union promptly held a special meeting Saturday night regarding this 

of the I .rment Wor 

As an answer to the order 
the foil 

- Board of the Shirt and Boys' Waittmakers* and Shirt Ironers* 
Union, Local 249. United Garment Workers of America, declare that we have notb- 

irk Cow tailors are now on strike." 

tcabby creatures of the Bible Houte did not stop their activity et 
the sla; il the hands of the Executive Board of the shirt 

:o induce .il members of the shirt makers' union to 

the Amalgamated tailors are < 

The resolution of the . e Board of the Shirt Makers' Union not to be 

Makers as strike breakers will be given over to the 

members to vote upon, then the United Garment Workers will be convinced that 
they cannot destroy a well organized labor organization in order to carry out their 
personal sche 

The leader* of the United Garment Workers art threatening to organize another 
local ''"e shirt makers will persist in their refusal to scab. The Amalgamted 

-% them God speed. The shirt makers will know how to answer with dignity 
to such a disgraceful a 

The Executive Board of the shirt makers' union is calling special meeUsigl for 
members to discuss the m.v 

These meetings will be held in the following places: 

Thursday. 8 P.M., two meetings: One meeting in the BROOKLYN *ect>oe. 
in M < asino. 115 Manhattan Ave . another meeting in the BROWNSVILLE 

Friday, 8 PM., the meeting of the NEW YORK section will take place. 

to be hoped that all members will come to those important meetings. 

The scab agency, mad with rage at the refusal of the shirtmakers to 
become a blackjack for the assassination of the strike, charged their officer* 
with having been bribed by us. The minds of the scab agents are K> de- 
praved that they arc incapable of conceiving of anybody doing anything 
honestly and without corruption. That was the first time to our knowledge 
that anyone was charged with being bribed in order to act straight and keep 
his hands clean. Needless to say that the bribery story was a lie out of 
the whole cloth. But it is amusing, and in a way even flattering, to be 
charged with giving bribes for the purpose of keeping bribees loyal to the 
interests of the working class. 

The inevitable soon followed. The Shirtmakers' Union being a boot 
fide organization had to part company with the scab agency. 

By a referendum vote of the membership, taken in five halls, in dif- 
ferent parts of Greater New York, on October 11. 12 and 13. 1917. the 
Shirtmakers almost unanimously decided to withdraw from the United Gar- 
ment Workers and apply for a charter of the Amalgamated Clothing Work- 
ers. Of 968 votes cast only 40 were in favor of remaining with the scab 

On October 6, 1917, we issued a charter to the shirtmakers' Union as 
local 248 of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Within a short time the 
Shirtmakers' Union of Philadelphia followed suit They now constitute 


local 153 of our organization. In the early part of this month we granted a 
charter to the Shirt Cutters of New York, who are now known as local 246 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. We appointed Bro. S. Cutler as 
general organizer for the Cutters. With the help of our organizers, financial 
support and general encouragement the Shirtmakers have made satisfactory 
progress. Of the gratifying record of success the agreement with the 
large firm of Miller, Sons & Co., of Philadelphia, is most noteworthy. The 
agreement provides for recognition of the union, substantial wage increases 
and other improvements in the working conditions, and was ratified by the 
membership November 19, 1917. 

The Overallworkers, Too, Purge Themselves of Treason. 
Having met with a crushing defeat at the hands of the Shirtmakcrs 
the strike assassins turned hopefully to the Overallworkers. As the highly 
developed subdivision of labor on Army clothing made Overallworkers avail- 
able the scab agency began to press its Overall subjects into scab service. 
But there is something so vital in the revolutionary power of working class 
revolt that once it develops sufficient strength to assert itself it not only 
cannot be downed where it has once raised its head but it spreads con- 
tagiously. In this case it spread also to the Overallworkers. Aside from 
our own immediate interest in the matter; as members of the working class, 
as advocates of the closest labor solidarity, and as rebels against the regime 
of treason to labor, we delighted in the action taken by Overallworkers, 
Local 178, United Garment Workers of America, which was given expression 
to by the following resolution, published in the "Forward" of October 13, 1917: 

At the last meeting of the Overall Makers' Union, Local 178, United Garment 
Workers of America, held on Oct. 9, 1917, at 133 Eldridge St., the following reso- 
lution was accepted: 

Whereas, our members are being utilized as tools in many places in order to 
break the strike of the members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
Whereas, many of our members are not familiar with the situation. 
Be it resolved that no member of the Overall Workers' Union should dare go 
to work in any place where the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America hare 
declared a strike. 

(Signed) M. DUBINSKY, 

(Signed) B. FOX, 


Resolution Committee. 

By their action of loyalty to the working class the Overall Workers' 
Union, like its sister organization, the Shirtmakers' Union, made its posi- 
tion within the United Garment Workers untenable. 

At a special meeting held December 11, 1917, the Overall Workers of 
New York, Local 178, United Garment Workers of America, by a vote of 
one hundred against five, decided to leave the United Garment Workers and 
apply for a charter of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. A 
charter was granted to them on December 15, 1917, and the Overall Work- 
ers are now a part of our organization, known as Local 178, A. C. W. of A. 

Having our hands full with the industry of men's clothing we made no 
attempt to enter the field of men's working garments, even as we made no 



attempt to enter the shirt industry. The Overall Workers of New York, 
d he Overall Workers of Boston and the Shirtmakers of New York 
and Philadelphia, came to us of their own aco 

The overall industry is the rock upon which the misleaders and traitors 
of the clothing workers had built their fort from which to impose their rule 
upon the workers. It was through the overall workers that they had fought 
the clothing workers and it was from the former that they had drawn the 
power t( The magic that made that possible was the union 


The union label! What crimes have been perpetrated upon the work- 
ers under that guise 1 How many workers have been sold and betrayed 

ugh the medium of the union label ! 

The tailors' label more than any other label was abused and uiiiuscd 
Most of all it was misused in the overall industry. 

In many industrial centers, as in the mine-fields, the workers demand 
:iin latxl -n their overalls. They care not to investigate whether the 
label does in reality represent good working conditions. Nor can they 
do it. Til-- label on the working blouse is sufficient guarantee for them. 
In an honest labor movement this would present an ideal condition for the 
It was otherwise and to the contrary for the overall workers 
The demand of true unionists in other industries that their clothes bear the 
union label makes the overall manufacturers dependent not upon bis em- 
ployees but upon the general officers, who have a large stock of labels 
in store, registered by the Government to insure monopoly, for which the 
manufacturers must pay so much per thousand. If you pay the price you 
get the linen certificate, misleading you into the belief that your overalls are 
"strictly union," no matter what slavery may exist in the facory. 

When the overall manufacturer pays the price for the labels, and as 
financial agent for the label dealers he collects or deducts from the wages 
of his employees their monthly dues for the "union," he secures a free band 
over his workers. 

Many of the overall manufacturers are located in scattered places West 

and South. They employ helpless girls, whose condition is so unscrupulously 

exploited by loyers and the "union" officials that most of those poor 

seem to feel that the boss, the label and the union are an inseparable 

trinity and the workers must bow their heads t 

The following case is a striking illustration of the psychology of the 
overall workers in the South and the West One of our New York delegates 
to the Nashville Convention explained to a woman delegate of an overall 
local the true nature of our struggle at that time. He endeavored to show 
her why she should as a m.v ustice vote for the seating of the cloth- 

ing workers' delegates. She replied : You are perfectly right and I 
thizt ou, but I can't favor seating your delegates because my 

warned me that he would not purchase any label from any other president 
than the present one. 



The boss instructed her what to do at the convention. The boss most 
likely told her to go to the convention, which she could not refuse. 

A representative of the Overall Manufacturers' Association was also in 
Nashville during the convention. He was seen by the delegates giving direc- 
tions to the overall locals' representatives and instructing them how to act 
at the convention. 

As between the oppressive employers and the faithless union officials the 
overall workers were pitifully helpless. 

The overall locals are mostly small in membership, but large in number. 
When the occasion calls for it a local is divided into two in order to 
increase the number of delegates. The 1914 convention was purposely called 
to Nashville because it was a convenient place for the small overall local 
unions. Thus the Nashville convention was packed by a large number of 
delegates representing a minority of the membership. It was that minority 
that voted against the seating of the clothing workers' delegates who repre- 
sented the majority. 

When at that time the general officers refused to submit to a referendum 
vote a motion to change the convention place from Nashville to Rochester 
they did so not only because they feared that more clothing workers' dele- 
gates would come to Rochester than to Nashville but also because they 
knew that fewer delegates of the Overall Workers would come to Rochester. 

The union label overall industry is a gold mine for self-made rulers. 
The sale of labels and the collection of dues through the courtesy of the man- 
ufacturers are an endless source of income that never dries up. There are 
no strikes, no other expenses that are so big in other unions. There is 
also no responsibility to the membership. 

This, in brief, is the meaning of the overall industry to the labor move- 

Since the clothing workers freed themselves from the traitors it had 
been generally conceded that the traitors were to continue their undisputed 
rule over the overall workers. We made no attempt to win those workers 
having had so much work in the clothing industry. So great were our tasks 
in this field that there was no occasion for us to look for new fields. But 
time did its work and the largest local of overall workers in the country 
with a membership of about three hundred voluntarily decided to joint our 

It is unnecessary to say that the Overall Workers are welcome. Just 
because they are Overall Workers and just because they come to us on 
their own initiative they are doubly welcome. 

The Overall Workers of New York are now a part of the great and cordial 
Amalgamated family. They are now our members with all others alike. 
They will help us in our great work and will share our joys with us. 

In this case, too, we are in the fortunate position to report to you that 
since their entrance into our ranks, and with our assistance, the Overall 
workers in New York, have greatly increased their wages the increases 



ing from four to six dollars a week, and otherwise improved their 


Another Army Uniform Situation 

Attacks upon our organization have been made so frequently that they 
have become quite a normal condition. If our enemies should cease atu 
tu we should deem it our duty to our membership to institute a searching 
self examination in ..:!: to find out what is wrong about us. No attack 
could surprise us; no attack could discourage us. Yet we did not expect 
our enrmirs to pay us such a glorious tribute as they did by the general 

by them md of 1917. That was a most flatt- 

on of our strong 

It was our success in ng the interests of the workers in military 

rm shops that drew the fire this time from the camp of labor's foes. 

Acting upon the noble German principle of "Keep slandering, something 

is bound to stick/ they fired at us their broadside of "disloyalty/* Relying 

upon 'that that was a charge that need only be made in order to do 

epcated it in various forms and ways. The public was 

:ned that all the Russian. Italian, British and American born clothing 

workers in our organization, all of them working hard and honestly for their 

hood, most of them American citizens, many of them already drafted 

or expecting to be drafted that they were all German spies, enemies of 

America, and should not be allowed to work on Army clothing. 

The uninitiated were led by the skilled publicity agents to believe that 
we not only controlled our members but also the United States Government 
The Board of Control which had set itself conscientiously to the task of 
eradicating the evils as above described from the Army Gothing industry, 
was openly and viciously attacked because it refused to play politics, dealt 
honestly and fairly with us and did not lend itself to the schemes of our 
enemies against us. The stupid charge was made that we dictated the 
appointments of the members while we failed to get representation for 


To feed the sensational campaign against us, and in the hope of 
ing Washington, "protest" meetings of "unemployed cloakmakers" 
called to denounce us. The meetings were called and boisterously advertised 
by no responsible organization or individual. The magic name of the 
"masses" was constantly employed as the very intangible authority for the 
"popular movement." The cry was raised that we had monopolized the Army 
clothing jobs, and that because we would not permit the "thirty thoanttd idle 
cloakmakers" to assist in the work, there was a shortage in clothing for the 
National Army. The trained publicity staff of the "unemployed mi MM* 
a staff which has been conspicuous by its absence in all other cases of 
unorganized and unemployed workers very diligently circulated that story 
through the public press. Fortunately, Secretary Baker issued a statement at 
that time that the shortage in clothing was due to shortage in doth. But 
the slander against us was kept up and pushed with vigor. To the 


observer it must have appeared rather strange that only "traitors" were 
selected to make Army uniforms and that all loyal citizens were carefully 
combed out into idleness. 

The true situation was this: 

When we took up the fight against sweatshop conditions in the Army 
uniform manufacture, and for the restoration of Union standards, the shops 
were largely filled with workers from other industries, mostly cloakmakers, 
whose own trades were dull. It was because they considered their jobs tem- 
porary that they had contented themselves with any sort of conditions 
offered to them. When we organized those shops the workers from the 
other industries continued at their Army uniform jobs. For the purpose of 
controlling conditions we only required of them to become temporary mem- 
bers of our organization. When we opened our Labor Bureau for Uniform 
work, from which help was sent to uniform shops under our jurisdiction, 
we sent members of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union 
along with our own members. An investigation made by us showed that 
nearly half of the workers in such shops were members of the I. L. G. W. U. 
Large numbers of our own members were at that very time jobless. The 
union shops were filled ; the non-union shops were closed to them. 

In view of the fact that the members of both organizations were looking 
to the uniform industry for employment we proposed to the I. L. G. W. U. 
to undertake with us a joint campaign for the organization of the entire 
industry, wipe out sweatshop conditions everywhere and open up all shops 
to the members of both organizations. As already stated above such 
arrangements were successfully carried out in Philadelphia to the great 
benefit of both unions. It is very much to be regretted that it was not carried 
out in New York. The number of shops we succeeded in extending our 
jurisdiction to could not, of course, absorb all of the unemployed workers 
in the needle industry. Bad as the situation was it was further aggravated 
by the lack of cloth, which caused frequent layoffs of those who were for- 
tunate enough to have jobs. The important point is, however, that while 
other organizations would in such circumstances, with perhaps not unpardon- 
able selfishness, keep whatever jobs there were for their own unemployed 
members, we shared them with the International Ladies Garment Workers' 
Union. We also permitted them to have their own representative in our 
Labor Bureau in order to make sure that they received thir just share of 

Nor could it be otherwise. Our industries are closely allied. Many of 
our members hold membership in the International and work in their shops 
and vice versa. The human material is the same. The same nationalities, 
the same languages, living in the same sections of the city, reading the same 
daily papers, holding the same social views, and coming to one another's 
aid whenever necessary. The progressive views on the labor movement, 
economic, political and in matters of mutual aid, prevail among the mem- 
bers of the International as well as among the members of the Amalga- 



ated. The members of the International know also that the fact of our 
being outside of the so-called official labor movement, outside of the A F. 
, cannot be charged up to us as the official labor movement is respon- 
sible for it. 

On :es seized upon the state of unemployment, charged us with 

responsibility for it, and called "protest" massmeetings. Who paid for 
the expensive halls, large quantities of printed matter, and various com- 
es, whose personnel was not of the altruistic kind? The Goakmakers 
Union repudiated those meetings, hence, it surely did not pay for them. 
The employed workers could have no interest in paying the bills. The 
>yed masses" were unable to pay, since poverty was the claim made 
for them. 

protest" meeting disclosed some of the elements in charge of 
the affair. That was a combination of the Bible House scab agency, the trai- 
tor who was made an outcast first by the workers and then by the employ- 
ers, some renegades from the socialist movement, and some employers who 
had their own reasons for assisting the "movement" of the "unemployed 

The thinly veiled purpose of the first meeting was to bring about a 
breach 1>< tv. cen our organization and the I. L. G. W. U. The Cloakmakers' 
Union was, therefore, spoken of in very friendly terras, and fire was opened 
on us in order to "save the Cloakmakers and their Union" from our domina- 

On the next day the papers published reports of that meeting with 
such amazing headlines as "The Clash Between Clothing Workers and the 
Cloakmakers Growing." The officers of the I. L. G. W. U. and of our 
organization promptly denounced the conspiracy and warned their 
as well as the general public to be on their guard. The later "protest" 
ings were, therefore, directed against the I. L. G. W. U. as well as against 
our organization. 

Women's Wear, a trade paper for the cloak and suit industry, said in an 
issue in the month of December, 1917: 

"It appears certain in the minds of men familiar with conditions ta 
circles that the protest meeting, held yesterday on the East Side, was 
that certain individuals who have spent most of their time in recent years 
from the manufacturers to the unions and back again, according to the 
money involved, were responsible for the event They saw to it that 

nformed of the gathering. 

"Factors in the cloak trade and students of labor conditions ' 
little importance can be attached to the meeting of yesterday. They add t 

people were hired to attend and 

an investigation were made, it would disclose 
contribute in the proceedings," 

This onslaught on us was more vicious and desperate than all others in 

the sense that an attempt was made to destroy us by the cry of 
to the nation generally pro-German; "disloyalty" to the labor 
particularly secession, and "antagonism" to the Qoakmtkers' U 
inost especially denying their members an opportunity to work. 

All of the subsequent activities of that crew were along the same lines and 
for the same purpose. They ran their course and are now forgotten, 



We were not the losers by that additional experience. 

The Board of Control was discontinued and Mr. Kir.-trin was made 

sole administrator of Labor Standards in Army Uniforms. Later Mr. Kirstein 

resigned and Prof. William Z. Ripley succeeded him. But none of those changes 

tTected our organization. \\ li it \ve have attained we hold in the teeth of all 

foes, all conspirators and all traitors. 

United Hebrew Trades Refuses to Betray Clothing Workers. 

The United Hebrew Trades is a local central body of Jewish trade unions 
in New York. Since the advent of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America all possible pressure was brought to bear in order to force that body 
sn the warpath against us. But the U. H. T. has steadfastly refused to betray 
the organized Clothing Workers. 

In our report to the Second Biennial Convention we gave a complete 
review of the case. 

On March 20, 1915, the U. H. T. was expelled from a fictitious "Federated 
Central Body" for refusing to unseat our local unions and substitute for them 
the "local unions" of the scab agency. 

On May 10, 1915, Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, appeared in person at the meeting of the U. H. T. and ordered 
the expulsion of our local unions. 

At its meeting of August 16, 1915, the U. H. T. received a peremptory 
order from Gompers giving it two days time to expel our locals. The order 
was not carried out, however. 

The U. H. T. sent its then secretary, Abraham I. Shiplacoff, to the A. 
F. of L. convention in San Francisco in the hope of finding a solution for the 
vexing problem. No solution was found. The situation became so acute 
that on December 6, 1915, our local unions voluntarily withdrew from the 
I' H. T. in order to spare it the painful embarrassment of expelling them. 
The U. H. T. adopted a resolution pledging itself not to admit locals of the 
United Garment Workers. 

Our formal relations were severed but not our actual relations. 

Our local unions, like other large organizations, do not need the assist- 
ance of the U. H. T., but the latter needs their assistance for those Jewish 
trade unions which must look to the U. H. T. for their sole or chief support. 
Our local unions have cheerfully continued to give liberal aid to such organ- 
izations whenever called upon. 

For nearly two years the U. H. T. was let alone. The withdrawal of 
our locals from that body seemed to have given our enemies some measure 
of satisfaction. In 1917 they renewed their crusade. The Central Federated 
Union of New York, not the Federated Central Body mentioned above, whose 
secretary was conspicuously mixed up with a pro-German movement, arrived 
at the conclusion that the U. H. T. was not loyal to the United States and 
must, therefore, be annihilated. 



Accordingly, the Central Federated Union caused a resolution to be sub- 
mitted to the convention of the American Federation of Labor, in Buffalo, 
which is known at resolution No. 120. and is given below. 

Back door diplomacy in Buffalo resulted in the dropping of the disloyalty 
charge an Trades and its new secretary assured Gompert 

that he was against the Amalgamated and with the Bible House clique. 
That seemed to have paved the way for complete "exoneration" of the 
Unit* Trades, although while the secretary of the United Hebrew 

Trades professed oppose us, Benjamin Schlesinger, president of the 

International Ladies Garment Workers' Union, insisted that all the organiza- 
tions affiliated with the United Hebrew Trades, his own included, were in 
full acconl with the Amalgamated, as they could not be otherwise. 

The United Hebrew Trades was to stand the test of "loyalty" by admit- 

: .inks the "locals" of the United Garment Workers and declaring 

t the Amalgamated. That was the substance of a resolution 

the United Hebrew Trades was called upon to accept, and which would 

have been accepted without opposition, if the situation as described by the 

seer Buffalo were true. 

The Executive Committee of the United Hebrew Trades voted by 
votes against four to recommend the adoption of the resolution. 

For a full month a battle royal was waged, a vote having been postponed 
from meeting to meeting. 

The matter was finally brought to a head at a meeting of the United 
Hebrew Trades on Wednesday, Feb. 6, 1918. After a fierce battle of words 
until the small hours of the morning the resolution as recommended by the 

- utivc Committee was rejected by ninety votes against twenty-six. The 
fight for the resolution was led by the secretary, Max Pine, and the fight 
against it by Benjamin Schlesinger, Assemblyman Shiplacoff and others. 

While the Amalgamated has been made the target for the attacks of the 
reactionary oligarchy in the official labor movement, those attacks have really 
been aimed at the progressive and radical spirit of the Jewish unions. Two 
years ago that point was generally lost sight of because of the fact that the 
Amalgamated was the only organization directly and immediately involved. 
This time, however, the Amalgamated enjoys the pleasant company of the 
Capmakers' Union. If the recommendation of the Executive Committee had 
been accepted by the United Hebrew Trades, it would have meant warfare 
not only against the Amalgamated but against the Capmakers' Union as 
( T nion which is now a credit to the labor movement, though 
officially an outlaw, would have been branded as a "band of traitors, dis- 
loyalists, etc," and a scab ai milar to that of the Bible House would 
have taken its place in the United Hebrew Trades, 

itus of the Capmak :on in addition to that of the Amalga- 

mated has forcibly brought home to the delegates the fact that it is not * 
tion of this or that organization but of a great principle: The right of 
the workers to have honest and progressive unions. If submission to the 
arbitrarim-s of the official "labor leaders" meant war against the Amalga- 



mated in 1917, war against the Capmakers' Union in 1918, why may It not 
also mean war against the Cloakmakers' Union in 1919, against some other 
union or unions in 1920, until the entire progressive labor movement would 
be disrupted? 

The realization of this great fact fired the spirit of the United Hebrew 
Trades. The delegates realized that by submitting to the highhandedness 
in our case tv. :t p> they did not stop it but encouraged it. They now 

decided to act with courage, and they did. 

No sooner did the action of the United Hebrew Trades become known 
than the C. F. U. secretary of pro-German propaganda notoriety rushed into 
print to denounce the U. H. T. as disloyal, pro-German, traitors, etc. In 
other words, the loyalty of the United Hebrew Trades to the nation is not 
to be determined by the manner in which it discharges its duties to the 
country, by the number from its ranks in the National Army, and other 
criteria usually applied to citizens, but by whether the United Garment 
Workers are affiliated with it or not. If that dead body had been admitted 
the United Hebrew Trades would have been pronounced loyal and patriotic. 
Because it was not admitted the United Hebrew Trades is branded as dis- 
loyal and pro-German. 

That may give one a fair idea of the value of the indiscriminate cry of 
"disloyalty" or "pro-German." 

The proposition on which the Central Federated Union was willing to 
purge the U. H. T. of the false charge of disloyalty, and allow it to live, 
is contained in the following letter from Gompers: 

Washington, D. C, Jan. 25, 1918. 



Dear Sirs: 

The Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor will shortly hold a 
meeting at headquarters. It will be necessary for me to make report to my col- 
leagues of the E. C. regarding the Hebrew Trades matter as dealt with by Resolution 
No. 120 of the Buffalo Convention of the A. F. of L. 

There have been two hearings on the Hebrew Trades matter and several con- 
ferences. At one of these meetings the representative of the New York Central Fed- 
erated Union submitted the following: 

"All unions affiliated to the American Federation of Labor as local unions or 
through international unions, making application for representation to, and in the 
United Hebrew Trades, must be seated by that body, and full and sincere support 

'.! independent, dual or seceding unions at present seated in the United Hebrew 
Trades must be unseated until they affiliate to the American Federation of Labor 
direct or through International Unions so chartered. 

"The United Hebrew Trades shall not by resolution or otherwise endorse, sup- 
port, or assist any dual, independent or seceding organization." 

As yet the representatives of the Hebrew Trades have not answered. It will be 
necessary that I have that answer to report to my collagcucs of the E. C. 

I am therefore writing to request that you let me have an answer so that the 
entire matter may be in proper shape for report to the Executive Council. 

Fraternally yours, 

(Signed) SAM'L GOMPERS, 




In accordance with its action of February 6. the U. H. T. sent the fol- 
lowing letter to the American Federation of Labor: 

Executive Council. 

American Federation of Labor, New York. February 9. 1911 

Washington. D. C 

Dear Sirs and Brother 

The tried policy of the United Hebrew Trades, during the thirty year* of their 
existence, was to organize migrant Workers with the view to affiliate such 

organization! i '-deration of Labor. That policy bar b 

r as well at in spirit. At no time did the United H 

Trades fail to urge and in tot >ce compel trade unions ot*anized by 

affiliate with of L either as federal locals or through t ieir National or 

International bod; 

\S have been and are not now directly affiliated %cith the A. F of 

L we have at -i worked in harmony with you. In the break that occurred 

in O in the ranks of the men's garment workers, the United Hebrew 

Trades had no hand. In the two years subsequent to the secession of the tailors 
from the Workers the U. H. T. left no stone unturned to r 

.md to bring about harmonious relations between the men's 

garment workers and the official body, recognized by the A. F. of L. but in rain 
our efforts because of the stubbornness of the officers of the United Garment 
Workers. The resignation of the locals of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers wa* 
then affected to satisfy the demands of the Executive Council of tf of L 

and ; >n was then adopted a copy of which, is in the hands of Mr Samuel 



Ac therefore cannot possibly adopt the resolution of the Central 
i of New York. If we were to do so it would demean us and destroy 

fulness. Our loyalty and service to the cause of Labor during the last thirty years 
thr lie to thr insinuation* contained in the wording of the proposed resolution 
of the Central Federated Union, as we have no seceding or opposition unions in our 

We take this occasion to impress upon you and the membership at large of the 
American Federation of Labor, that we will at all times serve and support the 
American Federation of Labor in its activities and require trade unions ln 
affiliated with us or not to affiliate with the American Federation of I.ah< 
also v effort in our power to bring about harmony in the labo 

whether it be in the needle trade or any other trade. 

h assurance of good will and loyalty to the cause of labor, we beg to 

Very Fraternalh 

(Signed) M. Feinstone. Asst SecV 

Samuel Gompers sent the following letter to the International organiza- 
tions affiliated with the A. F. of 

Washington. D. C. March 12. 

Dear Sir & Broth 

The Buffalo Convention of the American Federation of Labor when 

ution No. 120. dealing with the subject of the United Hebrew Trades, declared as 

1. That a conference be held at thr possible time in the city of % 
York at which five representatives of the United Hebrew Trades should meet 
five representatives of the Central Federated Union of New York. 

2. That a representative of utive Council of the American Federation 
of Labor shall preside and participate for the purpose of endearorinf to carry out 
the program of unity, solidarity, as well as loyalty to the American trade union move- 
ment as represented by the A. F. of 

That the representatives of the Executive Council of the A. F. of L shall 
report the results of the conference to the following meeting of the Executive 



4. That until after the conference and report as above provided, Resolution No. 
120 be held in abeyance. 

5. That unless a more satisfactory situation be established the Executive Council 
shall be authorized and empowered to carry the provisions of Resolution No. 120 into 

In conformity therewith, on December 16, 1917, the undersigned called and par- 
ticipated in a conference in New York City, between the representatives of the United 
Hebrew Trades, and the repre. of the New York Central Federated Union. 

e derated Union made the following proposition: 

'1 unions affiliated to the -i Federation of Labor as local unions or 

through international unions, making application for representation to and in the 
: Hebrew Trades, must be seated by that body, and full and sincere support 

All independent, dual or seceding unions at present seated in the United Hebrew 
Trades must be unseated until they affiliate to the American Federation of Labor 
direct or through International Union so chartered. 

The United Hebrew Trades shall not by resolution or otherwise endorse, support 
or assist any dual, independent or seceding organization." 

The United Hebrew Trades asked that another conference be held. The con- 
ferees decided for a further conference. 

January 6th another conference was held in New York City. At that conference 
the United Hebrew Trades asked for extension of time so as to prepare those whom 
they represented for the acceptance of the recommendation of the previous meet 

The matter was held until the latter part of January, when on the 25th of that 
month I wrote the United Hebrew Trades and insisted upon an immediate answer 
so that the matter might be reported to my colleagues of the E. C. at their meeting 
scheduled for February loth. 

February 7th I was officially notified that the United Hebrew Trades had declared 
against the proposition of the Central Federated Union. 

The whole matter came before the E. C. at its meeting, February 10-17. The 
directed that the instructions of the Buffalo convention as contained in Resolution 
No. 120 should be put into effect. The resolution is as follows: 

'Whereas, a serious condition exists in the clothing industry in Greater New 
York, caused by what is known as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, who seceded 
from the United Garment Workers of America, with the intent of destroying that 
recognized organization; 

Whereas, the United Hebrew Trades, a body consisting of various local unions 
of different trades and which is not chartered by the American Federation of Labor, 
renders all possible support to the seceders, and is, therefore, antagonistic, and 

Whereas, the United Hebrew Trades fathered and abetted and is in sympathy 
with the organizations known as the "People's Council" and "Workmen's Council," 
who have declared in public print their intention of organizing one thousand branches 
in the United States, the purpose being to, if possible, supplant the American Federation 
of Labor; be it, therefore 

Resolved, That the Thirty-seventh Annual Convention of the American Federation 
of Labor direct all international unions whose local unions are represented in the 
United Hebrew Trades to order all such local unions to withdraw from that body, 
and in case such local unions refuse to withdraw, to reorganize them under the banner 
of the American Labor movement." 

Therefore, the object of this letter to you is to officially advise you of the action 
taken upon this matter and to ask that the local unions of your international union 
represented in the United Hebrew Trades in New York City, take necessary steps 
to conform to the directions of the Buffalo convention, and that you advise me in 
regard thereto. 

That the American Federation of Labor and the Executive Council have been 
absolutely fair and just in the course followed in the United Hebrew Trades case, no 
one, I am sure wHl dispute. There is a bona fide central body in New York city affil- 
iated to the A. F. of L., that is, the New York Central Federated Union; there is 
no need for another central body in New York City, particularly one organized on 
a racial or political basis. In addition it is prejudicial to the good name when such 
a body is not only organized but refuses to accord equal advantages to all bona 
fide trade unions. The A, F. of L. counts upon your prompt co-operation and com- 
pliance with the declaration and decision, that if any local union of your international 



rj in the Unite,! Hebrew Trades of New York d u be 

directed to withdraw therefrt 

Trusting that 1 may hear from you at your early convenience and with kind 
regards. I am, 

Anally yours, 

(Signed) SAM. CONFERS, 

President American n of Labor. 

us add here that the effect of the anathema pronounced against us by 
the A. F. of L. it its 1914 convei Philadelphia was the reverse of what 

it was intended to be. We hav n and prospered and loomed bigger 

eh succeeding convention of the Federation. 

The 191 : idclphia declared that whether right or wrong 

\vr i heard. That was supposed to seal our fate. It did, but not 

in tl. onal sense. It served to enhance the determination of our mem- 

bership to fight their depending entirely upon their own strength. 

\vonderful powers of self-reliance were thus developed in our organization. 

The 1915 convention in San Francisco found the rlq**"rfg worker strong 

ai d militant < :ihk- worry to our enemies in that 

the 1916 convention, in Bait he cause of the Amalgamated 

found a powerful echo in open charges of strikebreaking 

madt floor of the convention, in the sight of the delegates and visitors 

:i thr hearing of the entire labor movement, against John Ferguson, ores- 

Baltimore Federation of Labor, because of his strikebreaking 

conspiracy against us in that i 

At th< i. in Buffalo, our organization was more than once 

the storm center of discussion both in comi >oms and at the plenary 

sessions of the i >n. 

The labor movement is I- to realize that we cannot be exterminated 

by persecution, and also that it, the labor movement generally, is the loser 

r being oftic idc of its ranks. 

Our Press 

When we met in second convention, May, 1916, in Rochester, our 
sted of two weekly publication- Fortschritt in Yiddish and Lavoro in 
.n. It has since grown to five. Our message is now carried to our mem- 
bership in five different languages. You all know their great educational value, 
] that 1 of them. While bringing to our mem- 

bers regularly the news of our organization we are striving to make our 
journals as much as possible general working class educators. We believe that 
we have fully succeeded. 

Our papers in the order of their appearance, are as follows: 
Fortsch Idish Weekly, began publication April 2, 1915. 

Lavoro, Italian Weekly, began publication September n. 1915. 



Advance, English Weekly, began publication March 9, 1917. 
Industrial Democracy, Polish bi-weekly, began publication March 9, 1917. 
Industrial Democracy, Bohemian bi-weekly, began publication October i r 

We hope to still further increase the number of our publications so that 
we may eventually reach our members in all languages spoken by them. 

In this connection we desire to call your attention to the necessity of 
inr.king subscription for our official journals obligatory. It will serve the double 
purpose of bringing our papers regularly to the members' homes and of providing 
a sound foundation for the papers. The publication of five papers, which number 
we hope to increase, is a tremendous financial burden to the organization. It 
cannot be met by voluntary subscription. Subscription must be obligatory. 
The subscription should be included in the regular dues by adding one cent a 
week to the per capita tax. This system has been adopted by a number of our 
local organizations but it should be made general. 

Educational Work 

We have never failed to emphasize the great importance of general educa- 
tional work among our membership. The press cannot cover the entire field. 
It must be supplemented by lectures and other means of education. For a 
time it had been impossible for us to undertake such general educational work. 
The problems of the moment were too many, too pressing, and in most cases 
of an emergency nature. During the last lecture season we did finally make 
a beginning. We met with most encouraging success in Baltimore. All lectures 
were attended by large audiences. Frequently many people were turned back 
because of lack of space. Among the lecturers were prominent educators from 
Johns Hopkins University. Our members benefitted greatly by last season's 

Our Chicago organization, too, had a very successful lecture season with 
very prominent lecturers. 

We laid out elaborate plans in New York, where the Board of Education 
co-operated with us by placing school facilities at our disposal, and we were 
also assisted by very prominent and capable lecturers. The experiment in New 
York did not meet with the desired success. But that simply means that the 
methods must be further studied for the purpose of revising them so as to 
insure success. It is our intention to make the educational work a permanent 
feature of our organization. We realize that we will for some time be con- 
fronted with obstacles in this new field but we are determined to overcome them. 

Higher Per Capita 

At several of our sessions we faced the financial problem which was 
becoming more serious and compelling as our work was progressing. We 



have been constantly called upon for increasingly greater assistance in organ- 
m work, strike support h oon became clear to us that a per 

i of fifteen cents a month could not yield sufficient revenue to meet the 
ing obligations of our organization. We repeatedly postponed action to 
per capita in the hope that we might be spared that uninviting 
task. But every succeeding Board session found the necessity for a large 
revenue greater \\ V t'uuiu ..,..-;.'-. 1 the inevitable and presented the situa- 
tion to the membenh i \\ -d a motion to raise the per capita tax 
from fifteen cents a month : five cents and it was carried by a : 
endr.; The new rate went into effect 
cginning of the year 1918. 

At our February, 1918, session we decided to set aside twenty per cent, 

out of each tw cents per capita, for a strike fund. We 

hat is a mere formality, for if the amount thus set aside should 

- sufficient the balance of the treasury would be drawn upon if necessary, 

1 to create the fund as the consciousness of the existence of such 

id will -ivr :nbers a larger sense of scur 

Relief Outside of Our Own Ranks 

Our meml t been frequently called upon to lend a helping hand to 

their fellow members who were struggling for a better and happier life. Thus 

B to the assistance of th< Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 

. Boston, Louisville. Rut they also contributed liberally to other noble 

and \vnrthy causes. 1 -us cases : When the Cloakmakers* 

Union in New York was fighting for its life our members raised some twenty 

odd thousand dollars for it. About eighteen thousand dollars passed through 

the General Office, besides various amounts that were sent by our members 

through other channels. 

contributions were also made by our members to the defense fund 
for Mooney and his colleagues, generally known as the San Fi 

t n the tef Committee undertook its various enterprises for 

the collection of of the Jewish War Sufferers in Europe 

again contributed liberally. At the end of 1917 a campaign for 
a five million dollar fund was inaugurated. Our local organizations volunteered 
their co-operation and plans were laid out which if carried out completely, 
1 have yielded an enormous amount of money as our members' share. 
Unfortunately, howc% fuellcss Mondays interfered with these plans. 

ig to the shortage in coal the Government proclaimed a number of Mondays 
as holidays for the purpose of suspending industrial activities on those days and 
<s in working time made the successful execution of the 
impossible. But substantial amounts of money were raised by our mem- 
bers for the People's Relief Fund. 


In connection with this relief work we issued the following appeal: 

To the District Councils, Joint Boards and Local Unions of the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers of Ameru 


About two months ago some of our local organizations undertook to raise funds 

for the relief of the sufferers in the European war zone. The prospects for success 

It looked as if our organization would add one more great 

ment to its glorious record of successful accomplishments. Speedy and liberal 

relief for the suffering multitudes is so urgent that no speed may be too great and 

no amount of money, ho\v< e, may be too liberal. 

t while our will was there our power was not. A new factor, entirely unforeseen 
and unexpected the Government's order for the suspension of industrial activities for 
a number of days served to temporarily check our work for the great cause. It 
made effective work impossible for the time being. 

That order for the suspension of industrial activity has now been rescinded. Our 
members are again in a position to work full time. The duty to resume the fulfillment 
of our self imposed task now becomes still more imperative. The need for relief is 
surely no less now than it was a few months ago. A great deal of valuable time has 
been lost. We must see to it that effective work is done from now on. 

The General Executive Board, at its session in Philadelphia last week, devoted 
much of its time to the consideration of this matter. After a thorough discussion the 
Board unanimously decided to issue an appeal to the membership to renew the activity 
for the relief of the war sufferers and to do all in their power to make it a success. 

Our sister organization, the International Ladies Garment Workers' Union, had 
designated Washington's Birthday as War Relief Day. That day is one of a group of 
legal holidays for which the cloak manufacturers pay their employes, in accordance 
with an understanding between them and the Union. The Union proclaimed that 
Washington's Birthday should this time be celebrated by work instead of by rest. 
That meant two days' pay for that day's labor. The additional pay was set aside 
for the War Relief Fund. It yielded a large amount of money, which is a credit to 
the workers and a blessing to the war victims. 

Our organization has no understanding with our employers in the matter of legal 
holidays and cannot carry out a plan based on such an understanding as our sister 
organization did. But the duty to come to the rescue of our suffering brothers 
and sisters rests on us nevertheless. 

We must find our way of extending a helping hand to them. The General Execu- 
tive Board appeals to you to make your best efforts in this noble task. 

While originally the appeal was made to our Jewish members only, and for 
Jewish war sufferers only, the General Executive Board appeals to all of our mem- 
bers, regardless of race or nationality, and urges them one and all to co-operate. The 
contributions received from each national group of our membership will go to the 
corresponding nationality for its own war relief purposes. The funds raised by the 
Jewish members will go to the Jewish war sufferers; the funds raised by the Italians 
will go to the Italians, and so on. 

The slogan of the relief campaign when it was first opened was A DAY'S WAGES. 
This should also be the slogan now. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
does not levy this as a compulsory assessment upon its membership. It is a call from 
our International Organization for voluntary contributions. Wherever a full day's 
wages is possible that should be the contribution. 

While it is true that with the present high cost of living a day's wages means a 
great deal to a workingman, we must remember the greatness and the urgency of the 
cause for which this money is being solicited. 

Many millions of people of our own blood, connected with us by the closest 
family ties, are suffering the tortures of a long, ruthless and unparalleled war. Our 
own country has been at war less than a year, is geographically at a safe distance 
from the enemy and economically prosperous, yet we have already felt very strongly 
the effect of the war. How great then must be the sufferings of those unfortunate 
who have been in war three and a half years, with their homes wrecked, their 



countries devastated and their lives mined? Practically all of Europe is crying wftfc 

und anguish. 

No one can bring them help except wt JHft. in this country. We are still f< 

-ough to be the least affected of all nations engaged in this war. It is our 

duty to help those who are dying from lack of food, clothing and shelter. The call 

coming to us from the other side of the ocean has been heeded by large numbers of 

our fellow citi/rns in this count now our turn to do our share We have not 

m any field of activity to which we were called Let us do our full 


Most of us come from those very countries where this terrible conflagration is 
now raging. We have found a home of refuge in this country. Were it not for the 
accident of our having left the old world before the war began we would * 

been among the great suffering let now crying to us for a crumb of bread, 

l fo 

Let us be grateful for having reached these shores before the scourge now torturing 
Europe overtook us. Let us show that we are worthy of the advantages w< 
in this country by responding to the cry of despair coming from our fellow 

Europe overtook us. Let us show that we are worthy of the advantages we enjoy 
is country by responding to the cry of despair coming from our fellow 
,: on the other side of the globe and giving them whatever help we can. 

A day's wages is a large sum for a workingman to deprive himself of. But sacri- 
are always made in proportion to the needs. The Cause calling to us compels 
'i should be made willingly and cheerfully. Remember that 

vitli our day's wages, given up in the happy consciousness of perform- 
ing a sacred dur -ular daily occupations, we continue taking 

care of our families and providing for their comfort and welfare. The giving up of a 
on ;:! for this noble cause is, after all, no greater financial hardship than the 

loss of wages because of a fuelless Monday, a strike or any other cause that may 
affect our earnings. The unfortunates for whom our contrih the 

saving of untold numbers of human lives, possibly the saving of the entire ge 

hysical and moral ruin, have at present no occupations or means olli - 
hood. Nor will they have any until the lives of the peoples generally become normal 

Pol he example set by many of our own members our contributions may 

be thout any financial hardships on us. In a number of cases our members 

have arranged with their employers to work overtime in order in that way to earn the 
ra money needed for the contribution. In that way our contribution is labor and 
not a part of our regular earnings. The additional physical exertion for a few : 
hours in a given period is surely a sacrifice that every one of us can well afford to 
In fact, it ought to be considered a pleasure and a privilege to make that 
physical effort for the alleviation of the suffering* of millions of people. If such 
ngements were possible in some cases they may be possible in many m 

A number of our members made their contributions before the industrial sus- 
sion order went into eiTrrt. Our appeal is directed to those who have not yet con- 
tributed or who have not contributed their full share. 

In the name of our great and militant Organization, which is dear and beloved to 
all of us, we appeal to you. Respond to the call of the suffering millions freely and 

rartmess and enthusiasm which have always been c 

acteristic of our membership. Take action immediately. Let there be no further 
delay. Starvation and Death don't wait. Relief must, therefore, also make hast*. 
You may send your collections to the local relief committees, if any, in your re*pec f 
cities, or directly to the undersigned. In all cases, however, you will please send 
complete reports to the undersigned. 

Urging you again to live up to the true Amalgamated spirit in this case as yom 
did in all others, we greet you in the hope of sucrr 

Very fraternally you 


JOSEPH SCHLOSSBERG. General Secretary. 
Manifesto on the Situation as Created by the World War. 

1 our banner in the clothing imiustry. at the end of 1914, 
the present world war had just begun. The general impression prevailing 



at that time was that a war conducted on so colossal a scale must burn itself 
out within a short time. "Authorities" had predicted the end of the war 
within a few months. But the war has been fiercely raging nearly four years, 
and the end is not in sight yet. Contrary to all hopes the war has steadily 
gjown extensively and intensively until it has staggered human imagination. 
Both hemispheres with half of the world's population are now in the war. 
The civilized world has developed such amazing powers as had been incon- 
ceivable before they were brought forth by the pressure of necessity. To 
sustain so much destruction of life and treasure, so much devastation, with 
the best blood withdrawn from economic and social life, for four long years, 
with the burdens growing ever heavier rather than lighter, requires a genius 
and a vitality that the human race had not been credited with before it was 
put to the test. The thought naturally suggests itself: If the vital forces 
of the people can withstand so much misery, suffering and desolation- how 
much joy, happiness and prosperity could the people give to themselves if 
they were free to apply those awakened forces to such purposes. This war 
disposes of the last shreds of dismal Malthusianism. 

As stated, our hopes for a speedy end of the war failed to materialize. 
Mot only is the war in Europe raging with growing fierceness, but since 
Ajjnl, 1917, our own country, which had been hopefully looked to by the 
suffering world as the logical peacemaker, has been one of the most active 
belligerents. The entrance of our country into the European war, actively 
battling on the other side of the ocean, has more than any other single factor 
emphasized the internationalization of the world. Modern economic life has 
completely destroyed the provincialism of the previous generation. It is mak- 
ing of all nations and races one great human family, mutual and interde- 

The world is radically different now from what it was four years ago. 
One need not be a great statesman or philosopher in order to realize that the 
world is being remade. That can be seen with the naked eye by every hum- 
ble mortal. It has particularly been visualized by the emancipation of Russia 
from autocracy, the revolutionization of the British labor movement and the 
emerging of a new proletarian International from the smoldering ruins of the 
old one. 

Briefly the situation is this: 

The war came against the wishes of the labor movement of all the world, 
and we are now in its grip. 

With the war came the long train of accompanying conditions which are 
against the interest of the people, but we are helpless in the face of them. 
They are here. The working classes have been unable to shape the situa- 
tion in accordance with their desires and can't help taking it as it is. 

But with all our grief at the war and the ruin it has wrought, we cannot 
shut our eyes to the constructive events that have happened as a result of 



the upheaval, the shaking up of the foundation of the old social order and 
the releasing of vast democratic forces, which will, without a doubt, destroy 

racy political as well as economic. With the seas of human blood 
and tears steadily swelling. c groans of tortured mankind filling 

aing curses forcing themselves on our lips for those respon- 
sible for the all the misfortune and distress, we 
must pause to greet the reju : of the world, the coming emancipation 
of manki that is v forces born out of the world's agonies will 
achieve While we cannot at present halt the process of destruction we hail 

joy the forces of construction issuing from it. So strong is our faith 
in the birth of the new democracy, the new freedom, the new social order, 
that we make bold to believe that when this war will be over the outraged 
peoples of the world will be so thoroughly aroused against their rulers and 
oppressors that inilit .vill be allowed to continue after the 

might mean armed revolution. It may not at all be a wild exaggeration 
to in ir will be over, autocracy, or what may be left 

of it. will find itself between the devil of militarism that might rise against 
it as Russian militarism rose against Czarism, and the deep sea of non-mili- 
tarism in which autocracy must suffer shipwreck upon the rocks of the 
people's opposition. 

In a word, it is our firm belief that autocracy, in its all inclusive sense, 
is now digging : . grave. The trenches from which it conduct 

operations lead directly to it 

In view of this situation, which in the above sense is magnificent I 
all of its hidcousness and inspiring with all of its shocking cruelties, we 
thought it our duty to issue a pronunciamento for the guidance of our mem- 
We have, therefore, issued the following manifesto, which we are 
sure has met with the full approval of our membership: 

Manifesto on the Present World Crisis to the Membership of the 

A. C. W. of A. 

The World War i -ear. Much as the great drama has 

touched every human heart in the civilized world from its very beginning, it 
has been brought home to the working class in this country during the 

ve mon< iculary through three events which stand out boldest 

of all. They are, in their chronological order : The great Russian revolution, 
the entrance of the United Stat< e war, and what we may truly call 

the new birth of the British Labor Movement. 

The Russian revolution was in every respect the greatest and most far 
reaching of all revolts and uprisings of the oppressed of the world against 
their oppressors recorded in human history. It was the greatest contribution 
ie democratic forces in all countries, and of greatest historical signi- 
ficance to the working classes of the world. 

America's entrance into the war added one hundred million souls, and the 



vast resources of tlu> count rv. to the nations allied against Prussian 


The ringing message of the British Labor movement to their fellow work- 
ers everywhere proclaiming the struggle for a NEW SOCIAL ORDER, and 
calling upon the peoples of the world, those of the enemy nations included, 
TO DECLARE THEMSELVES, has thrilled the soul of every liberty lov- 
ing man and woman battling for a free and democratic Industrial Common- 
wealth, without classes, without imperialism and without wars. 

In the course of the past year, too, Prussian militarism has thrown off all 
restraint and challenged Civilization in the most amazing shamelessness and 
brutality, surpassing all of its past records of vandalism and ruthlessness in 
Belgium, Serbia and everywhere else. German militarism now stands as the 
brigand of the world, employing all the attainments of thousands of yean of 
civilization in assassinating, crushing and plundering nations. 

Brave Russia, with its limbs still aching and its wounds still bleeding 
from the slavery of centuries of which it had just freed herself, is heroically 
struggling against the Prussian military monster who is seeking to destroy 
her. Our hearts go out to heroic Russia; we are tempted to say holy Rus- 
sia, martyred Russia. Russia's role in this frightful world tragedy gives the 
struggle against German militarism new meaning, new substance. 

In the past year, too, President Wilson has infused a new spirit in the 
peace discussions among the nations, proclaiming democratic terms, aiming 
at a general, democratic and lasting people's peace. President Wilson's re- 
cent addresses to the Congress of the United States have given force and 
vitality to the people's demand for a peace on the basis of no annexations, 
no punitive indemnities and self-determination of the nations. 

President Wilson has thrown the weight of his high authority in the 
scale against the establishment of militarism in this country. 

Militarism is militarism with all the horrors that it implies, wherever and 
whenever it may exist. 

Prussian militarism is the greatest horror of the world only because it 
has attained the highest degree of development. Any other militarism de- 
veloped as fully and as completely would be a like menace to the nations 
of the world. It is the fervent hope of all mankind that the termination of 
this war will end war forever. The imposition of a permanent militarism 
upon the people can have no other meaning than preparation for another 
war. President Wilson has earned the gratitude of the American people by 
his firm stand against inflicting the scourge of militarism on us. 

President Wilson has also voiced the sentiments of the American people, 
particularly of the working class, by his inspiring message of cheer and hope 
to the Soviet Congress of the Russian nation in Moscow. 



The hearts of all liberty loving people of the world arc with Russia. They 
have been yearning for an opportunity to send to Russia a word of sympathy 
and encouragement in her great crisis. President Wilton's heartfelt mesttgt 
has gratified that burning desirr It has shown isolated Russia that American 
democracy is ready to extend to her a helping hand and bring her closer to 
the democracies of the world so that she may draw strength from a cordial 
sisterhood of free peoples). 

With President Wilson we hold that we are not at war with the Teutonic 

peoples. They are suffering under their militarism more than do other peo- 

always h them in times of peace as well as in riflict 

ir. Unfortunately, for themselves as well as for the rest of the world* 

they have not as yet the strength to free themselves from it. We want their 

cooperation, as soon as we can get it, in overthrowing all militarism and all 

We joyfully take this occasion to reaffirm our attitude as repeatedly 
<-d in our press to the effect that we stand by President Wilson in bis 

efforts for a democratic and durable peace, as shown by his recent addresses 
e Congress of the United States, by his message to Russia and by bis 

steadfast opposition to militarism. 

The Labor Movement of the world cannot progress fully and attain 
highest goal unless its chain encircling the globe is complete and has all links 
as defeat for any nation, as distinguished from its rulers and 
oppressors, will be an injury to mankind, and an imperialistic peace wi: 
the foundation for more wars, so will the enmity of the working class of 
one country for that of another because of the crimes of their masters, destroy 
that spirit of solidarity which is indispensible in the international struggle 
for the NEW SOCIAL ORDER. The modern labor movement, like modern 
civilized life generally, is interdependent and international. 

History is moving with bewildering speed. The working class of the 
world is today the biggest factor in this task of rapid history making. The 
world is being recast and remoulded. Radical and revolutionary changes in 
our accepted modes of life have themselves become a normal condition. The 
interests of the human race call upon the working class to step forward, 
assume power and save civilization from disaster. In Russia and in England 
the worker* have made giant strides in the direction of carrying otr 

ion history has assigned to them. In Russia the working class did it in 
the only way possible in that :\ country. In England, where the work- 

ing class was fortunate enough to live under more civilized 

izcd methods arc possible. 

We congratulate the British Labor Movement upon its epoch 
declarations, which have the approval and support of the labor movements 
in the several countries represented in the Inter-Allied Labor Conference in 



We speak for the great masses of the organized workers in our industry, 
each and everyone of whom, we know, hails with joy the ennobling utter- 
ances of our British fellow workers. 

We extend most fraternal greetings to the Mission sent to this country by 
the working classes of the Allied countries in Europe and bid them a hearty 

Long live true social democracy ! 
Long live th< now working class International! 
the General Executive Board of the 


General President. General Secretary. 


Lengthy though this report is it does not tell the full story of our activities. 
Our organization is so young and our tasks arc increasing so rapidly that the 
recording of our work must be done with the greatest of haste. As we said 
on a former occasion : We are too busy making history to be able to write it. 
This report was written so close to the convention that a more complete 
record and a fuller discussion of the many problems we dealt with and of 
those we are confronted with could not be attempted. In this concluding 
part we shall present to you only a few brief memoranda. 

Uniform Financial System for the Local Unions. 

Since the last convention we have made great improvements in the 
financial methods of our local organizations. You who arc familiar with 
the system, or lack of system, prevailing under the former regime, where 
records were mostly conspicuous by their absence, and seldom served any 
useful purpose by their presence, will appreciate the great value of the 
uniform and modern financial system we have devised for our local organ- 
izations. We thought it worth while going to the big expense of printing 
uniform ledgers, day books, cash books, vouchers and other paraphernalia. 
We have urged all our local unions to adopt them. While we have not 
made the use of our system compulsory and not all of our local organizations 
have adopted them as yet, the number of those who have is steadily growing. 
The smaller local union is thus in a position to enjoy the benefit of a modern 
and up-to-date system of financial accounting. We feel that it will not take 
long before the system introduced by us will be installed throughout our 

Our official auditor, Mr. Victor Benedict, has audited the books of a 
number of our local organizations in different parts of the country, including 
also Montreal, Canada. In all cases the locals have found those audits and 



the improvements in bookkeeping made by the auditor of great benefit. One 
of the greatest advantages is the fact that those audits made under oar 
direction tend to strengthen the confidence of the membership in the 

We have also laid out plan^ for the gathering of all such si 
may be of interest to our organization. We are making efforts to educate 
our local officers to the necessity of such data. We arc sure that in time 
11 become a very useful source of information. We hope to be able to 
how t s in our report to the next convention. 

Bonding of Local Officers. 

We havr entered into an arrangement with a bonding company for the 

bonding of the local officers. According to this arrangement the office it 

instead of the particular officer. This is a great advantage for the 

local unions, as it dispenses with all the red tape incidental to bonding and 

makes it unnecessary to -roccdurc when a new officer is elected. 

!>ond is continuous for the office regardless of who the officer is. The fee 

is most desirable that all of our subdivisions should avail 
selves of this opportunity. The necessity of it need hardly be emj 

Our Organization Active on AH Fields. 

Our members have not confined their activities exclusively to the ii 
trial field. There is hardly a branch of social activity along the lines of 
progress in its best sense as understood by the modern working cla- 

i our organizations have not participated. In the progressive labor 
world the Amalgamated has been recognized as a definite and powerful factor 
for the promotion of the great cause of labor. The Amalgamated has never 
failed to line up with other labor bodies in various undertaking* of the 
progressive labor movement. Outside of orr immediate field the most 
important contribution was quite naturally made by our organizations and 
members on the political field. When the socialist campaign comes we are 
second to none in our contributions of funds, labor, enthusiasm, CimliditM 
cteil officials. We made a particularly great contribution last 
November in the State of New York. Of the Socialist officials and lawmakers 
elected, the following arc members of our organization : Judge Jacob Panken, 
of Local 156, New York. Assemblyman Abraham I. Shiplacoff of Local 213. 
New York. Alderman Baruch C. Vladeck of Local 3, New York. Alderman 
Abraham Bcckcrman of Local 4. New York. Supervisor Jacob J. Levin of 
Local 14. Rochester, N f . Y. Alderman George Stahley of Local 14, Roch- 
ester, \ V 

We are proud of the fact that the labor movement activity of our members 
is broad and general, and are also proud of their doing their full share in all 
cases. With this magnificent spirit, vast fund of energy 


of self reliance, all of which are growing and increasing as our members arc 
doing their work, who can doubt that we will attain our great goal I 

Recent Wage Increases 

While this report was being written our membership in different parts of 
the country has secured new and additional wage increases, some of which 
have already been recorded here and some have not. To mention but a few : 
ten and fifteen per cent to the employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx in 
Chicago; ten per cent to the employees of Strouse & Brothers in Baltimore; 
two dollars weekly increase to all the Children's Clothing workers in New 
York on May first; two dollars to all clothing cutters in New York the 
first week in May; also increases to the Shirtmakcrs in New York and 

In connection with the recent wage increases we are glad to note a new 
policy that has lately been inaugurated by some of our local organizations. 
In New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and probably also in other 
places, the members voted to contribute the amount of the first week's wage 
increase to a special reserve and defense fund which the organization may 
fall back upon in case of an emergency. The wisdom of such action ; 
obvious that we heartily congratulate those organizations who have taken it 
and recommend it to those who have not. 

Great Victory for Children's Clothing Workers. 

Just before leaving New York for the convention, May 7th, we were 
happy to record a victory in the strike against the firm of Samuel Glass, 
Brooklyn, after a struggle of more than three months. For the first time 
the working conditions in the plant of that factory will be under the juris- 
diction of the Joint Board of the Children's Clothing Trades. 

May Day Celebration. 

We cannot close without a word about our May Day celebrations. 

The first of May is a legal holiday of our organiatzion. Each year we 
have asked our members to celebrate it in a fitting manner, and they never 
failed to do so. This year, that day had a special significance. 

It was the first May Day with our country as an active participant in 
the world war; the first May Day with free Russia as an established fact, 
all the unfortunate conditions in that country notwithstanding; finally, the 
first May Day with the inspiring messages of the British Labor Party and 
the Inter-Allied Labor Conference as the property of the working classes of 
the world. Such a May Day it was our duty to celebrate in a manner that 
should give true expression to its spirit. Our members rose to the occasion. 
Never before did this country see such a May Day celebration. As was 
expected, New York led. The New York Joint Board boldly hired Madison 
Square Garden, the largest meeting hall in the country, for its May Day dem- 
onstration. Its members did not go to work that day. They responded to 



the call of their organization to celebrate the International Labor Day. Over 
and of them paid a relatively high admission fee and filled the vast 
ithratrr In a ! iition to addresses and resolutions expressing the aea- 
tinients ..f the occasion, our members had the joy of hearing lyric and 
musical artists of the highest order, members of the Metropolitan Open 
Company, who rendered classic music and revolutionary hymns. Our dem- 
onstration aroused universal interest. For an organization of one imhtttiy 
to fill Madison Square Garden by a voluntary sale of ticket* was sufficient 
to ta imagination of the most optimistic. That was not or 

May Day demonstration in the accepted meaning of the term ; it was at the 

- lime a revelation of the wonderful powers of our organization. How 
much good may these powers yet bring for our own members and for the 
working class generally! The Madison Square meeting also netted * 

:sand dollars for the relief of the War Sufferr 

same spirit was manifested at the May Day meetings of oar 
ization in other parts of the country. 

Thanks To Our Friends 

We close with an expression of sinccrest thanks to all labor 

izatiuns and individuals who have faithfully stood by us in all of our 

trying struggles \Vhilc we cannot enumerate them here we shall ever 

remember them all. Gratefulness for the good done to us is one of the 

>;cst characteristics of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

To you, delegates, and through you to our great membership, we cipctat 
our heartfelt gratitude for the trust and confidence reposed in us. It is an 
honor and a privilege to serve a movement so virile and so imbued with the 
of the revolutionary mission of the working class of the world. 

We have fought and we have won. Our success and victories r- 
brought to us greater tasks and heavier responsibilities, and we have under- 
taken them all with absolute confidence in our ultimate triumph. 

.ts are moving fast. When the war will end the change 
war life to peace life might come with a jerk that will shake out from their 
moorings those who will be caught unawares. The enemies of labor will 
take advantage of the transition in order to reduce labor to the level of the 
dark days of old. Woe to those who will find themselves unprepared. The 
now fills the world with the call to labor to prepare itself fully 
and effectively for the events that arc yet to come. Those who will heed 
this call will be saved. 

In obedience to our own spirit as a progressive and militant organisation; 
in obedience to this special call to the proletariat of the world, and in 
encc to the general mission of the working class, let at reaffirm, 
and strengthen our dctr ^n for a one hundred per cent enlightened 

organisation of the Clothing Workers of America. 

On to Victory! 



At the conclusion of his report, the reading of which took nearly four hours, the 
Secretary received an ovation, everybody rifling, cheering and applauding for several 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG, rising in response to the demonstration, said: When 
artists are applauded they usually play or sing their part over again. Do you want me 
to read the report over again? (Laughter.) I want to add this to the report. The 
program of the Inter-Allied Labor Conference and the New Social Order of the 
British Labor Party were inserted here for the benefit of the delegates, so that they 
may be able to read them and familiarize themselves with them. Unfortunately, these 
documents, which should have been made most popular amongst the working men 
In this country, are least known among them, while non-working men know them 
better than the working men. We have inserted them here so that you delegates 
really should take the trouble and time to read them. You have heard a great deal 
about them, but have never read them. I also want to say that the financial 
will be read at the next session, and that the General Executive Board will, no doubt, 
have some recommendations to make as a part of its report, also at subsequent sessions. 

President HILLMAN: I received a telegram yesterday from Professor Ripley 
that on account of our strikes in Philadelphia he could not come here. Professor 
Ripley, as I explained before, is Chairman of the Board of Labor Standards, lie has 
authority to decide in every controversy between us and the employers in the making 
of uniforms. For the last few days we had a strike and a lock-out in the city of 
Philadelphia. He had to proceed to Philadelphia and New York. He wired me today: 
"Afraid my chance to address convention lost, as I must go to New England. Sin< 
Charles Ripley." I am sorry that we will not have the opportunity to listen to him. 

Report of Committee on Miscellaneous. 
Chairman William Drubin reported for the Committee on the following resolutions: 


Whereas, the co-operative movement helps the working people to free themselves 
from the exploitation of the capitalist class; 

Whereas, such a movement affords the workers an opportunity to become accus- 
tomed to manage industry for themselves; 

Resolved, That the Amalgamated Clothing Workers go on record as favoring 
the co-operative movement among their members. 

LOCAL 51, A. C. W. OF A., 

P. DeLucca, 
Adopted: Ulisse De Domlnicii. 

WM. DRUBIN, Chairman. 

F. J. BARTOZ, Secretary. 

The committee recommends the adoption of this resolution. 

President HILLMAN: You have -heard the report of the committee. The recom- 
mendation is to concur with the resolution. 

Delegate LEVIN. Brother Chairman and Delegates Before you vote on this 
resolution consider whether it will benefit the working class as a whole. The 
co-operative movement will not relieve in any way the working class. I would like 
those who introduced the resolution to answer this question: Where the necessities of 
life are lower, is the working class better off? I don't see the importance of applying 
the energy of this organization In such a direction where the working class as a whole 
will not benefit by it. Therefore, I am opposed to this resolution. 

President HILLMAN: I want to make clear that this resolution simply encour- 
ages that movement amongst our locals, if they desire to take it up. 

The resolution was adopted with one dissenting vote. 


Owing to the excessive and uncontrolled cost of living, which, as the Government 
statistics show, has risen much higher than the wages of the workers, be it resolved, 
that this convention requests the co-operation of other friendly organizations for tht 
purpose of curtailing any further increase in the necessities of life. 



Be It Further Resolved. To urge ear sismbsrs to start 
order to destroy profiteering of the middleman. 

Be It Also Further Resolved. That the local onions be 
view of the incessant rising of the cost of living, s raise of 
meet the necessary demands of life. 

As to the second clause of this resolutloa. 
mends that this be done locally, not In the name of 
In other words. It means non-concurrence. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the resolution read. The 
la "non-concurrence." Are you ready for the question? 


'u.s. it is fitting that labor conventions be held in 
population is greatly In sympathy with organised labor; aad 

...ess. the workers of Brownsville have built a labor Ijnism. whldb to not 
only the pride of the community, but also one of the finest **^^*gT of Its **d to 
the wor . ; and 

oreas, the A. C W. of A. have had a great share In the creatloa aad mala- 
tenance of the Institution; 

Be It. Therefore. Resolved. That the next convention of me A. C W. of A. be 
held in the Brownsville Labor Lyceum. 


WILLIAM mirwx. Chairman. 
BARTOZ. Secretary. 

Presldt \LAN: We advise the delegates 

earn at to make nominations. We have an order of 
place for the next convention is on that order. The coot 
resolution at this time. 

Brother Rosenblum will read a communication from 

Letter from the Rsnd School. 

Comrades and Friends: On behalf of the Rand School of Social Sal SIM, aad by 
instruction of Its Board of Directors. I send you hearty coagratulalioas oa ta* great 
work your union has done within the few years of Its exist eace. aad wish you the 
utmost success in the tasks that are still before you. 

We know that the Amalgamated offers a splendid example of militant aad 
tractive trade unionism beosase its officers an 

combine efficient, orderly and disciplined action ta tae dally routine of 

t and unde 

work with a clearness of vision and understanding of theoretical principles which to 
all too rare in the labor movement of this country. Ta* service you are rsaisrtag 
is not rendered to the men and women of the clothing Industry aloas. but to the 
whole working class. 

An important element in your success Is the fact that you have always 
the Importance of education as aa essential pan of the trade union work-that you 
not been content to get members Into the organisation, but are always 
make them understand Its purposes and its needs. 

he Rand School can be of service to you la promoting tae wart of 
education among the tnassss of your members. i^jbaU count It a prlrttege to have 

We should like to call your sttentioa to the efforts the Raad School to maktat 
in the direction of a more spirlaimtd aad thorough lastruotioa aad tralaiag of 
wage workern for the purpose of equipping them for senrlc* oa the miastllU as 
well as the political field as organisers, propagandists, secretaries, aad a all etaer 



capacities. We shall be pleased if representatives of your organization will confer 
with us and see if the work can be furthered by regular conference and co-operation 
between your body and ours. 

With repeated congratulations and good wishes, I am, 

Fraternally yours, 

Educational Director. 

President HILLMAN: If there is no objection, we may refer this to the Committee 
on Education to brine in a recommendation to this convention. 

Secretary 8CHLO66BERG: There is a letter here from the Kropotkln Publication 
Society. This is an organization that has made It its purpose to publish in Yiddish, 
Socialist and revolutionary classics from different languages. They addressed a 
communication to this convention. 

(Secretary Schlossberg read the following English translation from the Yiddish:) 

"New York, May 14, 1918. 

"To the Third Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 

"Baltimore, Md. 

Tellow Workers: It is now six years since the Kropotkin Literature Society 
has been circulating Yiddish Socialist education among the Jewish laboring masses. 
We issue two large books a year two Socialist classic works translated into Yiddish. 
Last year we published two large parts of the greateet work of Karl Marx, 'Capital,' 
and are now in the process of publishing the third and last part. The society is 
publishing those books, not for the puipose of making profits. Most of the work 
is being done without compensation, as is amply proven by the fact that we have 
published eight large volumes, though we had no funds. 

"We ask you, a great Jewish labor organization, to recognize our work and to find 
ways and means to enable us to serve more directly the educational needs of yonr 
great body. 

"We greet your efforts and wish you success. 

"For the Executive Committee. 

"DR. 1. J. A. MARYSON, Treasurer." 

Brother Rosenblum read the following communications: 

Rochester, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

On behalf of the Italian Local of Rochester, N. Y., I wish most ardently that 
the convention will find ways and means to deal with the industrial oppression in 
this city. May our freedom rise from the ruins of the present slavery. We send our 
fraternal wishes to all the delegates. 

G. Artoni, Organizer. 

Baltimore. Md., May 16, 1918. 

Congratulations and best wishes. May the work of the convention result in 
your building a still better and stronger organization. 

Boston, Mass., May 15, 1918. 

Brothers, accept our congratulations. Your record of achievements is the pride 
of the Jewish labor movement. We are proud to have your locals affiliated with . 
Best wishes on the road to success. 


M. Hamlin, Secretary. 

New York, N. Y., May 15, 1918. 

We, th chairmen of L. Barash's district, greet the delegates to this convention. 
We rejoice in the great achievements of our organization. We hope that in time the 



entire labor 
Only then can we 
and hope yon will 
success, such as short 
should make tbe 

nentr-higber. higher, higher! 
of Arnt-r 



Now York. N. Y . May U. till. 

u Hugo*, car* Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

Garden Theatre, Baltimore. M 

Take my place. Greeting convention heartily in behalf of 
my regret*. Sickness. "Forward" admires splendid 
growth of Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Pledge snj 
and devotion. 

New Yor May U. lll. 

Greeting* and best wishes to tbe officer* and ilslsgife* May the 
the men's clothing worker* united In one organisation within the fold of the 
of Labor. 

International Ladies* Garment Workers' 

Now York. N. Y . May IS. 111! 

Congratulations. Beat wisbea to your convention. May yow fighting sptrtt 
your great cause bring greater bappinea* for yoor snssibor*. 1%e 
Good* Worker* will never forget tbe great aid and ssslstaaoa rendered to o*Jr nlom 
in the time of need by tbe Amalgamated Clothing Worker* of America. 


Report of the Resolutions Committee. 
Delegate PAUL ARNONB reported for tbe resolution* 

Whereas, tbe percentage system in making iStfltaeajti U a 
tow paid workers, bo a re*olved. that this convention goo* on 
that when *ettlement* are made with employers the poroeejtago rate of 
bo abolished and tbe Increase snail be on equal basis to all 
Tbe committee reonenmend Hie adoption of this resolution a* 
President HILLMAN: The committee rinnMiM<li oncurrenrw with the 

What is your pleasure. 

Delegate ZORN: What does it mean? 

President HILLMAN: It means that tf It Is a $2 Increase for the shop as a 
whole. It should not be a $1.60 Increase for the $16 man and $160 for tbe $ BBS*. 
That Is the sense of this resolution. As the 
now. the workers who received more motjey got a 
The resolution roads that Is the sense of this 
ofloers and the local officers to co-operate la that 
are arranged for they should be given In the 

Delegate ZORN: I believe that tbe experience In this 
question can only bo sol red by having a mini 
will be lost Just the same, for the reason thi 
care of himself and the km wage man Is always at the 
heard of a resolution with roforosjos to a minim on wage. We 
setts. There 1* a minimum wage law IB that Stats 

President HILLMAN: May I segaost to the 
do with the resolution. 

Delegate ZORN: I know, but If we adopt the resolstlosx lot s s4opt It *%ly If 



it can be carried out. In my own personal experience it did not work. Perhaps in 
the future it will work better, but the minimum wage 

President HILLMAN: The minimum wage has not been reported on as yet. The 
delegate will speak on that when that resolution comes up. 

Delegate KROLL, of Local 61: Might I give the brother some information on 
that proposition? We received a percentage Increase now in the cutting and trimming 
trade. Our Local 61 fcas got that percentage increase and we have figured what 
the average wage was, and every man in that cutting and trimming room received 
the same amount Our last increase was $3. Everybody in the shop got the same 
increase. And to my way of thinking, it is the best system that we could possibly 
devise, because after all when there is a flat percentage increase some men get 
$4.60 and others get 80 cents. I think, as a labor organization this is the most 
vicious system we could inaugurate, because we are building capitalists in our own 
ranks. I think: that resolution should be adopted, and we Should make every effort to 
put it into effect (Applause.) 

Delegate YELLOWITZ: I would like to ask the Chair, first of all, whether this 
resolution applies to piece work or to week work. 

President HILLMAN: Piece work and week work. 

Delegate YDLLOWITZ: Well, this resolution may seem to be very good and 
justified. I believe it will be impossible to carry it through, for the simple reason 
that our work is sectionalized. You may find two people working side by side at 
the same section, one earning, let us say, $20 a week, the next one earning $36, 
making the same kind of work. Now, how can you go to work and divide an increase 
on an equal basis? This man may leave the shop today and a faster man will come 
up tomorrow. How are you going to do it? You will make it so that the slower 
man will have to get a higher price than the faster man will get. As far as the week 
work system is concerned, it is a very good thing. It can be accomplished. But as 
far as the piece work system is concerned, it will make it impossible to accomplish 
that. I believe that with regard to the piece system this should be left to the local 
unions or to the executive board, so that the lower part should not be discriminated 
against as far as an equal division is concerned of increases, which will make it 
impossible for one man working at the same part right next to the other man, to earn 
$10 and $15 a week more. 

Delegate VASTANO: From the experience that I have had In the shop, I am 
able to say that every time that there is an increase we are put in the position of 
bargaining, as much as we can, for the piece workers. I say that when an increase 
comes up, and we place an increase on the basis of 10 per cent, as our brother out- 
lined to you, we have very much difficulty in settling a price and satisfying every 
one. On the other hand, in some cases we are put in the position of accepting a 
certain amount on the garment, and then we are confronted with the proposition 
of bargaining with the contractors. I believe the remedy for this evil would be 
that each and every one in the industry, regardless of his output, should get the same 
amount of Increase. If there is an increase of $1, let each and every one get an 
Increase of $1, regardless of whether they are working piece work or week work. 

Pelegate JACOBSON: Previous question, Mr. Chairman. 

i Delegate I of Rochester: A point of information: I would like to ask 

the Chair, since he has had the experience on mediation boards, whether this will 
not be used by the manufacturer as a means of lowering the percentage, as heretofore 
the higher paid man received a larger amount than $2 or $3, and the consequence 
will be 

President HILLMAN: Is this a point of information or a speech? Which is it? 
I will also take the opportunity to make a speech in answering your point of 

Delegate BECKERMAN: A point of information: Will this establishing equal 
increases mean no larger increases for the higher-priced man? 

President HILLMAN: The sense of this resolution is that whatever increase 
we may be able to receive, and that depends on the strength of the organization, 
should be equalized so that the lower-priced man should not be at a disadvantage, 
which he always has been. I wish you also to understand that this does not become 
part of our constitution. It is an instruction from the convention to the officers to 
use their efforts in that direction. It does not become part of the constitution. 

Delegate ARNONE: Brother Chairman and Delegates The committee found 
that most of the trouble happens wherever there Is piece work. I remember a case 



way back la 1912. The nun offered 7 per eeat sacreaae. Now Imagine the peoato 
who made 110 got 70 cents, and those who made $20 week got $L40. No* 
settlement is mad. r everybody to the factory that is all well and food. We 

do away wife the percentage to creases to such a way. so that the man receiving the 
low wages receives the same Increase as the man receiving the niche 
(President HUsmaa put the resolution to a vote aad It waa carried.) 

>U ii"\ NO. 36. BY LOCAL 21ft. ON A SCALE OF WAGES. 

Whereas, we. the hasters aad tailors of Local lift, affiliated with the New York 
Joint Board of n have made every effort to uphold the 

It is nevertheless beyond our power to maintain the 
Whereas, a minimum scale of wages will relieve ehe serious 
paid labor, he It therefore 

Resolved. That the Third Convention of the A. C. W. of A. Is hereby 
to establish a minimum scale of wages. 

Amalgams ted Clothing Workers of 

The committee recommends to refer the same to the General 
for investigation and consideration. 

President H1LLMAN: The motion is that this matter be referred to the 
O. E. B. for Investigation and consideration of the matter. You all heard the 
Are you ready for the question? 

This resolution was unanimously adopted. 


Whereas, our fellow workers of Italian origin have now reached a stafu of 
industrial organization that has made them a strong **d riniptiHii factor In the 
labor movement of this country; and 

Whereas. In order to better carry on their propaganda among the two DitllteE 
working men and working women who speak the Italian language aad are still 
unorganised, and. therefore, a great menace to the welfare and future of the 
masses, they are now about to start a dally paper which shall be the 
mouthpiece of the hopes and aspirations of the working class and shall 
ultimate emancipation from wage slavery; 

Be It. Therefore. Resolved. That the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
in convention assembled, hereby endorses this Initiative of our Italian workers 
pledges its moral and material support to the establishment of such a 
and calls upon all labor organizations to do likewise, 



Italian Ttalantlon of New York. 

The committee recommends that the resolution be 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the lilliii of the 

Committee. Are you ready for the question? 
This resolution was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, it Is a proven tact that political power when to the bands of the 
class Is a strong weapon to the struggle against capitalism, and 

Whereas, Socialist victories at the polls have given new courage aad 
to the working class for Socialism, be It 


Resolved, That this convention urge Its local unions throughout the country to 
work, support and vote for the candidates of the Socialist party in the coming State 
and Congressional elections. r 

LOCAL 63, A. C. W. OF A. 
Paul Arnone, 
B. Romano, 
O. Vaatano, 
A. Bellanca, 
D. Dl Nardo. 
"*Mf*-% +**&*^^^-J t nMt&ypfUi& 

The committee recommends concurrence in this resolution and moves its adoption. 
This resolution was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, there are two labor leaders in San Francisco in jail, Thomas Mooney, 
sentenced to die, and Warren K. Hillings, sentenced to life imprisonment, for crimes 
they never committed, and 

Whereas, it will be one of the greatest blows to organized labor in America if 
both these sentences should be carried out, and 

Whereas, such an act of injustice has already been committed by hanging four 
labor leaders in Chicago many years ago, therefore be it 

Resolved, That this convention ask for a new trial for Mooney and Billings, so 
that they may have a chance to prove their innocence. 


Committee recommends its adoption, and that telegrams be sent to President 
Wilson, the Governor of California, Tom Mooney and Warren K. Billings. 

President HILLMAN: You heard the recommendation of the Committee and the 
motion for its adoption. Are you ready for the question? 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: Mr. Chairman and Delegates The remarks I want 
to make now are not so much for the purpose of informing those who are here I 
know that you are all familiar with the Mooney case but for the purpose of having 
this go on our record, so that if any one should have occasion to run across it in the 
future, let him know our true feelings in the matter. The Mooney case is different 
from all other such cases in at least this one respect. There have been many cases 
that are usually called labor cases charges against representatives of the labor 
movement, and attempts by the representatives of capitalism, either to imprison 
them for a long time or to bring them on the gallows. But this is the first time 
where the innocence of the people involved has been proven so conclusively, and 
the attempt of the conspirators to secure their conviction by all possible means, not 
stopping at perjury or anything else, has likewise been proven so conclusively that 
we have prominent men in this country, not connected with the labor movement, 
raising their voices in behalf of these people. And we have this peculiar situation: 
The President of the United States intercedes in behalf of Mooney, sends a telegram 
to the California Governor, urging a new trial for him, and lends his support the 
full support of his great prestige to a committee that has made a special investiga- 
tion upon his order, and that committee's report shows that there was a foul 
conspiracy carried out against Mooney and his colleagues. And we have, on the other 
hand, that disgraceful spectacle of fourteen official representatives of organized labor 
In that very city publicly and officially giving their support to Prosecuting Attorney 
Fickert in a campaign for his recall. It was with the support of these traitors to 
organized labor that Fickert won out in the recall election at the time that Mooney 
and the others are struggling for their lives. We (have the shameful demonstration 
of the helplessness of the labor movement in this country, that when the President 
of the United States raises his voice and he says that "Mooney is innocent, and I 
lend the power of my prestige to ask for him a new trial so that he may go free 
because of his Innocence," official representatives of the labor movement call upon 
the workingmen In that very city to stand by the man who was battling to bring 
them on the gallows and they won out. It is not only a case where we have to stand 
by men and women of our own class to stand by them and defend them against any 
attempt that might be made upon their liberties or their lives, but it is a case where 
we have to make the demonstration as great, as strong, as powerful, as impressive as 
possible, so that those traitors may be held up to the condemnation of the working 



class and that the liberation of Moo 0*7 should not to only the liberation of ihat one 
human being and the others who are with him la jail la San FrancUco. but that It 

should at the same time also to a vindication of the intelligence of the workings clans, 
repudiating the traitors, and holding them up to the condemnation and ridicule of the 
working claas of today and of the working class that is to come. And let this Union 
stratlon also to one of the great factors which will, in tto very near future, acsjsm 
the emancipation of the American labor movement from all the traitors, from all 
the enemies within who are now holding the labor movement under their 
(Great applause.) 

President H1LLMAN: Are there any further remarks? Ton heard the r 
mendation of the committee. 

This recommendation was unanimously carried. 

Be It resolved that this convention orders the 
to initiate a movement to form a needle trades) department in the 

:at the International Ladles' Garment Workers' Union, the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union, the Cap Makers' Union and the Furriers' International Union to Invited to 

It is the experience of every organiser when to goes for organisation work In 
cities where there Is no organisation, that lack of co-operation, on tto part of tto 
above-mentioned International Unions, makes It much more difficult to bring the 
tailors Into the union; therefore, if a needle trade department would to sstshllsnsd 
not only would we have a 100 per cent organization, but we would get better results, 
and by doing so we would establish one big Industrial union in the garment Industry 
ie United States and Canada. 




The committee recommends that this matter to referred to the Incoming O. EL & 


Delegate RIGER: Brother Chairman and Delegates I believe that a resolution of 
such great Importance should to accepted by the convention without referring 
the General Executive Board. Even if this resolution Is never to to put In practice, 
let the outside world know that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
believes in industrial unionism, and Is ready to practice It 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: If this resolution la adopted here, will that mean It 
Is adopted In principle and sent to the General Executive Board for action? 

President HILLMAN: The resolution, aa it reads, mentions tto names of the 
organizations which are connected with the American Federation of Labor. The 
recommendation Is that this whole matter to referred to the General Exec 
Board. I wish to say for the benefit of Che delegates that we have time and 
gone on record In favor of a needle trades organisation. Not only that, wo 
made an attempt in that direction which, unfortunately, failed. 

The committee recommends that this matter to referred to the 
Executive Board. Any further remarks? 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: I move to amend that we adopt tto 
principle and refer It to the General Executive Board for action. 

This was seconded. 

amendment is more satisfactory than the actual recommendation of the inmmlUss 

Of course, it takes more than one party to strike a bargain- Whst I mean to say i 
that this convention should go on record as favoring a needle trade organisation. I 
believe that that In itself will create somewhat of a sentiment and the sttmsni may 
develop Into something concrete. The tact la. that tto only thing that Interferes with 
a proposition of this kind is something that is entirely artificial, and that Is the tact 
that those organizations sre affiliated with the A. F .of U But I believe it m 
advisable for this convention to go on record favoring this At least lot me 
something. Let us initiate this. For this reason I support the 



go on record favoring the idea and leave it to the G. B. B, if they see any possible 
way of carrying the thing through. (Applause.) 

Delegate GOODMAN, of Local No. 2: I am in favor of It. 

Delegate ARNONE: I want to inform you that the Resolutions Committee favors 
the proposition in principle, and the reason why we refer it to the Gen utive 

Board is that we believed that some time in the near future the other organizations 
may also take up this matter. This is the opinion of the committee. And I don't 
see the necessity of the amendment at all. The moment you endorse the resolution 
iidorse the principle of one industrial union in the needle industry. That is the 
war I understand it 

President HILLMAN: We have already endorsed the needle trades' organization 
time and again. The resolution itself would not carry the meaning that we reaffirm 
it at this convention. The amendment reaffirms and instructs the G. E. B. to act 

The amendment was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, new machinery is being introduced in our Industry more rapidly now 
than ever before, and 

Whereas, the introduction of this new machinery id increasing the unemployment 
among our members, thereby causing severe suffering to them and also to our 
organization, therefore be it 

Resolved, That this Third Biennial Convention goes on record in favor of reducing 
the hours of labor in proportion with the introduction of such new machinery. If 
the Introduction of this new machinery will only apply to one particular branch of 
the trade the hours of labor for that particular branch of the trade should be reduced 
proportionately, thereby safeguarding our members from lack of work. 

LOCAL 3, A. C. W. OF A. 

Alex Cohen, 
S. Weinstein, 
M. Goldstein, 
C. Revayel, 
L. Necrenburg. 

(This was received with great applause.) 

Delegate GOODMAN: Brother President, may I make a correction. We have 
Introduced a resolution calling for a forty-four-hour week, which was brought in from 
Local 2, and the committee has not reported on that. 
President HILLMAN: You may get it later. 

Delegate REVAYEL: Do I understand that the committee recommends that the 
hours should be reduced to 44 hours for the machinery workers as well? 
Chairman of Committee: Yes. 

Delegate REVAYEL: Brother President and Delegates: I am in full accord that 
the reduction of hours is a desirable thing, but the question of machinery is a different 
proposition entirely. As you all know, there is a pressing machine by which one man 
does the work of four. There is a cutting machine whereby 1 three or four cutters 
are replaced by one. There is also a basting machine that takes away work from four 
Now, if this would be a question of only the reduction of four hours I don't think 
this would solve the problem. Therefore I appeal to the delegates that this 

of machinery be taken separately. (Applause.) 
Delegate FRIEDMAN: I am asked by the delegates of the cutters to explain to 
this convention why the cutters did not put in resolutions for the 44 hour week. 

President HILLMAN: That is not the subject for discussion at this time. 
(Laughter.) Are you for or against this resolution? 

Delegate FRIEDMAN: We are in favor of this resolution. 

Delegate RABINOWITZ, of Local 144: I am in favor of the resolution as read that 
the 44 hour week be accepted. If it is a question of machinery, I fortunately or unfor- 
tunately happen to be a machine presser myself, and I know from experience with the 
pressers that although we have a 48 hour week, we have never worked 48 hours BO far. 
We always work less than that. I believe that this organization should see to it that 
the people in the trade make a living. I believe that this resolution should be adopted 
without making any distinction whether it is pressers, cutters or others. 



Delegate BBCKERMAN* i cannot understand the logic of any deieciie who tries 
to separate the reduction of hoars and says that the introduction of machinery Is a 
different question. iulte agree with any delegate that if setae machine was 

introduced that makes it possible to do the work four limes as fast, that If you oouid 
possibly do It. reduce the hour, to one^uarter and establish the 11 hour week and 
keep up with It (laughter and applau**) But unfortunately it Is not quite ss easy to 
C et It as It Is to say It on the floor. And that Is the only reason why I disagree 
the delegates who believe that machinery Is a different proposition. In fact we have 
not an yet K ot cut, 44 hour ~k Ana i brllevc it a made very plm by ih* 

that before you can get the 44 hours you have got to work up an education Cor U. Yo 
have got to prepare the minds of the members and of the public and then pr 

thi rmfnds 1 of P thTmanufacturer. 1 believe if this convention goes on record for the 
ek we are making aplsodid progress. Let us try to 

there is a possibility of putting them Into affect, and not merely pass resolutions for 

the pleasure of patting resolution!. 1 say that the 44 hour week It a goal for which 
we ought to work, and 1 think that when we reach the convention two years ~ 
now we will have the 44 hour week In our trade. (Applause.) 

Delegate NEWMAN of Local No. 40: 1 would like to address the convention in 

President HI LI-MAN 1 am sorry, but it against the rules, you will have to 
apeak In English. 

'legate Newman expreased himself In favor of considering this machinery 
proposition separately.) 

President mi.UMAN: Even if you have not convinced me on that question, yen 
have convinced me that you can express yourself In English. 

Delegate IS- We took into consideration the fact that If we shorten the 

hours that would mean more employment for other people. The less hours we 
the more work there will be for the people. Our organisation Is In favor of 
Give us all the machinery that Is possible and we are going to shorten our 

Delegate WISE: Mr. Chairman and Brothers A brother who works on the 
ne says he Is fortunately or unfortunately a presser. and he has not felt that 
the machine has done us any harm. 

1LLMAN Let me explain to you what he said. Us said that since 
he has been working on the machine he never worked forty-eight hours In a weak; 
that he Is working thirty hours, but the price is fixed so that he makes In thirty 
hours what he would have otherwise made In 48 hours. 

Delegate WISE: I am coming to that. 1 understand that. He said that he never 
works 48 hours and Is making a nice living by the machine in 30. and he did not 
feel any harm from the machine. But I say it Is very unfortunate for the fioalt who 
are kept out of a job by the machine, even If he works only 30 hours. You have three 
pressers put out of work, as the machine does the work of four men. We nave many 
people who are starving on account of the machine. And I say we ought to accept 
that resolution separately and see what we can do with that particular branch of the 
machinery- We have machines that are throwing out of work three-quarters of the 
pressers. For that reason, i say, we ought to accept that resolution separately. 

Delegate DE LUC A: 1 believe that the question of the machine is not put in a 
proper light by the resolution. Reducing the hours where machines are 
places of the men. and especially on the pressing machines. I think should be 
as a separate question. 1 am in favor of the resolution as brought in. 

Delegate WBIN8TB1N: We hare here two resol 
ence to the 44 hour week and the other is the machl 
a separate question. The 44 hour week is a good tiling 
for the workingmen. In the uniform shops we have five L 

a day. which Is enough -0 pressers. That Is a separate" ^ 

move to amend that this question should be put separately, the 44 hours separate and 
the machinery separate. 

President IULLMAN: If there Is no objection, we wfll simply take out that 

Particular resolution which has bean given la by the pressers of Local S. We wfll 

? n n l x e 2 lher r** 01111101 * ^ connection with the 44 hour week. I will send 

resolution back to the committee on resolutions to 


Resolutions on the 44 Hour Week. 

The following are the resolutions submitted by the various delegations on the 44 
hour week: 


Whereas, this new machinery and new speeding up methods of production 

unemployment, be it 

Resolved, that this convention goes on record to start a campaign for the establish- 
of a forty-four hour working week. 

Joe Goodman, Chairman, 
Harry Schypps, Secretary. 


Whereas, the 44-hour week has already been established in one part of the country 
by our organization, and whereas new development in machinery and new system of 
production shorten the season in the industry and speed up the wage workers In the 
shop; be it 

Resolved, that this convention goes on record to begin a general agitation and 
legislate a 44-hour week for the clothing workers In the United States and Canada. 




Whereas, the conditions in the children's clothing trades have reached a point 
where, in order to safeguard the health of the workers, it is most essential to shorten 
the working hours; and 

Whereas, the system of the so-called "section-work" has developed to such an 
extent that the worker is compelled to keep pace with a breakneck speed; and 

Whereas, the worker must bend all the energy within him to keep up this 
impossible pace thus undermining his health; and 

Whereas, a statistical investigation plainly proves that a large number of our 
members are afflicted with tuberculosis, the dread disease which is caused by this 
Inhuman overwork; be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that a shorter workday be established and that 44 hours constitute a 
working week. 


Whereas, the introduction of new machinery in the clothing industry is being 
made very rapidly, and 

Whereas, through the introduction of this machinery an artificial unemployment 
of our members and the workers in the industry is being created, be it 

Resolved, that this convention goes on record to work for the establishment of a 
44-hour week and instruct the General Executive Board to bring same into life by 
presenting this demand to all the clothing centers in the Industry. 



Be it resolved that this convention goes on record in favor of establishing 
44 hours a week work in the clothing industry, and that a general agitation be started 
at once throughout the country. 


reason that we want to reduce the boors to 44 a week in order 
employed, not so much because we want to shorten the hours of 
more time to go around Idle, but 1 claim that under the ssotloi 
he new machinery, the worker most speed up in order to keep 
vorkers alongside of him working at a high speed That must 


In place of all resolutions bearing on the 
the following: 

"Be it resolved that this convention 
week and that the General Executive Board start an 

Delegate MARC< 1 favor the reoommeiulsMoa of the 

not so much for the reason that we want to reduce the hours to 44 a week to 
to have more people 
labor in order to have 
system today, with the 
up with his fellow workers 

affect the health of the workers. At the convention la Rooaseter we adopted the 48- 
hour week. We were not convinced then as we are today that we could put It Into 
effect Today we are more oonfldent. Every one of us la oomfldent that at the next 
convention we will be able to report that the 44 hour week Is an establishes 
1 hope that the General Executive Board will do all that is possible to bring about the 
44 hour week in our industry. 

Delegate LEV1NE of Rochester: It seems to me that we should adopt the 
recommendation of the committee, and. as I understand the dslsgsts from Local No. 8 

President HILLMAN: Pardon me, that resolution has been withdrawn. The 
machinery question will be handled separately, in order to prevent confusion. Aa 
1 understand it. Local No. 8 brought in a separate request to the convention. Now let 
us judge It on Its merits and not connect It with any other proportion. We are only 
discussing the 44-hour week question now. 

All resolutions were then unanimously adopted. 

Delegate GOODMAN: 1 recommend that the 44-hour week apply to oar officers 
also (laughter and applause). 

President HILLMAN: A day or a week? 

Delegate GOODMAN: The question is whether they work by machine. 

President HILLMAN: That the delegates of the convention will have aa oppor- 
tunity to find out before they get through. 

1 wish to say to you delegates that this resolution now passed has m 

than resolutions as we passed them at our previous conventions. When 1 

the vote saying that ayes seemed to have it and so ordered. I felt that this 

has more to say whether the 44-hour week will be enforced than any element 

I want to bring that home to you so that you may realise the great possibility. I 

to bring that home to you so that you may realise the great responsibility I 

bring to you the same warning that Delegate Beckerman brought We have 

stag* where we are simply passing resolutions of what we would like to have. The 

resolutions we are passing at our conventions today are what we must and can have. 

I would like the delegates in their further deliberations not to pass resolutions that 

will convey the Impression that we never intended to have them put into effect. I 

do hope that when we convene at our next convention, your officer 

or the other officers elected, will be in a position to report to you the 

board reported to you today, "you have given us a command to bring the 

and it is now an accomplished fact." 1 hope that we will be able to say likewise two 

years from now. 'The 44-hour week as ordered by the convention In the city of 

Baltimore has been enforced." (Applause.) 


Whereas, our organisation Is composed of members of 
Whereas, delegates attending our convention are not always able to express their 
thoughts otherwise than in their own tongue, and 

Whereas, this hinders many active and experienced men from iisUlrjpsjttM la 
the deliberations of the convention and giving us the benefit of their 
therefore be It 

Resolved, that the delegates should have the right to 
their tongue and same should be interpreted to the delegates of the 

LOCAL 3. A C W. OP A- 
Alex Cohen, 8. Weinsteln. M. Goldln. U Revayel. U Neeremberg 

Is non -concurrence, 
(After a few announcements were made the meeting was adjourned at C:fcS p m.) 



Sixth Session 

Thursday, May 16, 1918. 

The convention waa called to order at 9:30 a. m. Chairman Hillman presiding. 
Secretary Schlossberg read the following communications to the convention. 

Boston, Mass., May 16, 1918. 

Congratulations. Tailors strengthening American labor movement through efforts 
of Amalgamated. Long may it live. 


New York, N. Y., May 16, 1918. 

the employees of Plumack's Shop, 7 Chatham Square, New York City, greet 
you the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
and hope for a unanimous vote in favor of the forty-four-hour week. 

L. OAKLANDER, Chairman Plumack's Shop. 

Boston, Mass., May 15, 1918. 

The members of Local 25, A. C. W. of A., of Boston, send fraternal greetings and 
hope convention will result in much good to all members. 

H. W. EISBERG, Secretary. 

Worcester, Mass., May 16, 1918. 

.irticst congratulations and best wishes for success from Local 174, Worcester. 
Individual and collective thanks to L. Marcovitz for his splendid work for Worcester 
Pants Makers. 

SAMUEL GOULD, Business Agent. 


By Delegate Alex Cohen 


Whereas, the pants trade at the present time is scattered in various parts of the 
country, and 

Whereas, this branch of our industry is in certain respects different from other 
branches of the clothing industry, and 

Whereas, we are striving to maintain the present standards and conditions prevail- 
ing in the City of New York, and 

Whereas, new pants factories are constantly springing up in various country 
towns where the working conditions are most miserable, and 

Whereas, the workers in those places are at the mercy of the clothing manu- 
facturers who exploit those poor slaves, men and women, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that the incoming General Executive Board stands instructed by the 
Third Biennial Convention, assembled in the City of Baltimore, to appoint not 'ess 
than two special organizers for the purpose of organizing the pants industry all over 
the country. 


A. Miller, H. Goldoft, D. Nlrenberg, D. Weiss, N. Sussnick, L. Shapiro, J. Yelo- 
witz, D. Isaacs, H. Rubin, B. Weiss, H. Novodvor, J. Newman, Lorenzo De 
Maria, Thomas Frisa, M. Mascalo. 

The committee has considered the resolution and we recommend this favorably 
to the General Executive Board. (Applause.) 



President HILLMAN: The recommendation of the committee la reference to the 
General Executive Board to put it into env 


there are many cutters throughout the 
ch as Chicago, Roeheat. rmati. Baltimore, 

and several other cities, who are still unorganised, and whose wages are to low that 
there U danger that they may undermine the conditions of our members, be It 

Reaolved. that the General Executive Board is hereby authorized and Instructed 
to put on sufficient cutters' organisers to remedy this erU. 

Ileckerman. Loca Friedman. Local 4; Meyer Senter. Local 4 

Jacobaon. Local 4; Abe Sllverman. Local 9; Louis Fein berg. Local t; Jack 
Kroll. Local 61; 8. Geler, Local 61; Frank Patrick. Local 61; A. Walla. Local 
116; A. Feldman. Loca 

The committee recommends reference to the G. B. B. with the 
that the Board should not confine itself to cutters. The beat men available should be 

President HILLMAN: The recommendation of the committee Is that this matter 
be referred to the incoming G. E. B. for action. You have all heard the motion. 
Are you ready for the question? 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 


We, the Palm Beach Workers, of Local 167, affiliated with the New York Joint 
Board, request the Third Biennial Convention to organise the 
throughout the country- Our desire to be organise) 
"Garment Workers." Our dreams were realised only 
born. It was the New York Joint Board who organised us. 
dition*. established an eight hour day Instead of ten and eleven hours a 

a are not secure if the rest of the workers in our 
ised. With machinery daily Introduced in our trade, which 
skillful and tends to bring In those elements which undermine the riomjllsoisi of the 
organised shops snd threaten our very existence, be It, therefore, 

Reaolved. that we ask the delegates to the Third Biennial Convention to give 
the matter of the Palm Beach Workers earnest and proper consideration. 



The committee recommends reference to the G. E. B. 
Delegate SHAPIRO: I would like to speak In Yiddish. 
President HILLA! I am sorry we can not do that: It 

the rules of the organisation. 

la there any objection to the recommendation of the committee? 
There was none and the resolution was unanim 


Whereas, a great number of Polish workers In the clothing Industry are unor- 
ganized, and 

Whereas, organised Polish clothing workers in the Amalgamated wish to hear 
from time to time about our organisation, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the General Executive Board put In the field a Polish General 
Organiser with Instructions to visit every Polish center In the clothing tismHii of the 

-d States and Canada. 

F. J. BARTOSZ. Delegate Local ft. 

The committee recommends concurrence. 

President HILLMAN: The committee rinomssHlml ecsseanasui with the 

The resolution was unanimously carried. 




Whereas, a great number of Bohemian workers are unorganized, and 
Whereas, organized Bohemian workers in the Amalgamated wish to hear from 
time, to time about our organization, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the General Executive Board put in the field a Bohemian organizer 
instructions to visit every Bohemian center in the clothing industry of the United 
States and Canada. 

JOHN DRASAL, Local 230. 

The committee recommends concurrence with this resolution. 
President HILLMAN: Delegates, you see the committee is very liberal. After we 
get through I believe we will need about one hundred and fifty more organizers. 
The committee recommends concurrence. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted. 


Whereas, the Chicago Clothing Workers, notwithstanding the memorable strikes 
of 1916 and 1916, are only partly organized, and 

Whereas, the clothing manufacturers of Chicago, the worst enemies of organized 
labor in our industry, through their association are still able to retain their auto- 
the lives of tens of thousands of our fellow workers, which consti- 
tutes a stumbling block for the advancement of our organization not only In Chicago 
but elsewhere, and 

Whereas, the Chicago Joint Board, conscious of its responsibility and duty, 
has determined to put an end to such a state of affairs, and is now conducting an 
intensive campaign for organization, and 

Whereas, because it is a known fact that the manufacturers of Chicago are not 
going to yield easily, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W. of A. hereby 
instructs the general officers to do all in their power to assist the Chicago Joint 
Board until the City of Chicago, the second largest clothing center in the United States 
and Canada, is completely organized. 

Hyman Isovitz, 
Samuel Geier. 

The committee recommends concurrence. 

The resolution was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was confronted 
with a serious problem, endangering the grand achievements which It has won for its 
members in all the clothing centers of America, because of the lack of organization in 
the great clothing center of Rochester, N. Y., and 

Whereas, the clothing manufacturers throughout the country have used Rochester, 
while unorganized, as a means to force lower standards of life on our brothers else- 
where, and 

Whereas, the clothing workers of Rochester are beginning to realize this fact, 
are awakening to organization activity and are determined to build up a powerful 
organization which will bring the twelve thousand clothing workers into the ranks of 
OUR GREAT AMALGAMATED, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America instructs the General Executive Board to give all possible assist- 
ance to the organization work in Rochester in order to freo the men and women 
employed in the Rochester clothing industry from physical and moral enslavement 
due to the accursed "Benevolent System" which the Rochester clothing manufacturers 
are imposing upon their workers. 

JACOB J. LEVINE, Member Local 14. 

The committee wishes to recommend the following in place of the resolution 
just read. 



Where*., the AmalgMitad CleXhing Worker* of America through lu past 
- baa proven to the Clothing Workers of America what it U willing to do la 
order to improve working condition*. 

Whereat, lu power* will be limited in proportion to the cities that 

Whereas, the fact that clothing workers IB the City of Rochester are 

not onlr suffering for them but Is slso a constant menace to the (rand achieve- 
through hard and bitter struggles by the tens of thousands of ow meabsffl 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America decides to urgently call upon the clothing workers of 

-pond to the call of our organization with all the 
is left In them from the accursed "Welfare System" that 
have Inflicted upon the twelve thousand men and women of that 

Be It Further Resolved, that the O. B. B. stands Instructed to look after the 
Of the Rochester clothing workers and Is authorised to take any and all steps that 
they will deem necessary for the purpose of bringing the clothing Industry of the 
f Rochester under the banner of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 

Be It Further Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the 
ag Workers of America, assembled on May IS. 1*1 s. In Baltimore. Md.. 

its full moral and financial support to the men and women employed la the 
Industry of Rochester. n the struggle for a better and nobler life that 

only be accomplished through organization. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the committee's report. The 
reports a substitute resolution. 

Delegate LEVINE of Rochester: Brother Chairman and fellow delegates i 
have no objection to the substitute. What 1 would like to call the attention of the 
delegates to is that the resolution does not consider that this is a question coaoeralag 
not only Rochester clothing workers. If this resolution Is adopted I would like to 
call your attention to the fact that It concerns every organized clothing center la the 
J States and Canada. The clothing workers of Rochester are the lowest paid. I 
believe, although they are making the finest clothing, and the manufacturers are 
beginning to use Rochester to undermine conditions elsewhere. There is also the 
possibility, if Rochester should remain unorganised, that in the near future 
will be affected. To do justice to the General Officers. I wish to state that in 
past four years the general office has done everything in every way 
organize Rochester. But the very fact that they did not succeed In 
powerful organization in Rochester proves that what has been done 
Perhaps some may say it is the fault of the Rochester tailors. I am not 
discuss as to who Is to be blamed. The causes should have been considered 
ai the present day Rochester clothing workers are awakening to these facts 
are determined to build up an organization. The propaganda work which has 
going on in the last four years has not been wasted. With the aid of our 
organizer the most conservative and reactionary people are awakening today 
coming Into the organization. I hope and trust that the General Executive Board 
will do all In Its power to maintain the tradition of carrying out this resolution. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 


Resolved, that this convention instructs the Joint Boards and District CovacOa 
that in the future, when settlements are made with manufacturers, they should Insist 
that tenement house work should be completely abolished. 

The committee recommends concurrence with this resolution. (Applause ) 
Delegate ARNONE: I wish to"state that In the question of tenement 1 
the Amalgamated is about two thousand miles behind. I say that this 
once and for all should make It their business to make the 
that tenement bouse work belongs to the Middle Ages. la a city like New 
or a city like Philadelphia, while many tailors may be walking the streets there Is 
plenty of work for the tenement houses. Now. I say if our organization would put 



a stop to it we would establish a condition where the unemployed tailors In the 
city could get work. I say that from now on when any settk-nu nt is to be made the 
manufacturers should be made to know that there Is no more tenement house work 
to be done. I appeared In Albany before a special committee of the legislature. The 
politicians there told me that "We know why you don't want the tenement house 
work, it is because you want the men to get all the work." They don't realize that 
we are looking after the sanitary control of the garment industry. 

The Amalgamated has done a lot for the Italian workers. If the Amalgamated 
will put a stop to the tenement house work it will remove the worst sort of exploitation. 

Delegate EISEN: Brother Chairman and Delegates I am not against this reso- 
lution, but I would like the delegates not to be under a wrong impression that the 
Amalgamated had not done anything to abolish the tenement house work. 

President HILLMAN. Delegate, you are speaking to representatives of the 
Amalgamated. They know exactly what is going on. 

Delegate EISEN: I feel, though, that this is an unjust indictment against the 
Joint Boards and District Councils. I feel that in Baltimore the District Council has 
succeeded in abolishing at least 75 percent of this tenement house work. 

Brother CO! roth or President, I wish to say that the impression made by 

Brother Arnone in order to be emphatic and to impress upon you the importance of 
this resolution was not the right one. Brother Arnone, having been long with the 
organization, knows that it was due to conditions prevailing in the City of New York 
that tenement house work was not abolished. It was not in any way due to the 
unwillingness on the part of any man in the Joint Board or the Joint Board as a 
whole. If I remember correctly. Brother Arnone was the head of a committee to 
work for the abolition of tenement house work and that might have been the reason 
It was not abolished. (Interrupted by laughter and applause.) But as far as the 
resolution is concerned, there is no doubt that we want the resolution adopted. We 
all wish to see tenement house work abolished. 

The resolution was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, a great part of the Washable Sailor Suit Trade is unorganized, and 
Whereas, many attempts were made to unionize these shops, and 
Whereas, thus far all attempts were unsuccessful, be it therefore 
Resolved, that this convention endorse a general strike in the Boys' Washable 
Sailor Suit Trade in New York City and give it moral and financial support. 

LOCAL 169, A. C. W. OF A. 

Inasmuch as Local 169 is a part of the Children's Clothing Joint Board of New 
York, we recommend that this resolution be referred to the Children's Clothing Joint 
Board of New York to act in co-operation, with the general office. 

President HILLMAN: You heard the recommendation of the committee. The 
recommendation is that it be referred to the Children's Clothing Joint Board and they 
should receive the co-operation of the incoming G. E. B. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, the overall manufacturing industry in the United States and Canada 
is practically unorganized, and 

Whereas, the working conditions and wages in this large industry are far belcrw 
the normal standards, and 

Whereas, the overall workers are desirous of organizing under the banner of 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that the General Executive Board be and is hereby instructed and 
authorized to appoint general organizers for the overall workers of the entire country 
at the earliest possible opportunity. 

(Signed): L. Marcovitz. S. Zorn, L. Lebovitz, J. Blame. F. Lerman, N. Blller, 
J. Palaimo, J. Penninl, T. Morelli, H E. Sher, D. Oilman. 



We have discussed this resolution la connection with. Resolution No. 19 and 
read to yon now Resolution No. It. 

17, NEW Y01 

The blowing resolution waa paaied at a ipecUU meetinf held on April t. lli. at 
M Orchard Street. New York < 

Whereas, It U essential for the A. C. W. of A. that every branch of the men's 
POMIM laiMtn itosjld t-.- orjajtiati, .u,, 

Whereas, there are thousands of uuorgsnlied men 
the overall makini industry In the United Stales tolling under 

Whereas, the unorganised overall workers being underpaid and 
hours are detrimental to the Interests of the overall workers organised 
banner of the of A .. therefore be It 

Resolved, by the Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W of A., com 
ilthnore, Md . that the Incoming General Executive Board he Instructed to 
gnrate an organization campaign among the unorganised overall workers of the 
and be It further 

Resolved, that the New York schedule of prices is to be consulted when making 
price lists on overalls. 


KRON. Secretary. 

The Committee recommended concurrence to cover also Resolittosj zf. 


there are between two and three thousand Russian worker* la the 
ranks of the Children's Clothing Trades, and many thousands more throughout the 
country in our industry, and 

Whereas, these members are greatly handicapped In their union activities by 
the fact that even our constitution in the membership books is not printed In their 
own language, be it 

Resolved, thst the General Office publish a weekly journal in the ItOMJiii language 
and also print due books in the Russian language, and be it further 

Resolved, that in order to hold the Interest of h Russian workers la our 
organization a Russian organizer be appointed for that purpose. 


We recommend that the constitution be printed in the Russian language and that 
If possible a Russian organizer be appointed. The matter of publishing a paper we 
recommend to refer to the General Executive Board. 

President HILLMAN You heard the committee's recommendation i wish to 
state to those delegates who are directly interested In this not to be under the ftmproe- 
slon that these resolutions will automatically send in organizers. It is a very hard 
task to find proper and suitable organisers. 

The report of the committee waa unanimously adopted. 

LOCAL 168. 

Whereas, the members of the Wholesale Clothing Clerks* Union know what 
of organization meant for them in the past, and 

Whereas, the members of our Union are now ready and willing to revolt 
conditions that are Intolerable for ealighfoaed human beings. 

We now call upon this convention to assist us in building up a 
to combat the evils of our trade, so that in the future we will be in a podttom to 

help ourselves, but also help any part of our organization that may ask for omr 
support In the struggle against their exploiters. 


The committee recommend this to the General Executive Board for 



President HILLMAN: The recommendation is that this matter be referred to 
the General Executive Board. 

Delegate GREENBERG: Brother Chairman and delegates: This question has 
arisen several times before the General Executive Board. The resolution brought 
before the delegates at this session was that we have no paid official or organizer to 
conduct a campaign in the clothing industry, which involves from two to three thou- 
sand clerks. Out of those two or three thousand clerks we have about three hundred 
and fifty members in our organization. There are no paid officials to go out agitating 
in the various clothing houses to induce the men to join our organization. We, there- 
sent in this resolution so that the General Executive Board shall be able 
to put in an organiser, one of the members or a delegate from our organization, to 
organise the entire industry of the wholesale clothing clerks in New York. There 
is no other city that has clothing clerks organized as the New York clerks have 
attempted. About ten years ago we attempted the same thing, but met with a 
failure. Today we are proud to say that we have been successfully conducting a very 
wonderful campaign in the trade. Only last week, according to yesterday's issue 
of the "Call," I have noticed a strike has been called in New York for an increase In 
wages and a forty-eight hour week, which strike was won within forty-eight hours' 
time It is important that the Wholesale Clothing Clerks' Union keep up their good 
work and that the officials of the organization see to it that a delegate be elected and 
paid by the general office, if not fully, partly. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, we must admit that industrial organization only is effective in our 
shops, also that we are teaching for many years that the Amalgamated is organized 
industrially, but in Baltimore alone we have sixteen locals, and each local confines 
itself to its own trade and often blocks the way of the others; also every local has 
its own autonomy to decide or reject anything proposed by the central organization, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, that the General Executive Board be instructed to start an agitation 
for one industrial local in every city, but members may be allowed to form nationality 
branches to hold meetings in their own language. 

F. J. BARTOSZ, Delegate 69. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the report of the committee. The com- 
mittee reports non-concurrnce. 

The report was unanimously carried. 

Delegate ARNONE: I ask for the privilege of introducing a new resolution. 

Delegate ISOWITZ: I object in view of the fact that we passed a rule 

President HILLMAN: Please, I will explain the rule. The rule is that a delegate 
may introduce a resolution if he secures the unanimous consent of the convention. 

Delegate ISOWITZ: Well, I object. 

President HILLMAN: The resolution cannot be introduced. 

Delegate SENTER: I think that the resolution should be heard first and then 
objected to. 

President HILLMAN: Well, the delegate objects before hearing what the reso- 
lution is. (Laughter.) 

Delegate BECKERMAN: I would like information. I would like to know the 
reasons of the delegate, why he objects to the resolution before hearing it. 

President HILLMAN: The delegate has a right to object without any reason 
He has that privilege. (Laugter.) 

At this point Delegate Isowitz withdrew his objection. 

President HILLMAN: The objection has been withdrawn. Is there any other 
delegate in the house who wishes to object? 

President HILLMAN: Permission has been granted for the introduction of the 
resolution. You will please give it to the assistant secretary. 

Delegate COIIKN: I want to explain to the delegates that I have a similar case. 

President HILLMAN: Ask permission. 

Delegate COHEN: This morning a delegate from New York arrived 

President HILLMAN: Delegate Cohen, you are now reporting as chairman of the 
Organization Committee, and this should not be brought up now. 

Delegate COHEN: I ask the unanimous consent of the house for the introduction 
of a new resolution. 

(There was no objection.) 


Assistant Secretary Potofaky hereopon road the following two aew 




Committee on Organisation. 

Resolution No. 107. by delegates from Locals 4. 8 and tt. oa charter for 
Drivers' Union. Referred to same committee. 

i.i.-ni i ill. I.MAN Delegate Bison, on behalf of the **- **t- oa 
moats, wishes to make an announcement, which may be in 
ponement of our trip to Washington. 

Delegate B18BN: Brother President and delegates: I wish to 
at 11 o'clock machines will be here ready to take all delegates to 
will start out from this hall at 11:30 and go to the 
picture will be taken of all delegates. Than the 
and proceed to tour Washington. They will stop at a 
in a few different important places in Washington and them make a 
the city and parks of Washington and proceed back to Baltimore to the 
where an entertainment has been arranged for the delegates (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: We have very little time left for this mills I am 
asked to introduce a few representatives who were delegated to tato 
various purposes. I shall ask the speakers not to 
each, as I have to present three or four speakers before we adjourn tato 

The Jewish People's Relief Committee has delegated Mr. B. Zuckeri 
this convention on Its behalf I shall now introduce to you Mr. B. Zuckormaa of the 
Jewish People's Relief Committee. (Applause.) 

Address by Mr. B. Zuckermsn. 
(Translated from Yiddish.) 

In the five minutes' time allotted me I shall bo unable to tell you all 1 have to 
tell you on behalf of the Jewish People's Relief Committee. 

In our last campaign the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
with the Jewish People's Relief Committee. Twenty-five choose 
by the Amalgamated in New York for the War Relief Sufferers. It to troo that 
large part of the individual unions throughout the country participated la the 
enterprises for the Jewish Relief in the various towns. It Is also true that the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America officially made all efforts last year to 
raise all the money they could for the war sufferers. 

I don't want to dwell too long on the conditions of the Jows In the 
I am sure that most of you know it well, but 1 want you to 
the work for the war sufferers Is not only work that 
the war. I want you to know that one of our greatest 
war is ended. No one of us knows when the war will 
will end a problem will arise for the Jews in all countries to 
homes. There are various views as to how the community shall be 
In this respect the workers occupy a special position. The workers mm 
and must be organised and. therefore. It is n 

organized Jewish workers shall give more attention to the question of relief. I 
you have very much to do. You are occupied with many 
own trade. But I want to call your attention, my friends. 
Jewish population of Poland, of Lithuania, of Oallcia, of 
death, so that after the war not a single Jewish soul may remain alive 4f that 
happen it may be that much will bo missing from the spirit of the 

rkem of America. What other organisation can hotter take It 
than you to see that after the war everything should be done that the J< 
countries may work out their own salvation and free theiasossvos from charity. I 
you. the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, who have shown sud 
revolutionary courage, to take a more active part hi aotprag the war 
can not submit a resolution, but It will be a vary food thing If you 



that the relief fund must be made a permanent income. You can not content yourself 
with occasional contributions. You must not. If you should, the work will be 
occasional. Occasional work brings nothing. The Amalgamated must take upon itself 
systematic work that each member should in one way or another make his contribution 
to the war sufferers. Maybe the plan of one day's wages may be proper. In other 
organizations It worked well, and I think that you will have to find a way as to how 
to handle this problem and give your General Executive Board instructions how to 
handle it. I hope that in the coming year the Amalgamated will show its spirit in all 
parts of the work, and will show its great soul in the work of the relief of i 
war sufferers and contribute its share to the fund of the People's Relief Conni 

President HILLMAN: We were supposed to have with us a few days ago 
Professor Ripley. of the Board of Labor Standards. He did not come here and Un- 
reason for his not coming here was our uniform department. When I say our uniform 
department I take in the organization of the cloakmakers as well as our own. Our 
organization had a strike in the City of Philadelphia and one of the largest employers 
of labor. Wanamaker & Brown, locked out several hundred of our members. I shall 
therefore give the five minutes that I would have given to Professor Ripley to Brother 
Hollander and Brother Carp, of the uniform department of the City of Philadelphia. 

Address of Louis Hollander. 

Brother President and Delegates: I shall try to make it in a minute and a qua 
That will be sufficient. The President called upon me to make a report or say a few 
words about the uniform situation in Philadelphia. I have been there now for only a 
few months. The Cloakmakers' Union in Philadelphia works in conjunction 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers. There is no difference between the Cloakmakers' 
Union and "the Amalgamated in Philadelphia. We knew that the employers were 
preparing themselves to give us trouble. We came down here last Wednesday to see 
President Hillman and Secretary Schlossberg to talk over the situation. After we 
received the advice of Brothers Hillman and Schlossberg we went back to Philadelphia. 
Then the Wanamaker and Brown lockout came. Through the influence of Brother 
Hillman we had in Philadelphia immediately, on the next day, Dr. Stone of Washington. 
We also recei ">m Professor Rtplpy. tho r>n>f administrator, to be 

in New York. We were yesterday in New York to settle the Wanamaker & Brown 
lockout. Professor Rlploy. by the way, explained that he would like to be at this 
convention but be had to go to Boston. I am glad to say that the Wanamaker & Brown 
lockout was settled by Professor Ripley. 

We came back from New York yesterday and met with the strikers. They accepted 
the report and went back to work this morning. 

Factories are being opened every day, and we will be in a position to control 
the uniform situation in Philadelphia I believe as well as in New York. I have been 
in Philadelphia only a few months, but my colleague, Brother Carp, of the Cloak- 
makers, has more to say, because he is a Philadelphia man. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: Brother Carp will use up whatever there is left of the five 
minutes. (Applause.) 

Address of Brother Carp. 

Brother Chairman, Sisters and Brother Delegates: If I bad known that I would be 
here at this convention and had had time to prepare a report for the last six months' work 
of the uniform department in Philadelphia, I assure you you would be greatly interested. 
As you know the city of Philadelphia is the city of Brotherly Love, the cradle of liberty. 
But besides that Philadelphia also has some manufacturers who are making uniforms, 
and they know more about the jungle than about a union. We are now tryinp to 
unionize their factories. There are now quite a few manufacturers in Philadelphia 
who will tell you how it feels to force a fight on us. One manufacturer told us the 
other day: "If any manufacturer wants to have a fight with you, send his m 
me and I will give him a/ good piece of advice." (Laughter and applause.) 

President HILLMAN: We have yet a f*w minutes until the cars arrive and I 
shall call upon Comrade Trachtenberg from the Rand School. (Applause.) 

Address of Alexander Trachtenberg. 

Comrades and friends: I come here in behalf of the Rand School of Social Science, 



aa you know. a Socialist and working claae educational tastitutloa. devoted entirely to 
the education of the ma ita of the workers In order to prepare for more advance* 
and more cultured leaders and worker* In the labor and flofttallot movement Two 
years ago I was In thl. vary aame hall ittiui for two weekj and attending the Amort 

can Federation of l^bor Convention. 1 waa here but aa hour yesterday when 1 eaw 

mated presenting an entirely different 
had within that hour adopted resolutions endorsing the Socialist 

this convention of the Amalgamated presenting an entirely different tasntaeia. Tom 

hope that the time to not far distant when we shall secure the endonomont of suom 
a resolution by the American Federation of Labor. (Applause.) We nope hsneuei 

there are such organizations aa the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
are the outstanding post in the social and revolutionary movement in 
We. in the Rand School, look forward to the Amalgamated Clothing Worker* of 
America and similar organisation, who are interested in the educational work, to 
further that revolutionary he old Marxians used to say that we must have 

millions In order to have revolution. In Russia it was not a question of numbers, 
It waa a question of the degree of the revolutionary ciaaa onurtoueiies that made 
the revolution possible. And it Is the class consciousness of the 
this country that will help make a revolution in 

Workers of America are on the road. They are the ones that are going to teach a 
lesson to the workers In the other industries, to inspire them with revolutionary spirit 
for revolutionising Industry. And so, although you are just one particle of the groat 
labor movement In this country, because you are revolutionary, because you are claae 
conscious, you represent everything there to In the labor movement as far as having 
a mission to perform In this world is concerned. Therefore, comrades. I wtoh in the 
name of the Rand School, a Socialist and revolutionary institution, to greet you 
and hope you will offer your co-operation, aa you are already doing, because hundreds 
of your members are going to the school In New York, attending the rlsesse. and I 
hope your organisation aa a whole will co-operate with the Rand School 
whatever assistance you can. more or less financially, to promote the 
work among the labor and the Socialist movements of this country. 1 

Presides HiLLMAN: We have called upon the uniform department from the 
f Philadelphia. I understand we have here also the manager of the City of 
Philadelphia, Brother Aldo Cursl. 

Address of Aldo Cursl. 

Mr. President and Delegates: Three or four fellows came around to me and 
suggested that I speak. I think that we could save the time. You have had spMBhse 
from Monday up to now. and It Is a little bit too much. I will be very brief anyhow. 
Brothers Carp and Hollander have told you already of the good work that has 
done in Philadelphia in the uniform department I will tell you of the good 
that you have done yesterday and today. When I go back to Philadelphia tonight I 
tell the District Council of two good resolutions that you have 
44-hour week and another one about raising the percentage equally 
I did not like yesterday to speak on that question because I am not a 
I surely waa proud of that decision, because, unfortunately. 1 have seen at 
times settlements made by which the better paid worker to t 
poorly paid worker, although the latter Is the man that should be mostly 
I am proud of that decision and we shall see to it that whenever any 
made we begin to build from the bottom up. The man who makes IIS. 118 and ftt 
a week must get $K quicker than the man who gets $30 or $3S per 

Another question that gave us 
at this meeting today. Because be represents the 

these two organizations can do wonderful work, and because they will have a 
In a few days in the city of Boston. 1 think the resolution, that was brought on the 
floor that we must have only one union in the garment industry, will be carried in 
the city of Boston and before the neit convention takes place we will nave one con- 
tention of all the unions In the needle trades (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: The Committee on Resolutions will meet tomorrow mom- 
ing at 3 o'clock sharp at Room 1*10. Southern Hotel. 1 will ask the committees to be 
on time so that they do not Interfere with our work. 

Delegate POWERS of New York: 1 have received a resolution from my local 
union this morning and I ask for unanimous consent of the convention for Its ' 
> object i< 




Referred to Committee on Resolutions. 

President HI u. MAN: I see in the hall one of our old former members, one who 
was elected on the Board by the convention in Nashville, Tennessee, Brother Jacob 
Elstein from Syracuse. I will ask him to speak to the convention for a few minutes. 

Address of Jacob Elstein. 

Mr. President and Delegates: I am here this morning in behalf of a city which 
was one of the first to join you in the rebellion against the autocratic United Garment 
Workers of America, but it has been very much neglected by this organization. Up to 
the present time the organization has done very little to get that city into the ranks 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. I am here to say a few words to you 
on behalf of the city Syracuse. Syracuse, as some of you know, was at one time one 
of the strongholds of this United Garment Workers. We were 100 per cent, organized 
under the United Garment Workers at that time. Not because the workers loved 
the Garment Workers, but simply because the manufacturers were using the label, 
and so the workers were compelled to belong to the U. G. W. in order to keep th-ir 
jobs. But the workers of Syracuse have done their utmost to do away with the label, 
because they knew that the label was detrimental to their interests and they wanted 
to get away from the United Garment Workers for the same reason. Now we have 
only about 10 per cent, of the union labels instead of 100 per cent, and we have the 
best opportunity to organize the city of Syracuse if we should try to. I can assure 
yon that if this organization sent a man there for, at the most, two months, we could 
hare 100 per cent, in the trade of Syracuse organized under the banner of the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers of America. What we need there is an organizer. The trade 
now is mostly in the hands of the Italian people, and they are all willing to become 
members of the Amalgamated, if we should try to bring them into the ranks. 

I have been asked to come down here today and ask that you try and do what- 
ever you possibly can in order to bring the city of Syracuse into the ranks of the 

It is true, there are only between 1,000 and 1,200 people employed in the trade, but 
nevertheless we want to see every city in the United States in the Amalgamated. 

In conclusion, I want to thank you one and all for the privilege you have given 
me, and I hope you will do your best for Syracuse. Let us organize them in the 
Amalgamated. I thank you. (Applause.) 

(The session adjourned at 11:20 a.m.) 


Seventh Session 

...y Morning, May 17, 1918 

The Convention was called to order at 9:4t a in . President Hillman prsslrtllf 
Secretary Schloesberg read the following communications to the convention: 
Presiu-ni H1ULMAN: Are any of the comlttees ready to report? 

By Harry Cohen, Chairman 


173, BOSTON. 

Resolution adopted at a special meeting of the Pants Makers' Union of 
Local 173. Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, on Wednesday. March . 191*. 

Whereas, the Jewish people, the most oppressed and persecuted of pssplss, nave 
suffered the brunt of the world war more intensely than sny other people, and 

lereas. the object of this war. as proclaimed by the democratic countries, is 

t.erate the small and oppressed peoples and to restore to 
be it 

Resolved, that we welcome with gratitude the declaration of 
ment and Interallied Socialist Conference of their readiness to help la the 
of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Be it further 

Resolved, that we co-operate in every way possible to tne end that the 
homeland be established in accordance with the principles ' the 

Wherefore, we feel confident that the workers of the w .- . u i *4m* 

no less than the Interallied Socialists and we hope that the Socialist Internationale 
will defend the right of the Jews to their home in Palestine. 

Our delegates to the National Convention of the amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America are Instructed to present this Resolution and to spare no efforts to see it 
adopted by the convention. 

,LER. Pr salient: 

The committee recommends concurrence *Uh this resolution to the extent that 
it Is comprised within the program of the British Labor and the Inter Allied Labor 
Conference, as submitted to us in the report of the General Executive Board of tne) 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, and which reads as follows: 

The Jews snd Palestine. 

The Conference demands for the Jews In all countries the same elementary rights 
of freedom of religion, education, residence and trade and equal cltlxenshlp that ought 
to be extended to all the inhabitants of every nation. It further siprnm the opinion 
that Palestine should be set free from the hard and oppressive guisrimsni of the 
Turk, in order that this country may form a Free State, under International guarantee, 
to which such of the Jewish people as desire to do so may return and may work oat 
their own salvation free from Interference by those of alien race or religion. 

M i ilLLMAN: You have heard the committee report on Resolution No. 
39. recommending to concur with it to the extent that It is 

r Allied labor program and embodied In the report of the General 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Are yon ready for the question? 

(The recommendation of tne committee was unanimously carried ) 



Be It Resolved, that this convention orders the General Secretary, that within 
90 days of the convention the constitution with its amendments be printed in the 
regular due books in all languages, and same be sold to the members at cost price. 


(The committee recommends concurrence.) 

President HILLMAN: You heard the report of the committee and the motion for 
the adoption of the report. Are you ready for the question? 

Delegate ZUBOW1TZ: I believe that the constitution should be distributed 
without cost. If we cannot afford to print it for free distribution, to the members, 
we should not print it at all. 

Delegate ZORN: I think that the constltuion should be printed in booklet form 
and if any member wishes the constitution, I think the few pennies that he would 
have to pay will be an easy matter. 

Delegate ALEXANDER: Move to amend that the constitution be printed in 
separate books. 

President HILLMAN: The resolution as it now reads is that the constitution 
be made part of the due book. That is the resolution. The amendment is that it shall 
be in a separate book. Has the amendment been seconded? 

(The amendment was seconded.) 

Delegate HELLER: I move that the constitution be put in a separate book form 
because otherwise the book will be too big. 

Delegate ARNONE: Brother President and Fellow Delegate.: When I drew up 
that resolution 1 made it in such a way that the General Office should print the 
constitution in a separate book form, and I don't see why so many people offer objec- 
tions. The reason why the constitution should be in a separate book form is that 
those people who are interested in it should pay for it, and I don't believe we should 
always have that continuous bother of changing books because a new constitution 
is going to be issued. 

Delegate ISOW1TZ: I am in favor of the motion that the constitution be published 
in the due books. If the constitution is placed in the due book the members will read 
it. If the constitution is printed separately the members will not read it. 

Delegate LEV INK: Does the amendment state that the duebook be printed in 
the same book with the Constitution? 

President HILLMAN No, a separate book. 

Delegate LEVINE: The motion is that the report of the committee be adopted, 
namely, that the constitution should be incorporated in the due book. The amendment 
is for a separate book to be printed. It seems to me that both the motion and the 
amendment are unwise. If you should print the constitution at present in a separate 
form you will deprive many members of it, who will not buy the constitution, and if the 
constitution, as the motion states, should be inserted in the due book, then those 
who have already the book will have to wait three or four years before they exchange 
it Therefore I move a substitute motion that the constitution be printed in a separate 
form and also that in the future it be Inserted in the due book. 

President HILLMAN: I can't understand your motion at all. Do you want the 
constitution to be printed twice? 

Delegate LEVINE: In the future it should be inserted in the due book. 

President HILLMAN: This substitute is meaningless and cannot be entertained 
on that account. I think we have had ample discussion. A vote has been called for. 

Delegate ZORN: A point of information. If the motion is carried that the 
constitution be inserted in the due books, will the due books that are out at present 
have to be recalled? 

President HILLMAN: It will be up to the office to make the arrangements. The 
convention is legislating for the organization. The office will have to adjust itself 



according to your rulings The motion is that the constitution be printed la the du 
books. The s men dm eat U that It be printed In a separate booklet. 

(The ameadmoat was defeated. The not loo waa carried that the constitution be 
Incorporated In the doe bo*' 

By Delegate Blugerman. 

l juat want to report that there have been no appeals and no irieranoea to rijirt 
OB so far 

President HILLACAN: We have agreed that no further reaolutlons win be taken 
-tbors are at end. I am afraid. 

We have with us one who la well known to the New York delegates, the cosmael 
to our New York Joint Board. 1 now take treat pleasure la introducing to you oar 
food friend. Morris Rotbeaberg. 

Address of Morris Rothenberg. 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: It Is very kind of your chairman to Interrupt 
deliberations and accord me the privilege of addreeaiag this convention 
now when the time for greetings and felicitations baa paaaed and 700 are la the 
of the serious builnsea of the organization. 

I am very glad of this opportunity to greet you aa one who through 
with my former partner. Judge Panken. stood very cloae to the cradle of the 
ga mated when It waa born and has since been In touch with Its activities). 

In thoee anxious days, preceding and following the Nashville Convention. I 

fascination the efforts of a great body of working 
they considered a denial of their elementary rights and 

K!S. It was a mighty battle that they undertook, a battle waged against great 

irhed power. I sm sure that thoae who led the fight and launched the BOW 
uadertsklnjc little dreamt that In the short space of three years moat of the dlsBcattiea 
which then confronted them In the structure of the new organs-Moo W--M be over- 
come and that It would grow to the effectiveness and the sir 

Much undoubtedly has been said of the strength an 

the organization baa reached, of the Improvements that It baa accomplished Cor its 
members In the conditions of their labor, of Increased wages, of reduced hours of toll. 

what impresses me still more Is the fact that the Amalgamated Clothing 
of America baa made of Itself a atroog moral force. 

The position of the Amalgamated Is unique. Although outside of the groat 
organisation of America, although surrounded by opposition It is yet able to 
every attack that Is made upon Its existence and has compelled many who 
111 wishes aamlnst It to come to Its support at the moment when the teat 
Mere size In numbers or funds cannot account for this Such 
obtained by moral forces back of them. 

Where does this moral force come from? How is It that other 
which have lived much longer and pose is greater numbers and larger 
surpass it In this regard ? It comet from a healthy. 
It comes from the fact that the beginnings were laid oa 
from the fact that the leadership >' miration is 

In turn, reflects the clean and healthy and honest character of the 
of Its membership. 

I am sure that the Amnlgamated will not be content with merely improving the 
material condition of Its members, but thst It will continue to 
efforts In extending the moral and spiritual InDnence of the 
particular moment and In the days that are to coma there will be 
for doing this. 

The paat three and a half years have boon the most tragic In the history of the 
world There have beea more llvea exterminated, 
has been more suffering and sorrow during this short period than in 
ceding it. It cannot be. It must not be that all of this 
be In vain It cannot be otherwise than that the world It 
agonies of the birth of a new freedom. But that freedom will oaly come with the 



defeat of that hideous monster which is attempting to spread its tentacles over ih> 
entire world; that freedom will only come when, after the destruction of that monster, 
the new order of things in i shall be shaped not by individuals holding the 

destiny of peoples in their hands by the peoples themselves. 

Organized labor, representing the toilers and the producers of the world, must 
make sure that on the day of readjustment its Influence shall be felt, its voice shall 
be heard. That will only be possible provided the working people of the allied coun- 
tries that now fighting the ugly form of militarism and autocracy will do their 
full share in the successful carrying on of the mighty struggle. By giving th>ir full 
hearted support to the efforts to defeat the aims of this common enemy of civilization 
that is attempting to dominate the world, labor will make certain that its voice shall 
be heard in the making of the new peace of the world. If organized labor be 
Indifferent or half-hearted in its support, it may by that lose the greatest 
opportunity that will come to it to make itself a mlghtly factor, a compelling force 
in shaping th reedom. 

Organized labor will only have accomplished its high mission when, acting for 
the common people, the real builders of the world, it will use its great influence to 
order a new life in which those who toil shall get the fruit of their labor, in which 
militarism shall become a thing of the dead and buried past, in which every individual 
shall have an equal right to life and to the pursuit of happiness, in which every 
nation, large or small, shall have the full right of self expression, the right to lead 
its life in its own way, unhampered and untrarameled by the dictates of other nations 
and to contribute what they are capable of to the sum of human happiness. Then, 
indeed, we shall have a world in which there will be industrial, political and up; 

By Abraham Miller. 



Be It Resolved, that this convention amend the constitution of our organization as 

No amendment or resolution parsed by the convention shall become a part of 
the by-laws of our organization unless adopted by a two-thirds majority of the votes 
cast by the members taking part in said referendum. 

The committee recommended non-roncurrence. 

President HILL You heard the resolution and the committee's report. 

The resolution advocates that nothing should become the law of our organization 
unless It is carried by two-thirds majority referendum vote. The committee reports 
non-concurrence and moves the adoption of the report. 

Delegate CO":' I think this resolution should be adopted. I think it is very 
advisable that important questions of our organization should have a two-thirds 
majority before it becomes a law. 

Delegate Si: Mr. Chairman and Delegates I do not understand why the 

chairman of the committee does not explain the recommendation. I believe that the 
two-thirds majority does not conflict with democracy, and this is one of the reasons 
that the committee has not concurred with this particular resolution. I might explain 
for the benefit of Brother Cohen and those who are inclined to feel that it is necessary 
to have a two-thirds majority for any action to become law in the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America, that this would hinder the work of the organization. 
I think a!so that in all democratic institutions it is accepted that a majority is sufficient 
for anything to become a law. It holds good in the election of officers in our organiz- 
zation. It holds good in every instance. 

Delegate MILLER: I have nothing further to add to what Brother Senter has 
said. The constitution provides for a majority vote. The committee has discussed 
this resolution that a two-thirds majority is less democratic than a simple majority, and 
looking at it from that standpoint the committee stands by the present constitution 
which provides for a majority and not for two-thirds. 

The report of the committee recommending non-concurrence was carried. 




Be It Resolved, that the Inoomlag O. B. B take op the question of 
ft minimum wage on piece and week work in 

every department of 

and be it also 

Resolv. ha general organisation adopt the week work system as a standard 

in our in.i ;...ry and that the local unions start educational campaigns along that 
line In order to further destroy the exploitation in the industries. 

The committee has considered this resolution very carefully. This ^"rtfffB con- 
tain* two different propositions. It contains the creation of a minimum scale of wages. 
.t also wants this convention to go on record In favor of one system of work all 
over the country. In vUw of the fact that we decided at the Rochester convention 
that it would be premature to r organizations all over the country on that 

ti. and gave each local market full right to decide what system to chooae. 
we wtsh to continue that policy \vr.v :. .-..-... m system may be very good for 
York. It might work a hardship elsewhere. We. therefore, reoommead that we stand 
:i of the Rochester convention, namely, to allow the respective markets 
rk out their own system. (Applause.) 

. ..-it Hiu.MAN: The committee recommends the noo -concurrence with the 

! ave all heard the motion. Are you ready for the question? Z(> >w about the minimum wage? 

idcnt U U was my Intention to state that we will vote separately 

on the two propositions 

Delegate GOLD: Mr. Chairman and Delegates Locals 2 and 3 and ISC also 

brought in a resolution to that effect. I disagree with the committee when U says 

should leave it to each market for its own decision. We have a lystem of 

week work In New York. When we come to the manufacturer be tells us that in 

the people are working piece work. The delegates of New York all know 
that the week work system U the best system to control the conditions and the hours 
of work. We know full w. U that It will be a hardship to bring It in the next weak. 

> weeka from now. Hut we want the convention to go on record that the O. E. B. 
should carry on an agitation throughout the country in that direction. 
Delegate GOODMAN: Mr. President and Delegates I don't 
different towns have had experience with piece work, but we have had 
the * York. We know that under the piece-work system, the 

ing tholr utmost down the prices. Piece-work is a very bad 

The work in our Industry is divided into operations, so that it is 

for the organisation to take care of every operation. . 

the organisation to see to it that every operator should be satisfied with the 

If we have a week work price it is kept up by the men. We don't have to 

new prices for every new style. 

Preside: I win have to remind the delegates of our five 

other President and Delegates I favor the 

committee for this reason. I believe that piece-work and week work are 
than week work only. Week work may tc good In Now York. I knotr that we have 
week work in Boston. 1 know that week work cannot pay. Where we had piece 
and week work, the men In the shop on piece-work made more wages, and they 
had more freedom than they had on week work. Now. under week work, we are 
being watched by the boss. Piece work brought us up to a higher level, a higher 
wage, because seeing that the piece worker la making more wages, the week worker 
naturally asked for more. We have seen that the week work system in Boston was 
not a success. As it Is at the present time, every city has Its way. the way they 
see better, and therefore I favor the recommendation of the committee. 

Delegate BECKERMAN If the resolution introduced had insisted that 
work be immediately abolished, and week work Introduced throughout the 
elligent delegate could support It. because It could not be worked out in 

he resolution does not call for this at all The resolution calls for an e 

e week work system In preference to the piece work system, and for an 
campaign along those lines. A resolution of this kind. In my opinion, sho 
ported by those who are working weak work, and also by those who are 
piece work. I know that In Chicago It Is very hard at this time to 4 

hing. especially to change the system of work. But that doea not 
should not accept a certain principle aa being beneficial to the 
organisation. Piece work. In my opinion, creates Intense 



creates jealousy, and cannot possibly create cohesion and solidarity among them. 
Week work does create solidarity. (Great applause.) I don't believe that because 
we happened to decide one way in Rochester two years ago, that we must decide the 
same way now, and must decide the same two years later. 1 think what we out; in 
to do Is to reject the recommendation of the committee. We should appro 
the principle of week work and we should instruct the G. E. B. to start an educational 
campaign along these lines. (Great applause.) 

Delegate ZORN: Mr. President and Delegates Delegate Beckerman expressed my 
views. I was a member of Local 10, New York. About twenty-six years ago th;,: 
Local Union established a week work system of three months' trial, and ever since 
that time I know that they have been working week work. I challenge any organization 
to prove It is more efficient than the Children's Clothing Trades of New York, because 
of the fact that they have been working so long at week work. I say th; 
accomplish much more with the week work system than with the piece system. There 
could not be anything worse in the trade than to put men and women at piece work. 
As soon as the boss or the foreman sees a dollar more in their payroll he says, 
"You are making too much money." I hope all delegates will go on the record for 
week work. 

Delegate FISHER of Local 39: Brother Chairman and Delegates I don't be! 
that the piece work system is such a curse as 1 heard here on the floor of the 
convention from some of the delegates. We have a piece work system in Chicago. It 
is not such a terrible curse. We have a Price Committee that decides the price for 
piece work, and there is no limit how much money we should make. The piece work 
system, so far as we are concerned in Chicago, works out very satisfactorily I- 
us more freedom of action. Even the week workers are striving to work piece work. 
because no sooner do they leave their places for a few minutes than the foreman is 
after them. He is paying them for every minute they are on the Job. He is paying th.- 
piece worker for every minute he is working. You cannot deny that the piece worker 
has more freedom of action than the week worker. 

Delegate ALEXANDER: I believe that the piece work system creates jealousy 
and destroys solidarity. If one worker sees another making $20.00 a day, and he 
makes only $12.00, he would not eat any dinner and any breakfast and any supper, 
unless he makes $20.000 too. One gentleman told me, "I know that when I go into 
the shop, I have to work ten hours a day, and afterwards, I am free, but when I work 
piece work, when I get home, I am so tired I have to lay in bed and send for a 
doctor." I am opposed to this recommendation of this committee. 

Delegate VASTANO of Local 63: I am really surprised to hear from a committee 
of such a democratic organization as the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 
such an undemocratic recommendation. I am sure that the delegates here present 
are striving for the betterment of conditions. I cannot understand how in the world 
we should be able to better conditions by allowing the piece work evil to exist in our 
industry. I know that whenever there is any grievance in a shop, it is usually due to 
that driving system. And let me tell you that the driving system has not been an 
established fact, or an established factor of the piece work system. We find many of 
our shops, where people are actually driving one another, working piece work. As 
well as we have been able to reduce the hours, in order to curtail unemployment. 
we must also reduce the piece work system to week system, in order to curtail com- 
petition in our industry. (Great applause.) 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: Brother Chairman and Delegates I think this organ- 
ization cannot afford to say that we are going to permit every center to work just 
as they please, or just as It suits them best. I do not mean to say by that that if we 
are going to decide at this convention in favor of week work, that we are going to 
carry it out immediately. I don't consider any piece work shop a pormanent union 
shop. The man working under the piece work system has the psychology of a little 
merchant that is selling something. For week workers the hours are definite. For 
piece workers they are not. I don't know about Chicago. I know that in New York 
any shop that is working week work is a union shop. In shops where they are 
working piece work, they are perfectly sure that it is a non-union shop at best, even 
if the people pay their dues to the organization. And, therefore, I say that the 
resolution as recommended by the committee should be rejected. We should word 
it so that the General Executive Board stand instructed for the week work system 
wherever it is possible. Wherever it is not possible, naturally, we cannot do any- 
thing. I say that all the delegates should vote in favor of rejecting the recommenda- 
tion of the committee, and they should word the resolution so that our organization goes 
on record that the week work system should prevail wherever possible. (Applause.) 



Delegate OOLDBEJU2 of Local S: Mr. Chairman and Delegates I believe 
of us here agree with the principle of week work. But. aa the chairman of 
raitiee stated here, it is impossible at this time It U claimed that all the 
agents' time Is taken up with making prices for piece work, and that he has no 
for other work. Another question was that people are ao selfish, and they try to beat 
one another, and they kill themselves working. 1 wish to state that in Chicago we 
had the same system In the beginning, but we brought our members to each a 
level, that we are working under piece work system, but at the same time, our 
are working under week work. I mean to say that the greatest part of our 
In the shops are dividing the work. If there are ten people In a section. w< 
the work among ourselves. We don't try to beat the other fellows by $3040 

00. 1 wish to say that our Chicago delegates are perfectly satisfied with the 
piece work system. 

Delegate WOLF: Mr. Chairman and Delegates The recommendation of the 

being discussed here In the light that the committee made It 
s did not say that we disapprove of the system of week work The 
mltte states that because there are different markets, and dlffi 

in those markets, we are not yet ready to accept and paaa a resolution for a 
system. 80 fsr as I know, and so tar as all the delegates know, there are still 
in thin country that are not yet organised to the extent that Baltimore or New York 
or any other city is organised. We have to get busy on the other mark els 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: May 1 ask the brother If he will permit me a queetlon? 
sidrnt HI 1.1 MAN i should rather ask Delegate Cohen to ask his question after 
we get through with the discussion. 

Delegate COHJ .\ i want to ask a question If I am permitted. 

President HILLMAN: Do you yield the floor? 

Delegate WOLF: Not on my time. (Laughter.) 

Delegate WOLF continued: If you pass a resolution by which we will go on 
record for a system of week work, it means that you will 

organisation from taking up work In other cities. That will surely be contrary to 

land. They 

ral purpose of this convention. If you take Rochester or 

.y piece work markets. If you take Chicago. It Is an exclusively 
market In principle, some of the commltteemen. and most of us. agree that 
week work system Is a good system, but we are not ready to commit our 
by a resolution to one system of work. For that reason we don't want this 
to pass resolutions that are not practical at this time. I am nob opposing the 
of the propo am simply saying that this convention a 

neuter and the convention in Webster Hall never passed a 
General Executive Board did something to promote the idea expressed In that 
tlon. Printing resolution means nothing. I disagree with putting on 
resolution that It will be Impossible to carry out As far as week work is 
I understand that it is much better to work week work than piece work. I am 
weak work, and have agitated In City of New York for week work, but I don't 
to have this convention go on record with a resolution that will not be carried OSJL 
I want every resolution. 1 want everything that this convention adopts to be carried oi 
in life. (Applause.) 

Delegate (ON A point of Information Do 1 understaa 

that this resolution calls for a simple educational campaign to the end of 
Ing week work? 

-i.l.-ii: im.LMAN reads from the resolution as follows: -And also be U 
resolved that the general organisation adopt the week work system as a standard In 
our industry, and that the local unions start educational campaigns alone that line. 
In order to furth. the exploitation In the Indu* 

Delegate MARIMPIETRI Mr. President and Delegates To begin with. I must 
say that In principle I am for week work as much as anyone In this convention. 80 
many things have been said that I came to the conclusion that those brothers who 
spoke are not handling the piece work system in the right way. In Chicago we have 
one man to handle the piece work price for all sections. There are as many as 171 
sections. Nearly all these sections are handled entirely by one man. with 
now and then. Somebody spoke about education for the members, If our 
could be educated to the week work system, there Is no bettor edwoattoa that 
ho given to the membership. In Chicago this has boom iccosmnhehed by 
among them the number of garmenu to be made, and It 
speed with which they used to work In previous times. 1 have bad week 



come to me. and say they want piece work. And there Is a reason for it. In Chicago 
the piece workers are making more than the week workers. The week workers only 
received a 33 per cent, increase in the last three years, and yet, among the piece 
workers, they have had a much greater increase under the piece work system. Now, 
I Bay it we educate our people that In the speed they don't gain anything, we will 
be accomplishing much. It is only under the piece work system that the workers 
are making $40.00 and $45.00 a week, and you can never accomplish that und. 
week work system. 

Previous question was called for. 

This was carried. 

President 111 LILIAN: The question of week work and piece work has been 
discussed at our Rochester convention. The resolution is re introduced, probably by 
the same organisations, at this convention, and I am sure it will be re-introduced again 
at other conventions, until a proper settlement of the question will be found. At our 
Rochester convention, after a thorough discussion, we agreed that the decision for 
systems and methods of work should be left not to the national office, not to the 
officers of the organization, but to the local organization, to the local body responsible 
for conditions in the local market. There is always the tendency of one locality to 
force Its views upon the others. As long as that concerns only matters of opinion 
there is no actual danger. But when this is attempted In order to commit the organi- 
zation to a policy, then this becomes not only a danger but may actually lead to a 
catastrophe. The Boston market had its experience. The Boston market introduced, 
by arbitrary power, the week work system on a piece work market, and our whole 
organization went to smash. The national office paid the rent of the office for over a 
year. We had no more than seven or eight dues-paying members in the city of 
Boston for a year. Now, 1 am asking the delegates, would it be worth while, if only 
one small market would be effected that way? I know Delegate Beckerman says we 
don't want to enforce week work; we only recognize the principle. The strength of 
our organization has consisted in the past because we came with no policies to our 
members that we did not intend to enforce. If we will face the issue of an educ. 
campaign in the city of Rochester for a week work system, and the people will go 
out on strike, then it is too late to go to those members and say, "Well, we did not 
mean it. It was merely an educational campaign." Our strength comes from the 
fact that the clothing workers know that when we come to them with something, we 
come with something that we really mean to stand by, not simply to raise false 

I have no hesitation in saying here that outside of the cutting branch there is 
no week work system in our industry. If you call it week work in small contracting 
shops, where I have seen men receiving $51.00 a week for sewing in sleeves, and 
making work for $110.00 if that is your work system, I don't want it. (Applause.) 
We have the worst kind of a speed-up system. Until our organization will introduce 
a standard wage system, until our organization will introduce a standard output 
system, we are not ready to lay down our policies for week Ve are r 

an attempt in a place to introduce a week work system that will put in standards, 
that will put in maximum outputs, that will put in a minimum standard of wages. 
We are always facing actual situations. Supposing we are called in in the city of 
Rochester, and we demand the week work system, and you must fight for it. I 
don't want to be a prophet, but I am afraid that you will make very little progress 
anywhere, if you will make this the cornerstone of your organization today. There 
can be no standard at all under the week work arrangement. It is a proposition where 
the contractor gets the best of it. He enriches himself on the week work system. 
I know in New York, in the uniform situation, the contractors always asked for week 
work, and not for piece work. Why? Because they could get a greater output for 
less money. I am not opposed to either week work or piece work, but I say that 
the organization is not ready we have not worked out the system yet. The tasks 
before us are still great, and instead of permitting our organization to work it out, 
and sometime in the future we may find a solution, you will simply make a resolution 
that will make it impossible. It is because of that that I hope that the delegates 
will vote for the recommendation of the committee, which means that as far as the 
system of work is concerned, we permit the local organization to dictate the policy. 
As for the national organization, we are still trying to find out methods how to bring 
order of the chaos that exists in the industry. I think that we ought to let the 
convention appoint a committeee to investigate, not simply to pass a resolution. 
Let there be five or ten men who will come to us at the next convention, and say, 
"We have investigated. We know it is possible." Not to simply have a delegate 


come from Brooklyn or from Boston, not knowing what ia going on in the ladaatff 

"T. and say by bis vote what the future of the organisation shall be on a policy 

that demands, first of all. the tacts the cold facts, and nothing but the facts. 1 do 

hope that the delegate will not bind us to an impossible situation. (Great Applause.) 

The vote is on the motion. You all heard the motion. The motion ia 
with the report of the committee, which leaves the situation, a* far as the 
and week work are concerned, aa It la today. All in favor of the motion win 
by saving "Aye." 

There waa a divlaion called for. 

n a recount, the motion waa carried by 19 for the motion aad if 
Delegate BECKERMAN: I move to have it put to roll call. 
The motion to i> >ll call was carried. 

The final roll call was S3 for. 73 against and 11 absent 
The rm-ommend* 10 committee to leave the coi 

work and week work ns they have been in the past, was therefore carried by a vote 
of 83 for and 73 agai 

KCKERMAN: I ark the unanlznoua consent of the convention for a 
special privilege to be granted to Brother Senter. aa he has to leave the convention. 
i is waa granted. 
'gate Senter waa enthusiastically received. 

Farewell Address of Meyer Senter. 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: Thla event in my life, under the circumataacea 

y are today, ia such a* I never thought possible. I never thought that, while being 

in the naval service. I abould also be able to be present at the convention of oar 

organisation, which I have. In my own humble way. helped to make what It la today. 

1 want to thank you fo. :esy that you have extended me. and the pleasure that 

tone day I might be able to be back with you and again participate in the work for 

>b!e cauae of the oppressed people of the world. 

-e 1913 I have participated in every struggle of our organisation. 1 have 
all of It* joys. I know that through the itruffsjlet of the past five years we have 
pllshed much more than did other organizations in twenty or twenty-five years. 
I also know that there are still greater struggles ahead of us. Aad it Is up to 
fellow delegates, to atand by the ahlp. the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

the most careful way. You are the captain of the ahip 
he ones whom 100.000 aoula look to. to lead them, to bring them into a world 
brighter and happier than what It la today. 

The enemlea of the organization are many within the labor movement and without. 
Tbe - * of the organization we know aa well aa the external. We know 

that we have to contend with employer*. We have to contend with profiteers But 
there are enemlea also who are within labor's own rank*. There are men wfeo aaaitr 
for the labor movement. In the name of the labor movement, who would like to eead 
a dagger into the heart of our organization. And of these enemies beware. Be aa 

ne. Stay on the deck of thla ship and protect her. 
birth of the Amalgamated there waa a new thought born In my 
the thought that some day tbe working class will have a real and sound 
to look forward to. When that time will come I know that the Amalgamated will take 

I believe that this Is all I can aay at the present time. I wiah to extend my 
thanks to the Third Naval District of the United States for giving me aermtailna te 
come here. I wish to extend my thanka also to Brother Friedman and Brother 
berg, who worked hard to afford me the pleasure of being present at this 

those wort*, brothers: I hope snd trust that In all your 
deliberations you will have in mind those who look up to you aad that you will 
have in mind the thought that baa been In my mind that the 
become the spokesman of the American labor movement 
The conclusl" addreas waa followed by long and 

Preside, railed on Secretary Schtoeaberg to make a few 

Address of Secretary Schloeseero. 

Mr. Chairman. Delegatee. Brother Senter: Brother Beater ia here today with aa 



as a symbol of the world situation. He is, in addition to that, in a very intimate 
sense, a representative of some of our dearest ones, who now occupy the Very position 
that he does. I feel that each one of us present here sees in Brother Senter a sort 
Af connecting link between our organization, collectively, the delegates individually, 
and those who are dear to us. whether they are members or our personal friends or 
relatives, who are now over there. If Brother Senter has the opportunity to take 
our message of love and greetings to our members and dear ones, it will be a source 
nsolation to us, as well as to them, when that message Is delivered to them. 

Brother Senter has been one of our most active members. When he said that he 
shared our joys, it was not a mere phrase a mere form of speech. He was one of 
those, fortunately not small In number, who have carried the brunt of the burden of all 
the struggles of our organization. He takes with him the blessings, the most heartfelt 
blessings and thanks of all the officers and active members of this organization. 

Brother Senter may have to face some critical moments. I hope that whenever any 
such moments come that Brother Senter will find new strength, new courage, in the 
thought that there are one hundred thousand people in whose hearts he occupies a 
hie place. Brother 9enter may always fall back upon this fact that his place in the 
organization remains open for him. There may be many thousands coining into our 
ranks to increase them, strengthen them and enlarge them. Brother Senter's place will 
remain open to be filled by him the moment he comes back. The work that he has 
done has been a definite contribution to the spirit of our organization. 

I have been very deeply stirred by Brother Senter's remarks. They have come 
from the depths of his heart. I assure Brother Senter, and I think I can speak in 
the name of each and everyone of you, that they have found a response just so deep 
in the hearts of all present here. 

Brother Senter, we have been fortunate enough to have you here with us. You 
are leaving the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America in a very happy state. 
You see that the harmony established in our ranks was not a temporary affair. 
This convention <while we call it the third it is really the fourth In our history* 
has found us stronger, greater, with more problems, with a greater diversity of friendly 
opinions. This convention is Just as harmonious as were all the previous conventions. 
You see that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America has been organized along 
lines that make room for all honest differences of opinion within our own ranks, and 
has no room for any dishonest opinions, or maneuvers, or schemes, which led the 
previous organization to ruin. The fact that this fourth convention is held in that very 
spirit in which the organization was originally formed; this fact speaks more than 
anything else for the security and happy future of this organization. 

May this message that the harmony of this convention gives to you always be 
with you and give you strength and power to go through all the ordeals that you 
may be called upon to go through, and come back to us, back into our ranks you along 
with all those of whose presence and co-operation we are now deprived, and those 
of whose co-operation we may in the future be deprived. 

I say, may you all come back to us and return to your old posts. And then, when 
the terrible nightmare that is now resting upon the human race will be lifted, and 
mankind will again be able to breathe free and the peoples of the world will take 
up the fight for industrial democracy, for social democracy, for full freedom, for real 
brotherhood of all the peoples of the world may we meet in another convention 
and have the help of all of you in taking up the greater problems that will then confront 

The fight will be bigger, more intense. But we hope that it will not be in the 
least bloody, that it will be a powerful fight of the enlightened nations of the world, 
of the enlightened working classes of the world, to bring the opportunity for the 
people everywhere to live their lives in their own way, and remove from their backs 
the parasites of all descriptions. 

We shall then steer this great ship of which you have spoken; not only the ship of 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, but the great fleet of an emancipated 
and enlightened labor movement, into the beautiful harbor of the Co-operative Common- 
wealth, where all will be happy, where there will be no occasion for such valedictory 
as we heard here today. 

Secretary Schlossberg's address was greeted with deafening applause. President 
Hillman then bade farewell to Delegate Senter as follows: 

Address of President Hillman. 

I am sure, delegates, that Brother Schlossberg has expressed the feelings of every 



man and woman In this hall, and 1 may aay. the feelings of every one 
opportunity to come in contact with Brother Beater. All 1 wish to say on this 
it that I have considered It a personal privilege to have worked aad straggled with 
Hrother Beater and a number of others like him. 

The great aad wonderful success that our organisation haa achieved is due to the 
Beaters In our organization, the men aad womea who always stood by the nusilisiiea 
in time of stress, who have given all there waa la them to oar laovemeat to bring 
it where it is today. 1 assure Brother Beater, sad through him all thoae who are 
leaving us In response to the call, that we here, those who will remain here, will 
consider it our duty to double oar energy, to increase oar effort, so that when Brother 
Beater and the others return they will find our organization evea stronger than it is 

Delegates, I aay that we must realise the greater reepeasiblllty that BOW rest apea 
thoae of aa who remain here. 1 want to greet Brother Beater Before he- leaves, and 
sead through him a measage of hope and cheer to all thoae who are away from us. 
and 1 hope that In the near future we shall meet again, a tree people la a tree 
world. (Tumultous applause.) 

In the hall arose to their feet and wildly cheer Beater. Puslllaal 
halted the work of the convention to permit Beater to shake hands with the 
before leaving. Benter departed amidst the cheers and plaudits of the 
everybody rising In his honor 

President H1LLMAN: Brother Miller has the floor for a person 

.gate MILLER: Through an unhappy oversight on the pert of the 
not have a chance to express my opinion on the question that was just 
that la. the question of the week work. Now. I just want to say a few words by the 
way of assuring the delegates, particularly the New York delegates, who 
position 1 have taken for the last three years on the qnestloa of week 
when I voted for the recommendation la the ooBtmlttee. It waa with the 
landing that I was not voting against that which I have beea fighting for the peat 
three years, against the big majority of the members of the Pants Makers' Union I 
have carried on a fight for week work when in our organization there were oaly a few 
that were with me. I don't want the delegates to be uader the impression that I 
changed my opinion on that proposition. 1 only voted for It because I felt that It 
would be a calamity to the organization if this convention would bind Itself to a 
proposition which Is at the present moment impossible to force oa the other markets. 
I thank you for the chance you have given me to explain. (Applause) 

The Law Committee then continued Its report. 


the convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers maieaes for the 
purpose of hearing the reports from General Officers of their work for the last two 
yar*. b. It 

Resolved, that the said General Officers shall not be entitled to act as 
to the convention of our organization with the exception of General 
General Secretary 



Joe Goodman. 

Brother Rappaport of Local t whose loom! Introduced thla 
oae who voted for it 

Brother Roeenblum at this point took the chair. 

Chairman RO8ENBLUM: You have heard the resolution and the 
of the committee. What is yeour pleasure? 

Delegate MILLER: This resolution practically deprives a member of 
tunity to be a delegate to thla convention, tor the oaly reason that he may he a paid 
official This conmltutloB provide* that aay member of aay Local Ualea has at all 
times the right to be a dejegateto thla convention, and oa this ground the 

Delegate GOODMAN of Loom! I: Mr. Chairman and Delegates I 
thst a coaventlon la gathered for the purpose of smeatlag usaelUalluai If 


has been introduced that committee has no right to come back and, because 
this is against the constitution, recommend non-concurrence. I think that if this is the 
only ground we should refer it back to the committee. We know that in the past 
conventions under the old administration members paid by the General 
Board were controlling the convention, and they drove us out from the convention, 
know the convention we had in Nashville. I happened to be a delegate. Every 
man who was paid by the General Executive Board had a certain number of people 
around him, and he was controlling them. They did not permit the ladies and the 
overall makers to go by themselves, and they had a man who was control li in 
in order that the other delegates should not be able to speak to them and tell the 
truth about the organization. At the present time we know that everything is in order. 
But we must prepare; we must build up a constitution that will provide for the future. 
Why are we afraid to accept a radical constitution? I think this has to be 
constitution in order that the future should not be the same as we had in the past 
Delegates, I beg you all to support the resolution, because this is a proper reso 
I thank you. (Applause.) 

Delegate BECKERMAN: I would like to have the original resolution read again, 
because I did not hear certain parts of it. 

Delegate MILLER, the chairman of the committee, thereupon read the resolution 
once more. 

At this point. President Hlllman resumed the chair. 

President HILLMAN: That would then become part of our constitution, if adopted 
and approved by a referendum vole. The only thing I would like to get from the 
makers of the resolution is, do they mean paid by the international office or paid by 
any office? 

Delegate GOODMAN: Paid by the national office only. 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: Delegate Goodman has begged us to vote for the 
resolution. If he begged the delegates to do him a favor that is one thing, but I 
think when it comes to a question of logic I don't see why any man, a member of 
this organization, should not have the right to come among 300 men, even if all the 
General Executive Board are members of this convention. Among 250 men they surely 
have a right to express their opinions about matters concerning the welfare of the 
organization. New, you have seen just this afternoon, I am fortunately, or unfortunately, 
a paid officer, paid by the General Executive Board at this time. 

Delegate GOODMAN: For how many weeks? 

Delegate COHEN: It is just three weeks, but I hope it will be more. (Laughter.) 
But that did not make me stand behind the President. I was rather in opposition to 
the President, and I feel that if a member is honest and sincere concerning the work 
of his organization he will at any time and all times preserve the right for himself, 
not for the sake of local this or local that, but for the sake of his own conscience, 
he will always preserve the right to express his opinion. I feel that it would some- 
times even become not only an inconvenience, but it would become a menace to this 
organization if you exclude all men or women that are participating daily in the work 
of this organization, who have the opportunity to see things at first sight, who have 
the facts before them, who know the organization from all sides. If you would exclude 
these men and women from participating in the deliberations of this organization, I 
think you would commit the greatest fol'y. I hope that we are going to vote down this 
resolution and concur with the report of the committee as it is reported by the chair- 
man. (Applause.) 

Delegate BECKERMAN: Brother Chairman and Brothers: I think that this 
resolution is not entirely a resolution separate by itself to be discussed on its particular 
merits, but is more or less a part of a state of feeling that exists among certain 
delegates, and amongst a good many of the rank and file, towards a paid official in 
general not necessarily a general paid official, but a paid official in general. 7 want 
to say that for the life of me, and I think I am quite as democratic as anybody here, 
and believe in the principle of democracy, I cannot see any reason for any motion of 
this kind at this particular time. I can quite agree with you that if the men who 
are in the pay of the general office are going to have the entire say as to their own 
conduct, I quite agree that it is absolutely undesirable. But I cannot see where we 
would benefit by forbidding three or four or five or six or ten delegates to have their 
say or their vote on this floor if the members of their locals think that they are 
fit to represent them. I don't see where it is aiding democracy by preventing people 
from sending as delegates the men who they think are most desireable to represent them 
at this convention. I can assure you that if locals decided that certain men are not 



represent them, the locals will not elect them, and if the locals think they are 
represent them they will elect them. And the locals should not be prevented 
from electing them. This is not democratic. This to not a motion tor more demo 

a motion to eliminate some democracy that we have at the pramt ttasa. 
(Applaus. one do not belong to any croup of people who will try to pick on 

a paid official because ha happens to be a paid official. 1 rather belonc to thai group 
that should seek to encourac* anyone who will put in his full lime of service for the 
orcanisation rather than one who >e at his disposal tor the 

orcanisation We should not try to Interfere with, but rather aid that particular 
kind of member la our organisation We should not seek to decrease democracy, but 
: on to all the democracy that we have, and try to attain more. This 
to not a good move. This is not a practical move it it not a beneficial move, and it 
surely is not a democratic move. (Applause.) 

Delecate GOLD: We have been told that the organization can be controlled by a 
croup of men. Then I say It Is a shame if any local should send men of that kind 

thai run b,- ...Mtroll,-,! |,v ;.' iM.l!Ml<Kil I fta! thai " ' - ', - ' , / .:.:ru 

lion are too intelligent to be controlled by an Individual 1 say It to silly. We are 
going to extremes. 1 think it would be a shame for the convention to adopt a reeo- 
hat kind 

Delecate BLUGBRMAN: Mr. Chairman. It has been m+ntiooad here before by 
the N gate that if a local elects a man to the convention. 

would represent the Interests of the members of that particular local. 

hat in some cases the locals are led by economic reasons to 
organisers to conventions. Organizers it is said if they are good to be organisers, they 
are good to be representatives to conventions. That may be richt to 
Hut in some instances one may be a good orcanlser but not a 
rank and file of a certain orcanisatlon. Let me tell you. 
that I would rather permit an injustice against a few Individuals who may not be In 
a position to be delecates to a convention than commit an injustice to thousands 
of members of this organization who may be deprived of real democratic riprusitstloa 
if this resolution is not carried. I will tell you why. You say there are five, ten or 
fifteen delecates. maybe, who will be in the employ of the general office who may have 
a voice or vote in this convention. Now. let me tell you a secret. I am only the first 
time at th 'ion. and I have not been to many conventions, but I know that there 

are always s few who control the convention. It may not be the case here at this 
convention of the Amalgamated after a few years of Its existence. But where to the 
guarantee that It will be so In the future? I - ill not take chances with all the 
democratic sentiments, and with all the democracy we are fond of hearinc so 
unless you create a constitution which will provide us with a real 

President HILLMAN: Previous question was called for. The 
that the resolution be non concurred in. 

The recommendation of the committee was adopted. 

Delecate GREENBERG of New York: Brother Chairman and 
succest that the Chair should Instruct every delegate who 
questions to let him know a minute before his time is up. so that ha can 
statement in full. 

President HILLMAN: The Chair shall be guided by that question It is a very 
good suggestion. At four minutes I shall rap and the delegate will know that hto time 
to coming to an end. (Laughter and applause.) 

By Delegate Crystal. 

I wish to nk the delegates not to leave the city with a bad impression that the 
Baltimore orcanisation did not do their bit tor the delecates. At the opening of the 
convention I heard several remarks, and right alone every day we beard remarks that 
the organisation In Baltimore did not make proper arrange men i I want to say that 
the Baltimore orcanisation did all It possibly could to have the delecates of 
various citlo* live here la comfort for the week, but 
could not do any better than we did. The Baltimore 
nor money to make this week of the 
delecates. I have here a book which the 
District Councilpublished. T>e book contains the history of the Amalgamated 


Workers in this city. We have the portraits of our international officers in here, also 
of some local officers and of members of the two largest shops in the city of Baltimore, 
that is Strouse Bros., and Sonneborn ft Co. We have here articles by Brothers Schloss- 
berg and Panken. and we have lota of other Interesting things in this souvenir which 
the delegate* will enjoy. If you don't enjoy anything else, I am sure you will enjoy 
this book when you read it. Bach delegate will get a copy. 

Tonight, at 8 o'clock. Cutters Local 15 will have a smoker in honor of the delegates 
at 1012 East Baltimore Street 

I was asked by Delegate Miss Jacobs to announce that the girl delegates who 
do not desire to go to the smoker will be taken by her to the theatre tonight. The 
lady delegates are asked to gather in the Emerson Hotel at a quarter of eight, in tin- 
ladles' waiting room. (Applause.) I also want to announce to the delegates that the 
Arrangements Committee has arranged to have photographs taken. The photographer 
is coming up here this afternoon. I believe he will be here about half-past four or five 
o clock. 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: I want to make an additional announcement for the 
Arrangements Committee. When you get these books, and if any one of you should 
make up his mind, or her mind, to read it. I want you to remember this: there is one 
article that has been attributed to me, for which I am not entitled to any credit. I 
don't know why the compositor was so liberal about it. There is an article entitled 
"Am I My Brother's Keeper?" That article I did not write. I inserted a few lines, 
but the 1 article was taken from somebody else. My name is there by mistake. I want 
you to know that whatever credit the author is entitled to. the article does not belong 
to me. 

Session adjourned at 12:35 p. m. 



Eighth Session 

Friday Afternoon. May 17. 1918. 
Chairman called the convention to order at 2 o'clock 

By Delegate Arnone. 



At a joint meeting of the Executive Boards of Locals 244 and 24f. of New York and 
Brooklyn, held on April the 27th. 1918. the delegate of the above locals to the Third 
Pltlilil Convent ion of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
to submit the following resolutions to the A. C. W. of A, la 

Whereas, the buttonhole makers have been 
remedied in other branches of the tailoring Industry, 
system, a system which makes it difficult and well nigh 
makers to reap even a fair portion of the fruits of their 

Whereas, the buttonhole makers' unions of New York and 
by every means possible to abolish this evil, which retards their progress, itiisrs their 
well being and prevents their members from earning a decent livelihood, and 

Whereas, the above unions have repeatedly appealed for asefstinoe to the 

Mng Joint Board and to the New York Joint Board 
morally bound to exercise their good offices to give aid and comfort to their 
unions, but the above Joint Boards have always turned a deaf ear to the 
cry for help from the locals, and 

Whereas, during the current year numerous el 

all of them working harmoniously with the various unions, submitting to a 
and negotiating directly with them, except In the case of the buttonhole 
who are compelled to accept the miserable pittance allowed them by the 
and sub-contractors, so that numerous eases can be cited where the week! 

onhole makers are as low as $12 a week, therefore be It 

Resolved, that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. In Third 
Convention assembled. Instruct all assembled delegates to submit to their 
locals the decisions of the convention, as follows: 

l TV. ..nhole Makers' Locals 244 and 245 must be accorded the 
nltlon as that given to all other locals affiliated with the 
of America In their shops and factories under the jurisdiction of the A. C. W. of A.: 
those shone must employ as buttonhole operators only good standing members of 
144 and 24S. 

2. Wherever a contractor or manufacturer has 
buttonhole operator this work must be done on the premlm of said 
contractor, and should under no circumstances he allowed to he 

S. In order to set the buttonhole makers on the 
workers In the clothing Industry, which Is manifestly their doe right, the 
or contractor must furnish said buttonhole makers with the 
and other equipment, and 

4 It should be reonsjnrsert as the solemn duty of all unions affiliated with the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America to aid and support Locals 244 
their just and reasonable endeavors to obtain recognition as ulnne to 
tmrs and contractors conduct negotlatlona directly with them, and. Anally, to 
the wasteful and pernicious sub-contracting systesm. 

a OOUMHOOU Local 244 


The resolution was read seriatim to the convention. 

President HILLMAN: The committee recommends concurrence and moves the 
adoption of the report as read. 

The entire report was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, there are hundreds of men and women sentenced to terms in prison 
because of their having exercised their constitutional right of free speech and free 
assemblage, and 

Whereas, the prejudices aroused against them by a hostile press has made their 
defense more difficult, and 

Whereas, the Liberty Defense Union has taken upon itself the protection of the 
constitutional rights of the men and women who are in need of such assistance, be it 

Resolvejl. that this Third Biennial Convention goes on record as endorsing and 
approving the work of the Liberty Defense Union, and pledges its help, morally and 

Alex Cohen, Local 3; Frank Cancellleri, Local 176; Abraham Beckerman, Local 40. 


Whereas, during the struggle that took place in the city of Baltimore in the 
summer of 1916 our comrade, Mrs. Blumberg, has rendered most valuable services and 
exhibited great devotion to our organization, be it 

Resolved, that this convention does hereby express its highest appreciation of the 
splendid exhibition of self-sacrifice shown by our esteemed comrade. 

Meyer Senter. Local 4; Harry Jacobson, Local 4; J. P. Friedman, Local 4; L. 
Feinberg, Local 9; Abe Silverman, Local 9. 

The committee recommends concurrence and moves its adoption. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the motion. Are you ready for the question? 

The motion was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, this Republic was founded upon the principles of liberty and indepen- 
dence as a result of a victorious revolution against despotism, and 

Whereas, it has been declared by the government of the United States that the 
present var is being waged in the defense of the same sacred principles, which include 
the right to propagate ideas and theories with regard to prevailing social and economic 
conditions, and 

Whereas, the propagation of such ideas must inevitably produce antagonism 
between the advocates of the old and those of the new: 

Whereas, as a result of such antagonism clashes occur, and advocates of the 
new order are sent to jail, be it 

Resolved, that all such persons of the labor movement who are being sentenced 
to jail terms for such activity be considered political prisoners, and we ask that full 
amnesty be granted to them at the close of the war. 

The committee reccommends concurrence. 

Unanimously carried. 


Whereas, the Socialist Party works hand in hand with our organization, therefore 
be It 

Resolved, that we endorse officially the Socialist Party. 

The committee recommends its acceptance. 

Delegate GOLD: Mr. Chairman and Delegates: I think this resolution would 
be an injustice to those who are not in the Socialist Party. I don't see why you should 



force upon us the endofiemtnf of a party that we are not affiliated with, I don't 
think you should do it 

Delegate COHEN: I rise to do justice to Brother Gold and help him as 
1 can. It is true that the Socialist Party helped us in every way 

of the A"!tlg**eJ4 Clothing Workers of America. I dont know of any 
as good as the Social!* jrk and elsewhere. I know the party's . 

and the party's speakers have always been on the job All that is true. But 1 feel 
that a a labor organisation we must make room for all elements that are In our 
Industry. 1 feel that our organisation is as it la because of the fact that there Is 
opportunity for each and every one to give eipreatlon to his ideas and oj 

ing Workers of America should gt> on 

ing offln. ny and arouse many difficulties, and many 

obstacles, ami agreements among the member*. I don't think this is a very 

helpful and healthy condition In an organisation. And while I feel that our loyal 

, at all times have been willing to stand by the Socialist Party and have helped 

the Socialist r would not like to see the resolution paased that we endorse 

officially tho Socialist Party. 

Delegate ZOKN While a member of the party personally. I would not like to see 
this tnposed upon an organisation. I therefore hope that the 

te committee will not prevail. 

The Chair will recognise two more for and two 
sgalntt. If iM.-re Is no objection from the house. Otherwise I can see that we will have 
a whole afternoon discussion on this. 

Delegate BLUGBRMAN: Mr. Chairman. I believe that, as It has been said net* 
on the floor by various speakers, that this union Is different from other unions to this 
country. We must not do as other unions do. by saying we cannot 
ourselves in favor of a certain political party. We are an economic 
at the same time most of us believe in the political struggle of the 
I therefore feel that this convention hou!d go on record In declaring Itself In sympathy 
;md In support of the Socialist Party of this country. (Great applause.) We 
say ; nrrantentlon is Ror'r .!lticn'ly Inclined. Now. where do we say it. nnd 

how do we say It? Why should not we. by passing this resolution frankly and dearly 
state to the American labor movement that the A. C. W. of A. is cJsas-conscious eooexn 

to go on record and declare Itself In favor of the Socialist Party? 1 trust thai ito 
delegates here will realise the spirit and sentiment throughout the membership of 
realisation and will vote for this resolution one and all. (Applause.) 

Delegate WOLF: Mr. Chairman and Delegates: i don't think that w ought 
to take up too much time on the question of this resolution. While It may be all 
for a delegate to bring up a revolution of this kind, I feel. Mr. Chairman i 
that we have been doing everything that any local union anywhere in the country 
do when the campaign was on. It Is not at all necessary to pass a resolution at this 
.. to say that we endorse the Socialist Party. We consider ourselves all 
me a radical organisation, and our local unions have done everything they could 
in times of campaign. At this time especially It is not at all necessary aad It is not 
wise. 1 don't want to discuss it. While I am a member of the party, ye: 1 don't believe 
that we ought it a Jabcr organization at this time, an organization 

If a resolution of &'. kind U introduced, it means that we doubi that our 
are supporting the party. I don't doubt at all that our members are 
the party and I believe that It is not necessary to bring up a resolution of 
Our membership on the East Side of New York has practically elected the 
of the Socialist Party, and it is not necessary for us at this time to go on 
endorsing the Socialist Parly. It is not wise at this time, not because Brother Gold 
believes that he is not In accord with the party. 1 would agree with him if he had 
another party, but has not got It 

Delegate GOLD: I beg your pardon: (Laugh* 

Delegate WOLF: I beg to be excused. I would ask Delegate Upsln to withdraw 
that resolution. We are working for the party anyway, and it Is not necessary to lose 
m- l wish that Delegate Upsln would withdraw that resolution aad let m 
work for the party as we did without the resolution. (Applause,) 

.KVINE: A point of Information. Is not that Iccorporated la the 
preamble of our organisation? 

President HIM. MAN: That Is just what Brother Wolf has mentioned That it 
Is superfluous, because we have practically accepted the philosophy of Socialism In the 
preamble of our organisation The motion to: -Whereas, the Socalist party 


in hand with our organization, therefore be it Resolved, that we endorse, officially, 
the Socialist I 

Delegate RABKIN of Montreal: I move to amend that this resolution be referred 
to the committee for further consideration. 

This was seconded. 

President HILLMAN: I wish to say to the delegates that this resolution is placing 
the organization in a position of embarassment. It has been explained that the orga- 
nization has in each case supported and worked hard for the Socialist Party, even 
those who are not members have cooperated in all the campaigns. I am now asking 
the delegates, is It fair to force everyone, however few the opposing members may be, 
to an absolutely official endorsement on behalf of the national organization? Why force 
your views on them? What i the motive behind it? Still, we could not possible afford 
to vote down this resolution because that might be interpreted by some people the 
opponents of Socialism that the A. C. W. of A. is in opposition to the Socialist Party. 
This is why I feel that the amendment to refer it back to the committee to bring 
in a report that will express the views of the convention as a whole should be supported 
by the delegates. The vote lb on the amendment 

Delegate WOLF: May T ask the privilege for the delegate who drew up the 
resolution to take the resolution back, so that he can modify it? 

President HILLMAN: When a resolution has been already up for discussion on 
the floor it is the property of the convention. (Applause.) 

Delegate WOLF: Mr. Chairman, if the maker of the resolution desires to modify 
It with the consent of the convention I don't see why you should object. 

President HILLMAN: The delegate has a right to have this re-worked when it is 
handed in for reconsideration, if the convention decides to have this referred back to 
the committee. 

The amendment to refer It back to the committee was unanimously carried. 

By Delegate Alex. Cohen, Chairman. 


Whereas, the city of Louisville, Ky. f has about five hundred people employed in 
the clothing industry, and 

Whereas, as a result of the last strike the organization has succeeded in organizing 
about 50 per cent, of the workers in the industry, and 

Whereas, more than 60 per cent of the workers of the industry are women, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, that a woman organizer be placed by the General Office in the city of 
Louisville, Ky., to assist Local 120 in organizing 100 per cent in that city. 

I. J. STRIZOVER, Local 120. 

The committee has decided to refer it to the General Executive Board for imme- 
diate action. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the report of the committee and the 
recommendation to refer it to the General Executive Board. Are you ready for the 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, In view of the fact that the New England States have large factories 
making all kinds of clothing and ignoring union conditions of cities where unions are 
strong, be it 

Resolved, that an organizer be placed in the New England States immediately 
by incoming General Executive Board. 


Samuel Zorn. 
The committee concurs in that resolution. 



President HILLMA.N The commstee reports coocrrence You all beard the 
roport of the committee; are 700 ready for the 
The report of the committee 


Whereat, the mail order and custom trade to not completely nrjlilni fea New 
York and Chicago, and 

Whereas, the cutters ft mi custom ffantff TTiiken 
coat makers are Dot organized In the mail order houses In 

Resolved, that this contention go OB record In favor of 
coat makers In all mall houses In New York aad Chicago; be It further 

Resolved, that organisers be put on Immediately to start an 
palgn In New York and Chicago In order to organise the mail order trade and 


Morris Rosenblatt. Secretary. Local Itl. 
Wm. Cohen. Secretary. Local MX 

The committee recommends that this be referred to the General EiecitlM Board. 
The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 



Whereas, there are scattered throughout the United States and 'Ytttft some 
0,000 unorganized shin and boys' waist workers, and 

Whereas, the two organised Shirt and Boys' Waist Local Unions of New York 
and Philadelphia are strongly affected by this unorganised labor, and 

Whereas, the present time is the most favorable for the organization off the 
unorganised shirt and boys' waist workers, be it 

Resolved, that a general organization campaign be started among the shirt and 
boys' waist workers in the United States and Canada; be It also 

Resolved, that each local union of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
represented at the convention, start activities among the shin and boys' 
workers In its city; be It further 

Resolved, that the members of the General Sxecutlve Board and tl 
Officers be Instructed to do their utmost towards organizing the shirt and 
waist workers. 

The committee recommends concurrence in this resolution. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously carried. 

LOCAL 15. 

Whereas, the cutters of Baltimore City, affiliated with the Amalgamated OoUIng 
Workers of America, are having trying times in their efforts to bring the balance of the 
cutters and trimmers into our organization, and 

Whereas, the manager of the Baltimore City District Council having the boat part 

of his time taken up with the task of securing better conditions and klgasf wagea 

members In order to meet the high cost of living for the workers, therefore be k 

Revolved, that this convention go on record as Instructing the Prsslimn to place 
as many organisers as may be necessary in the city of Baltimore to have a 104 per 
cent Amalgamated organisation in that 


The committee recommends that this be referred to the General Eaooettto Board 

Unanimously carried. 


Whereas, the City of Chicago la a rscogiised clothing center of the United 



Whereas, a great many of the clothing workers of Chicago are still unorganized 
to the detriment of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, and 

Whereas, the Chicago organization has made several heroic efforts to bring all 
the clothing workers under the banner of the Amalgamated, and 

Whereas, the members of the Chicago organization were at all times ready, 
anxious and willing to dedicate their time, money and energy to organization purposes, 

Whereas, the Chicago organisation has conducted and, to a great extent, financed 
two great strikes, the money coming out of the pockets of the Chicago members 
gave willingly and unselfishly, and 

Whereas. Chicago has a v.ays responded to the call of other cities in time with 
financial support, and not in'requently with moral aid, and 

Whereas, Chicago feels that the psychological moment has arrived to make another 
supreme effort to organize tno workers, and 

Whereas. It is absolutely essential to organize the city as a matter of self-preserva- 
tion for the Chicago organization, and 

Whereas, Chicago has to reckon with a clothing manufacturers' association which 
controls the destinies of the <mmense army of unorganized workers, be it therefore 

Resolved, that we, the members of Local 61, A. C. W. of A., assembled at a 
regular and special meeting at 409 South Halstead Street, Chicago, recommend to the 
Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W. of A. that every effort should be made 
to lend moral and financial aid to the Chicago organization to assist it in organizing 
the city. 

F. Petrick, 
S. Geier, 
J. Kroll. 

The committee recommends concurrence in this resolution. 
Unanimously adopted. 


Be It Resolved, that this convention orders the incoming General Executive 
Board to establish a district form organization for the cities and towns where the 
organization has not full control, and that a responsible man from the General Office 
should be in charge of all the work pertaining to organizing said districts. District 
organization should be mapped out as follows: 

Western New York District should include: Utica, Syracuse, Buffalo, Rochester. 

Middle Western District: Cleveland, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Salem, Akron, Colum- 
bus, Youngstown. 

Northwestern District: St. Louis, St. Paul, Milwaukee. 
Canadian District, No. 1: Montreal, Winnipeg. 
Canadian District No. 2: Hamilton and Toronto. 

The committee recommends that this be referred to the General Executive Board 
for consideration. 

President HILLMAN: The motion is that the resolution be referred to the 
Incoming General Executive Board. 
There was no objection. 
Unanimously carried. 


Whereas, an organization campaign has been started in Cleveland two years ago 
to build up a strong union of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in that city, and 

Whereas, to accomplish this difficult task in Cleveland, where we have to contend 
with powerful manufacturers, who have bitterly and steadily fought and opposed 
every move of the workers to organize, and 

Whereas, some of these manufacturers have so-called union shops controlled by 
the United Garment Workers of America, whose members are forced to work for 



low wages and under miserable conditions so that they can sell the label and claim 
that they have organised shops, and 

Whereas, in order to change this state of affairs and to bring about an 
tion which would strive to Increase the wages of the 
working hours and generally Improve working condition* it is at 
begin a general organising campaign among the workers of this city which. If 
In proper spirit and with proper assistance from the General Office, 
be successful In establishing a strong union of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in 
the ( ieveland. 

Whereas, about 76 per cent of the workers In our industry are Bohemians, who 
can beat be reached by men of their own nationality, therefore be ii 

Resolved, that we. the members of the United Tailors of Cleveland. Ohio. Local 
111. request that the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
Union of America grant their request and send to Cleveland one Bohemian and one 
Italian organiser and give us such other sssistsnce aa would be necessary to effectively 
condu sanitation work in Cleveland. 

Abraham Victor. 
Harry Vldre. 
Louis PUch. 

We recommend reference to the General Executive Board for 
e ration 

There was no objection. 
Unanimously carried. 


Whereas, it has been the tendency of some clothing manufacturers of this city 
and other cities to establish tailoring shops in country towns In their effort to as cap 
the Influence of the Amalgamated, therefore be it 

Resolved, that this convention Instruct the Incoming General Executive Board 
and its officers to exert all efforts to organize the workers In 

II. Elsen. Local 114 

yftal. Local 3 
Bartos, Local ft. 
A. Feldman. Local IS 
Sam Baasin. Local 241. 

The committee recommends concurrence In this resolution. 
Unanimously adopted. 


Whereas, the canvas and padmakers In the City of New York are organised 1043 
per cent and enjoy union conditions, and 

Whereas, in the cities throughout the United States the canvas and padatakers 
are not organised, and 

Whereas, they are an Important factor in the trade, therefore be It 

Resolved, that we start a campaign to organise the canvas and padmakers all 
over the United States and Canada. 

PHIL. BRAND. Loci 1M. 

The committee recommends concurrence. 

Unanimously adopted. 


Resolutions accepted by the Joint Board and endorsed by the locale of 
Taking Into consideration the conditions of the tailoring trade of Montreal, also the 



abnormal condition of the tailoring industry in the Dominion of Canada at large, and 
the urgency to have the entire trade organized by efficient leaders, the General Office 
should always be in touch and, in close relation with all the Canadian locals, therefore 
be it 

Resolved. 1. That two general organizers be assigned for a three-month organiza- 
tion campaign to organize all the tailors in the trade, and one of the two should be 
Brother Madanick. 

That Brother Madanick should also be appointed as general organizer of the 
Dominion of Canada and should concentrate his activities in the Dominion of Canada. 

S. That the entire Dominion should be represented in the General Executive Board 
by a member nominated by the representatives of the Canadian locals of the con- 

4 And we also express our desire that the convention should instruct the incoming 
General executive Board that the latter should have the first sitting in Montreal. 


Frank White, Local 209. 

Albert Wells, Local 116. 

E. Rabkin, Local L'77 

We recommend reference to the General Executive Board. 
Unanimously carried. 


In view of the fact that in the last convention of the A. C. W. of A., held in the 
city of Rochester, N. Y., a resolution was passed by the convention to establish a 
department with power to do organization work among the women wage workers in 
our industry; 

In view of the fact that the women have been politically emancipated in many 
states of the Union, yet we find that there is a feeling among the members of our 
organization not to give necessary importance to bringing women workers into our 
organization, be it .therefore, 

Resolved, that we, delegates of Local 63, hereby declare that such a position 
held by our members is reactionary and not progressive 

This convention orders to establish: first: a women's department in charge of 
a competent woman organizer with full power and the co-operation of the General 
Office; Second: said department shall use every educational means pertaining to 
organization work among women; Third: that permanent women organizers be placed 
on the organization staff throughout the country. 

We recommend that this be referred to the G. E. B. for immediate consideration. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the recommendation of the committee. 

Unanimously adopted. 

President HILLMAN: Does that complete the report? 

Delegate COHEN: Brother Chairman, this completes the report of the Organiza- 
tion Committee. 

President HILLMAN: Then they stand honorably discharged. 

By Harry Cohen, Chairman. 


Whereas, the Clothing Drivers' Union is an essential factor in the tailoring 
industry, and 

Whereas, they give more strength to the Union by their being united with the 
New York Joint Board, and 

Whereas, the New York Joint Board has officially recognized the Clothing Drivers' 
Union and permitted its delegate to represent that organization in the Joint Board, 
thcreiore be it 



Reaoived. that this convention goes) on record to five them foil 
grant them a charter that will entitle them to all privileges of a local of the A 
of A 

Paul Arnone, T/^sjt (3. 
Harry Oman. Children's 

Trade Joint Bo* 
Meyer Senter. Local 4 

The comittee i inommisjii omicirrofjoe with the reeoluUon. 
Preeident HILLMAN: Yon have heard the recommendation of the 
The committee rinnmaenrts that the Clothing Drivers' Union should be granted a 
charter from this organisation. I beliere, though, that It would have 
proper, in view of the fact that this Is an entirely new part of the industry, to 

the O. B. B. 1 personally would like to have more information. 
Delegate BBCKBRMAN: I move to amend that this be referred to the G B R 
for action. 

The amendment was carried. 

By Delegate Abraham Miller. Chairman. 

Delegate MILLER: I want to announce that Resolution No. St. which I ehali now 
road, was withdrawn by the delegation of Local 2. 

Whereas, an official of our organisation employes the name of the nuiilsnflen 
in conducting the business of same. 

Be It Resolved, that no official shall have the right to oee the title of the 
organisation In conectlon with any personal or private interest. 



We have three different resolutions. Introduced by different local 
they are the tame. 


Whereas, the General Executive Board of our International la the high eat autho- 
rity In transacting the business of our organisation, and 

hereae. the General Executive Board has the right to appoint orgaateers aad 
pass judgment upon their work, be it 

Resolved, that we recommend to the convention that the 
w which consists of eleven members shall have no more than two paid 
Is. the General President and the General 



The committee recommends n on -concurrence with this resolution, with 
Rappaport in the mlnlority. who Is for the resolution 

The other two resolutions, before mentioned, are aa follows: 


the Baltimore Local Unions feel that the General 
white the convention is not In seesion. for the rvaaiag of the 
be It 

Reaolved. that the Incoming General Executive Board shoald 
of this organisation not paid by the General Office 





Whereas, it was the practice of this organization to have general organizers 
serve on the executive board, and 

Whereas, some general organizers as members of the General Executive Board 
had to hear reports and pass judgement on their own activities, and 

Whereas, we feel that this is not a democratic and healthy state of affairs in 
an organization, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the General Executive Board should consist of members not serving 
as General Organizers for our organization. In case of any of the General Executive 
Board members joining the staff of organizers of our General Organization a subs 
should be provided at the convention to take his place. 

LOCAL 3, A. C. W. OF A. 
Alex Cohen, 
S. Weinstein, 
M. Golilin, 
L. Revayel, 
L. Nerenberg. 

President HILLMAN: This and the other two resolutions propose a change in 
the constitution which will prohibit our organization from nominating, voting for, or 
electing to the G. E. B. brothers who are general organizers for the National Office. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence. That is the report of the majo 
The minority dissents. The minority recommends the concurrence. What is your 
pleasure? The vote will take place on the minority report. Are you ready for the 

Delegate RIGER: Mr. Chairman and Delegates: Similar resolutions 
introduced at the Rochester convention, and defeated. I believe that the run 
report should be defeated at this convention, too, for the simple reason that it will 
bar active men in the movement, who are best fitted for the Organization, from 
being a member of the Board. I believe that the delegates will vote against the 
minority report, and for the majority report. 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: I am heartily in favor of the minority report that no 
paid official should be in the G. E. B., not only from the democratic standpoh. 
from the business standpoint. I am in favor of that for the simple reason that if the 
B. will not be of paid officials, and if the organizers are going to be responsible 
to the G. E. B. they will have much more efficiency, they will have much more 
responsibility. I don't doubt the honesty of the G. E. B., but they are in a very 
peculiar position. When organizers come together, both the G. E. B. and organizers 
give a report of what they have done. They are in a position where their work is 
.ed. They cannot criticize an organizer if he is a G. E. B. member. Let us 
take, for instance, the stenographer. If the stenographer is going to be a G. E. B. 
member, he will not have so much responsibility as if he would not be a G. 
member. It is the same with everyone, and I appeal to all delegates to vote for it. 

Delegate BECK I : I want to say that naturally I have great sympathy, 

great feeling in this case, with the minority report, for the reason there is no question 
about it, but it seems more democratic, it seems more just, and it seems more 
logical that a body of men, organizers, should be responsible to those not only who 
are not paid officials, but particularly to those who are absolutely uninfluenced. 
From a democratic viewpoint, that is perfectly proper and perfectly right. But the 
unfortunate thing in this case is that as a practical measure it is an absolute blunder, 
this report of the minority. After all, in what position are our people who are not 
paid officials, and are confined to the workshops, to judge of what work is required in 
Montreal, or for Toronto, of what work is being done here, and being done there? 
I am not one of those who want to put a premium on brains. I am not one of those who 
want to confine a man's activities to one particular thing, and prevent him from 
using his brains wherever they can be used. I am very sorry to say that, as fine 
an organization as we are. we are not yet overburdened with a very extraordinary 
number of very intelligent people. We have our proportion. We have a larger propor- 
tion in comparison to other organizations. But we have not yet developed sufficient talent 
to meet the needs of a revolutionary class conscious labor organization. If happens that a 
good many men who are suitable for organization work are also suitable for executive 
-k !t happens that a man who puts in all his time in the organization, is in a 
position to know more about the organization, and is therefore more competent to be 



an eiecutive. That is a fact. As far as being responsible to coacera+d. if I were aa 

organizer, and 1 wanted to get away with it. 1 would not want to be responsible to 

the o.l i would want to be responsible to a Dumber of mea 

coming from tbe workshops wbo would know nothing at an about my work. You 

and less safeguards when you have men. however eiaecre. 

who know little about the situation, little about the general activity of the organisation, 
to paas upon the work of men who are doing the work of the organisation. I have 
the greatest sympathy with tbe minority report, but I realise that, la the eealk* 
between theory and practice, we have got to drop this particular theory for the 
general welfare of the organization. (Applause.) 

Delegate GOODMAN: If I am not mistaken. Brother 
before that the men wbo are working In tbe shops, tbeee men not only 
but tht-y feel thHr oppression, and therefore they alone can be the 
of themselves. I want to ask Brother Beckerman where do we get our 

;.ot from tbe shops? Do you mean to say that If a man la 
shop today, and Is getting paid aa an operator, or preaaer. or tailor, be knows leaa than 
tbe general organ i here do you get tbe general organiser from. If not from 

among men who are developed In the shop? 1 say that we always must have control 
over men who are working for the organization, wbo are working for tbe welfare of 
tbe working class. Even some of our prevent organisers. If they would be b 

would still remain general organisers. In order that tbe people should nave 
faith In our organisation, that we hou!d not develop tbe same thing as we bad before. 
we must protect ourselves. We cannot afford to rebuild our organisation again and 
again. We have built up an organisation with the spirit that everybody is sattttodL 
We must keep up with the spirit, and protect our organization. 

Delegate FRIEDMAN: A remark was made here a little wblle ago TO tbe effect 
that we want the organizers on tbe same level as tbe stenographer*. Well, you mlgbl 
aa well include janitors and everything else. Tbe organisers come from tbe abopa. 
says Goodman. Certainly, they don't come from anywhere esta, Bat. 

according to his viewpoint, and the resolution of tbe minority, ss soon as a BMW lea vat 
the shop, and becomes a general organlr*r. bis loyalty, his spirit, and all that was 
was good In him while he was In the shop, immediately flies ou: I think . would 
be a pretty poor organization if this mere true. This resolution waa bromgbt la 
because <' disagreeable things we bad in the former organisation. I say this 

is no good reason. The Chinese 5.000 years ago tried electricity, and made a 
of it. It does not say that we nave got to adandon it Because It was not 
somewhere else, there is no reason why we should put handicap* on this 

nnore. so long as you have the irembershlp vote upon everybody, so 
there la a referendum vote taken, you havo absolute democracy. If 
be elected at this convention, you would say It is not democratic. But the 

. and every official, is elected by referendum. I say yon 
punish a man because he Is willing to be a general organiser. Not everybody la oar 
or** ni ration and I know the national organ! tat ion baa tried to got 
willing to be an organiser. Because a man Is willing to accept an 
you immediately put him in the criminal class. Don't put a migma on him. I 
that if tbe minority report Is adopted it will dampen the spirit of our 
and win positively put a handicap on a man or a woman when accepting the 
position of organiser. 

Delegate ALEX COHEN- I feel that in this case we may easily run to tbe 
me of the ridiculous. I want first to overcome a few difficult I** broagbt oat 
by my good friend. Delegate Beckerman. Delegate Beckerman is 
to know, when the O. E. B. convene* and there la a group not acquainted 
has been done here and there, bow they will act? First of all. 
the President of tbe organization, la supposed to know what is 
there and everywhere, and I hope he does know, and we know that bo 
that. Brother Scbloasberg la quite acquainted with tbe work of 
If there is something of much Importance, a telegram for 2Sc will inform s certala 
organizer to appear and report on tbe situation ta Canada, or Montreal, or in New 
(Applause) It is true that we need good men. But I said two yean ago. and 
I do repeat it here, that we don't deprive tbe organisation of the eerrtcos of good saoa by 
the fact that we don't want them to be G. E. B. members I think that all organism try 
to serve us in the capacity of organlsera. In tbe beat capacity that they are nepabls of. 
but. when it comes to the administrative part of th* organisation. It to not more than 
fair and just that men of the various parts of tbe country should come there and 



listen. Just as you. delegates, are listening today to what has been done for two years. 
The delegates come here and discuss vital problems of the organization. We discuss 
them because we are sensible men. We listen to questions, to reason, and then w 
give our opinions. I think it should be done the same way at the G. E. B. meeting. 
You know what respect the G. E. B. enjoys, together with the President and the 
Secretary. Discussing the resolution we have not in mind any one of the personnel 
that constitutes the G. E. B. today. But I think it is a more democratic form, a 
as a more practical form, of organization to have men to come there to listen to reports. 
Why, the Board of Directors, which is the administrative body in th. < ity of New 
York, consists of 7 or 8 or 11 men. who do not know exactly what Is being done in 
every shop, but they have men who are informing them, and they pass Judgement 
accordingly. So I feel, even if I have to put myself out of a Job, that the minority 
report, as it has been reported to you, should be accepted by this convention. 

Delegate GEIER: It is true that people who are doing important work for the 
Amalgamated should have some overseers somebody who should pass Judgement as 
to whether their work is right or wrong, as to whether they are fit for the Job. But 
it happens that these organizers and I speak from years of experience are men and 
women who have been raised in the workshop, who have had their experience, either 
from the board or from the machine, and have made good in their field. These 
people are appointed as organizers for the only reason that they have the ability, 
the experience, to deal with a situation that may arise anywhere. The fact that the 
members have a right to vote for or against these men is sufficient democratic safe- 
guard. I am satisfied that there is no member of the G. E. B. who is not able, and 
who has not in the past shown that he knew his duties. Therefore, I think that 
the general organizer Is, if anything, more preferable for a general executive board 
member, for no other reason than he is experienced. The men and women who have 
been in the shops for years, who have been very active locally, no doubt, still have 
not the same knowledge of the country as the people who travel from city to city, and 
see the conditions, and understand the differences between one city and another. 
What is going on in the City of New York is not going on in the City of Chicago, and 
the same with Baltimore. So I say that the minority report should be voted down, 
to preserve the efficiency of the A. C. W. of A. (Applause.) 

Delegate ARNONE: I wish to state the other side of the case. They are telling 
us how they are going to run the organization if this motion is adopted. I am really 
surprised that my good Comrade Goodman has forgotten the elementary teaching of 
a radical union, and the Amalgamated is supposed to be a radical organization. I 
know this much, anything that is done by the convention has to be passed upon by 
a referendum. Experience has shown us for the last four years that everything that 
has been done by the convention baa been O.K'd by the members, and no local union 
has as yet recommended a referendum to recall any man who has been put on the 
General Executive Board. I say if you have anything to say, here is the place, today. 
Don't beat around the bush. I want to be shown. And if you think anyone of the 
Board members is trying to put something over on the membership, I want to know 
IT I don't understand what is the matter with some of our radical comrades and 
members of the organization. You know full well that this is 1918. and the members 
are running the organization today. The people at the head of the organization, who 
bear the responsibility, are not the kind of men that you have had in the Bible House. 
I, for one, defy everybody to show that any officer does not deliver the goods. I 
wish that our members, when they go back to their locals, especially the Jewish 
members, should take this notion out of their heads, that if a man leaves the shop 
and becomes a paid officer of the organization, they must Jump on him. Therefore, 
this resolution should be voted down. I hope and trust that two years later, when 
we meet again, the same G. E. B. will be here, and will continue delivering the goods 
the way they have in the past. Applause.) 

VOICE: Previous question. 

President HILLMAN: The Chair win not entertain a motion for previous question 
until the question is thoroughly discusse ! This question is of great importance, and 
should be discussed fully. 

Delegate HARRY COHEN: I am v ry much surprised to see a resolution that 
organizers should not be on the G. E. B. If a resolution calls for a change in the 
constitution I think it is not more than right to show that what we have now is a 
failure. What do we see? We see that our organization as it has been organized for 



the last four years has been a wondsrfil MBBMS. We CUM here wtu a 

we are not ashamed of. The prate la talking obooi na. Everybody to envying as. 
and the only thanks you are going to five to the people who are on the G. E. B 

>u performed your duty, and now. when you have done yoar beet to 
make this organisation a success, yon will please stay home; wa don't aat you 

k that a reaolutlon of that kind wonld lli !! 

against active members of this organisation. 1 wiU cite to you an tM * rt M> 
friend. Brother Alex Cohan, spoke in favor of the resolution 1. for one. think tnat 
it would be a crime to enforce such a resolution so that my friend. Brother Alex 
Cohen, should not be on the O. E. B. (Laughter and ippliam) Casjsldir It. and 
you will see that there is no reason for it Hut It Is the old. old bobby of picking 
and picking and picking on paid officials, where there la no reason. With all dae 
reaper* - President and Secretary. 1 think it is no more than ngnt tb. 

give them a O. E. B.. who should know what la going on in the Industry We want 
ibers of the O. E. B. to deliver the goods, and do the work. (Applause.) 

EI8EN: Governments where the cabinets are not 

government, are called autocratic, and we are ready to shed our blood to 
a democratic government out of an autocratic government. Tat In oar 
organization, we are ready to have the executive officers, or. rather. 
cabinet members, also the legislators. In other words, they are u 
responsible to themselves. Are we going to do it? I think not. Brother Harry 
said that the past experience has shown us that our general 
done splendid work. It is true. 1 adult It. 1 admit that the G. E. B of the 
mated has done splendid work. Yet. I don't forget that, four years ago. 
organization campaign was carried on by the very same G. E. B against oar 
the United Garment Workers, the issue of the day was that the organisers 
responsible to anybody but themselves, (Applause.) I think that If we wait until 
the G. E. B. will be of such a nature that will ruin the organisation. It will then be 
too late to make amendments to the constitution. It will then be neceasary to form a 
new Amalgamated, if we wait too long. Now. while we are young, now. while we nave 
a very good hand to make laws, to suit our own selves, to make lawe to soft the 
general membership, now U the time to frame a constitution so tnat the nijsilsaliaa 
may remain as democratic and ss successful as It has been In Use past. Applause > 

Delegate REVAYLE: For the second time I have the opportunity to 
behalf of the G. E. B. I have all respect for every one of yea. officers Tbere Is 
not the slightest thing to be said against you. You have performed your duty. You 
did all you posslblby could for the Amalgamated. But. when you spaa 
racy. I want to understand what democracy means? It is that each and 
judges. We have no objection against all those organisers, bat I claim 
should be governed by the Executive Board, as well as the local officer* by Use 
Board or the District < It Is true that at this time our officers are of the 

Hut. looking at the past and we ought to look at the past, or we wUl 
ahead, we must profit by the mistakes made than. For tnat very reason. 
to provide laws to protect ourselves that, not this executive board, but 
boards of the future, may not do the same thing that was done four years age We 
cannot afford to rebuild our organisation every few years. It took us 
years, more than 25 years, to build up an organisation. For this vary 
brought in the resolution. It U democratic. And I therefore ask you, delegates, to 
vote for the minority report. (Applause.) 

Secretary Schlossberg here took the chair. 

DELEGATE KROLL: I have listened very attentively to what baa beam 
there is only one thing that I found, and that is the fact that they don't 
izers to report to themselves. If we look the situation straight la the 
question arises, "Do the organisers report to themselves?** As the minority 
it. it wants none but unpaid officers to be on the executive board, bat your 
Secretary and your President. If you have no paid officers on the Board 
two highest officers. I say that you are doing nothing bat placing In the 
your two highest officers absolute control. There la no aquation about It. A 
working In the shop, where he must work If he to not a paid officer, does net 
and cannot know th.- conditions throughout the country Instead of sprsndt 
over eleven members, you are simply placing the responsibility to tne hands of 
I would say that your organisers, who are O. E. B. msmbsrs. nave I 
first and they have been elected by your general membership to tne O. E. B. 



wards. Take the thing In that light, and it is simply a natural development. There 
is one feature in this we don't want to overlook, and that is the lack of material in 
your organization. If you pass this minority report, you are simply going to lose 
what capable brains we have. 

Delegate WOLF: I am sorry that I will not be able to say all in five minutes, 
and I know that the Chairman is very democratic that when the four Mnmr.fs 
will be up, he will rap. You have heard Delegate Revayle, who is the Chairman 
of the Board of Directors of the Joint Board of New York, speak here in such an 
enthusiastic way. and speak only in the name of democracy. I would like to know 
whether there is a way to explain that word democracy. I am puzzled all the timr 

we speak of democracy. We have actual democracy, he says, Alex Cohen says, 
in the Board of Directors of the New York Joint Board. I would like to know 
how many decisions the Board of Directors of the New York Joint Board made 
contrary to the report of its officers, who are paid officers. Not one, ;> my ; 
edge. They always discuss and agree. You speak of taking the organizer and dis- 
criminating against hi:. had th <>i>p<rt unity to speak about organizers. At 

General Executive Board meeting we have been searching for them throughout 
the country. Money was no object. Get them! We need them, but we cannot 
find them! Wl o is the organizer? The best man that we possibly can get in the 
organization. If he is the best man in the organization that is willing to go out 
and organize the clothing workers, why is he not fit to be a G. E. B. member? 
:*e you happen to pay him a salary? If a man is not lit to an office, he is not 
fit. whether paid or not paid. That is my understanding of an officer. If Delegate 
Eisen thinks that the G. E. B. members who are paid by General Office are not 
democratic, but are autocratic, he thinks so because he may dislike some individual 
on the Board, or someone else may dislike that individual. I say that there are 
many who don'i agree with the doings of an o: ,: that does not mean any 

more than this that the man who disagrees has a right to disagree, but that does 
not mean that he is at all right and correct. This proposition was not originated 
for the purpose of saving the life of the organization. It originated out of personal 
feelings and interpretations of work being done by certain individuals. I happen to 
be fortunate enough not to be a General Organizer but Manager of the Joint Board, 
and 1 am more free to discuss it. I say that instead of bringing in a resolution that 
organizers, because they are paid, should not be on the G. E. B., you get busy and 
recommend organizers to the G. E. B. to organize t!?e industry throughout the country. 
You will by that be doing the organization more good than by taking the good man, 
the man willing to do work, and putting him aside, because he is a paid <> 
of the organization and a G. E. B. member. Today it seems that there is something 
s not honorable. I assure you that I will not hold an office in any 
organization that is not considered honorable. I happened to be in Boston a year or 
two ago. The Boston delegates know what we found there. I was with them for 
four or f: . I lived with them. It was the most critical time. Did the 

Boston members find anything wrong because I was a direct representative of the 
General Office and also a General Executive Board member? 


President HILLMAN: The time is up. (Great Applause) 

VOICE: I move that we extend him five minutes more. (Applause) 

President HILLMAN: Is there any objection? 

There was no objection, and the motion was carried. 

Delegate WOLF: I am not here to agitate for It because I am a G. E. B. member. 
I am not interested in it from that point of view. Having had actual experience 
in the G. E. B., I know that there are people on the Board today, and there may be 
people on the Board after this convention adjourns, who will have to be forced 
to become paid officials of the General Office, not because we want it, but because 
we cannot get enough outside to do tbe work that is necessary. We have officials 
with us today who are representing the New York Joint Board, and Brother Hillman 
and Brother Schlossberg pleaded with them "Accept the position as an organizer; 
we need you. we must have you." Th y were not willing at all to do it, and they 
have not done it. They did not plead with them because they liked them. They 
pleaded with them because they knew that they needed them and they must have 
thorn. What would become of a good man who is on the Board if we were to accept 
the proposition before us not to be a C. E. B. member because he is a paid official? 



1 would not accept the beat paid organisershlp for the O.K. B. 1 would rather 
remain In the G. B. B. and not be an organizer than remain an organizer and not 

9 Board. inherited. 1 think, the spirit of some of your 

You don't like your paid officials That la mighty wrong. The Idea 

iple are wrong. If you p*ak for democracy, don't take my right of 
away because you pay me wafts -til. I have as much right to be 

with an offlc general organization as any one else, whether paid or not 

against it. not because I say so. but because the proposition is not for the heat 
interests of the organization. (Great applause). 

Delegate WISE: What I want to know Is this: In case paid omotolt will mot 

ve Board, will that stop the organizers from doing their 

ire great, they will make their work still greater. 

Hui the thing Is this: Some of us are afraid that we will not be able to have 
able .si Executive Board. Is not Miller a fit man to bo la the 

General Executive Board by being a paid official in the local? Is not Gold an able 
man? Are not certain men of Chicago fit to be on the Board? Are not certain 
men of Hochestcr fli to t <loes not stop the work of the gsjural 

organizers, and I don't see why they are afraid of It. Brother Wolf asked whether 
the Board of Directors does not approve of his report. They do. In case they will 
disagree, they will show why they disagree. You always must bring in a report. 
Delegate Beet man. told us the proportion is all right la principle 

t>ut not in pr. of Republicans In your district are telling you. they are 

Socialists In , but they w&nt you to vole for the Republican Part- 

ae sny crime !n tin- resolution. 1 don't see where it will take away the 
right of any organizers to do great work In the organization. (Applause). 

Board Member ROsi M: It is rather an unpleasant task for m to get 

into this proposlth reason that 1 am one that is affected, but I am taking 

sMon that 1 don't expect to be affected. I am expecting 

to work Sam by the time anything like this may go into effect, and 

for that reason I think 1 can speak without personal motives. I want to say first that 
this principle of no organiser being on the General Executive Board is hailed as a 
radical measure. I claim It Is nothing of the son. The reason it is claimed aa a 
radical measure is because the progressive element In the W.. la their 

i>t to rid the organization of the corrupt leaders, advocated this measure aa a 
means of gelling rid of ihem. Because of your experience In the United Qsinsat 
Workers, this thing has been Intn -<i the A "ftlgTnn!+il It Is one of the 

things we inherited from them. snd. unfortunately, we are suffering from It Tour 
B. is not corrupt and this measure Is not necessary now. The General 
Executive Board theoretically is supposed to be composed of the moat able la our 
organization mark you. theoretically, i say. They may not be. but they are sup- 
posed to be. By the very rule here, you will deprive your moat able in the 
zation. doing national service for the organ rom being In the 

ra they can do greater service. It Is all right to come here and say. 
ahou; ; ort to themselves because they are not responsible.- The 

are responsible. Let any G. EL B. member go Into a locality and let that 
Qnd fault with him. You will hear It quick enough In the country. Protest* will 
come In. He Is responsible first to your International Officers, your President and 
Secretary; second to the general membership, and thai is true with every G. E B. 
member or general organizer. Brother Wolf stated It well. The officers hai 
way. even urn! r the present G. E. B. In a national situation a G. E. B. 
under ihe proposed law would be dummies. They could noi know what to 
on throughout the country. If they wished. They would have to 

President and the Secretary said. By your action you would make 
and Secretary absolute autocrats In your crgnnlzatlon. Under the 
lions, your Executive Board Is composed of men of influence, people who have 
element of control in the organization, whose opinion they must respect. The 
way your Executive Board would be men without Influence whom your ofioon 
choose to ignore without fearing consequences, 

I say your Executive Board should be composed of men who are able to 
who understand the Intercuts of the organization in the true sense of the 
Is what you put them there for. You put them there to he men of 

IVP no influence, your organization will have no )ed<rsh!| 
ship In your organization. It Is all right to talk of democracy, 
not necessarily spell the death of democracy. In democratic 
must have leaders, as well aa any other organisation, if you are to get 



and be successful. Vote down this resolution, because you want the best that is in 
your organization on the Executive Board. And 1 say it not for personal reasons. 
I don't expect to serve as organizer for the reason stated. (Applause) 

Delegate POLAK: The only argument that was given for the majority 
was that there will be discrimination against the organizers. I say that the purpose 
of this resolution is not to discriminate against the organizers, but not to give 
too much ito one hand. I think we all agree that there should not be too 

much power in one hand. You all remember we criticize the United Ga 
Workers. Not only did we criticise the persons who took the positions as orga 

the Garment Workers, we also criticized the constitution, which served the 
officers and we, therefore, changed the constitution. I don't see where the organi- 
sation will be at a disadvantage by changing this point of the constitution. 

Delegate CRYSTAL: The Baltimore organization has also introduced a re. 
tion like the one of Local 2. 1 know that the Baltimore organization has absolutely 
no fault to find with the present General Executive Board. There is no question 

rsonalities as far as the members of the General Executive Board ar< 
cerned. If anyone says that this resolution was brought in on account of dislike 
of some men on the G. E. 13., he insults the organization that submitted the resolution. 
I feel that this resolution is absolutely pure. There are absolutely no personalities 
Involved in it. I feel when a General Organizer accepts his job, he should n<>: in- 
promised a place on the General Executive Board. Brother Cohen made a correct 
statement He feels that, even though he would be deprived from membership in 
the G. B. B., this resolution ought to be accepted. And I think we ought to accept 
it No General Organizers should be placed on the General Executive Board. You 
are just simply monopolizing; you are just simply putting a gate down in the 
front of the working class; just stating to the rank and file that you cannot go a 
step further. "We, the organizers, must be the General Executive Board members, 
and you cannot be, because you are not capable and cannot even get the oppor- 
tunity to learn." (Great applause) 

Delegate LEDERMAN: I do favor the Minority Report, and I will give you a 
few of my reasons. Delegate lieckerman says that a man that is in the shop is 
not as capable to represent us in the General Executive Board as a man that is a 
Geneml Organizer. 1 don't agree with him. I think that a man who works at the 
machine, a man who gives away his days and nights for the organization and for 
the people in the shops, can represent the people on the General Executive Board 
just as good as any organizer who represents them right now. This is my opinion, 
Brother President. Brother Wolf tells us that there is a question of honor. Why 
not give a little bit of honor to the people who work in the shops, and give up 
their days and nights, and are willing to represent the organization. (Applause) 

legate GOLDSTEIN of Philadelphia: The reason that the Amalgamated u 
a success Is that it gave the people exactly the right principles, exactly the right 
thing that did the people good. That is why they succeeded in getting the people 
with them. That is why they succeeded in forming this organization, of which 
we are all proud. As far as the General Board is concerned, I say that even If 
you have a Board of the rank and file, not of general organisers, you are not sure 
whether the people who will be elected on the General Executive Board will not 
act in the manner which you are opposing now. 

Delegate DIAMOND: I say that the General Executive Board, the officers that 
you have right now, are the best that can be gotten. If you would not have these, 
I don't think that we would have succeeded as much as we have. Some of the 
delegates are afraid that there will come a time when the General Executive Board 
with the officers will control everything. We will have to come to an Amalgamated 
convention as we did in Nashville. I am not afraid of that, although I was a 
delegate to the Nashville convention. I can see the spirit in the Amalgamated, and 
I am not afraid that this will ever come. I believe that every individual here has 
a right to run for the G. E. B. All of us have a right to run for anything. We are 
all members of the Amalgamated. Let every one have a right to run and let the 
referendum vote decide. Why are you afraid? Why do you have to come with 
this to a convention at all? I believe that every one of us has a right to be a 
candidate and you should not be afraid of it. 

Board Member LEVIN: During the entire discussion on the resolution before 
us, we heard a great deal about democracy. I am just as much an advocate of 



as anybody else, but I don't like to deprive any 
democracy which we desire for the body as a whole. The 

laws depriving individuals of the benefits of democracy, you 
very principle of democracy. The advocates of the resolution urge it 
years ago in Nashville we found It ni pases ry to revolt Are we 
conditions now as we faced in Nsshville? In Naahville a group of 
there to legislate and denied duly elected delegates the right to 
Olothlng workers. That was the actual situation in Nashville. In 
convention would have elected the General Executive Board and the 
large would not have anything to say. Are we under the 
No. This convention nominates members for the General Executive 
the members at large vote on thorn by referendum. By taking away the right of 

ocause they are paid officers, you are committing a grave tmjoj 
the first place, let us see who are the General Officers? Who are the 

rs? Who are the paid officials? As it has been stated here, the host 
the shops are chosen to represent thorn. Then It Is the Inagisiait of the 
they make their selections. And good people have ambition, honor, aad 'pride. 
Whoa you offend their pride they will refuse to serve. We want no member of the 
Amalgamated to be deprived of bis rights, because his rights are your right* 

Delegate BLUGERMAN: Mr. Chairman. 1 wish to speak for the minority. Some 

or the delegate* are afraid that If the minority resolution is pnani there will 
nobody on the General Executive Board. Ii seems to mo that they are 
impression that besides a half dosen or a dosen organisers, or two dosea on 
there will not be enough intelligent men in the different cities to be on the 
Executive Board. They forget that in every town we have 
of various boards, secretaries, presidents, executive board 
are active and study the conditions in the factory and ouuide of the factory la 
their town and ouuide of their town; and it seems to me that some of the mem sen 
forget there will always be a few more members suitable and eligible for the G. E. B. 
outside of those few of the General Executive Board who may he elected as General 
Organisers And then, why go to the extreme? Don't you really think thai you 
nd enough men In New York and Chicago and other places besides those few 
organizers who will be on the General Executive Board aad not play the role of 
dummies? Don't you think that th* Amalgamated among the one 
men and women organised, will find half a dosea men who wfll act on the 
Executive Board not as dummies? AnU. mind you. I am not prejudiced 
paid officials. I am a paid official myself, that is. local, and I weald net 
becoming a paid official of the General Office, 

Delegate WOLF: That is a good hint. (Laughter) 

Delegat. ontinulng): Bo I say 1 have no 

paid official, but at the same time 1 think that if I should be a 
or wo should have another two dosen or three dosea of us, we still 
plenty of level headed men to be on the General Board and judge 
are doing. In conclusion. Mr. Chairman, do yon think the < 
be outside of the G. E. R will cease serving the Amalgamated? As 
they will be able always to be In touch with the General Executive 
will always be able to be present at the General Executive Board 
enlighten It whenever necessary (Applaues) 

Delegate MILLER: I believe that this resolution la the result of 
It I. the result of the absolute failure to realise the cause of the extet 
Amalgamated. I want to ask the delegates, why Is It that in every other 
we consider ourselves radicals, but when It comes to this proposition we only 

It superficially, and we don't wsnt to go down radically and try to tad oat the 
real cause. I say that It is not true that the cause of the esiintlihmont of the 

Amalgamated was the fact that this man or that man waa mot honest or was 
thing else. I say that th* cause of the existence of the amalgaaated todaj 
that the United Garment Workers reprtsentsd everything that was dark, everything 
that waa reactionary la the American Labor movement, aad the Amalgamated SB 
representing something which is absolutely the reverie of what the United 

-era was. This is the cause of the existence of the Amalgamated. I say 
no matter how many laws we wfll aha, they will not result la aaythim*. 
that the people who have Introduced the resolution 


that If we had not the support of the gallery in Nashville that the Amalgamated 
would not have been in existence. I deny this. I say, whether we would have been 
seated or not, the Amalgamated would have been here today, because of the fact 
that the United Gacment Workers was proceeding from the premise that the 
tailors could not be organized. And even if we would have been seated in Nashville. 
the Amalgamated would have been here even if not under this name, because we 
represent In the American Labor movement something that was told to you for four 
consecutive days here. You have been listening to speechet . and every one of the 
speakers emphasised this very fact, that we are something new in the American 
Labor movement. And if we are new in the American Labor movement, i 
believe we should create walls, Chinese walls, around ourselves out of fear of 
our own existence. I say that this resolution is the result of a misconception. It 
Is the result of the fa. we don't know the causes of our organization today. 

Brother Goodman is afraid that we will have to rebuild the Amalgamated, if i 
of the same opinion I would perhaps vote for the minority, but because I believe 
in the strength, because I believe in the historic mission that the Amalgamated has 
to perform. I am not afraid of a general organizer, who is doing the work for the 
Amalgamated, on the General Executive U nplause) 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: I hope you all realize that what we are discussing 
now is only the right of a general organizer to be a candidate for the G. E. B. This 
does not mean that the G. E. B. must consist of organizers to the exclusion of 
non-organizers. It only means that the organizer has the same right to a nomination 
as the member who is not an organizer. A number of delegates in opposition to 
the majority report that is, those opposing the right of the General Organizer 
to run for the G. E. B. membership , emphasized the fact that we are all perfectly 
satisfied and highly pleased with the work of the General Executive Board until 
now, but we don't know what they might do later. I heard a story of a man who 
suddenly turned upon his child and shouted at him to shut up! "Why, I am not 
saying anything," protested the child in amazement. "But you might," said the 
enraged father. (Laughter) 

You are perfectly pleased with what the General Executive Board has done for 
the organization in the cour&e of three and a half years, and you agree that they 
have proven their efficiency to your full satisfaction. After three and a half years 
you turn on tham and say. "We don't want you because you might prove wrong." 

Our experience with the United Garment Workers is being referred to. We 
had to fight the administration because the General Executive Board was composed 
of General Organizers. My friends, you don't know what you are fighting, if you 
think that that was what you fought. The General Executive Board of the former 
n was against the interests of the members, not because it was composed 
of General Organizers, but because it was not elected by anybody, was not respon- 
sible to anybody, and the rank and file could not exercise any control over it. The 
same was true as regards the President and the Secretary. Yet you propose to 
leave the President and the Secretary on the General Executive Board, while the 
President and the Secretary are the ones that have real power, and the General 
Executive Board members come to meetings only once in three months, and some- 
times only once in six months. Their power is very limited. You are putting 
the lock on the wrong door. We have now a system of election which makes a 
repetition of the former experience impossible. The General Executive Board is 
elected by the membership. Any member, who after his election proves to be 
unfit to serve on the General Executive Board, may be withdrawn by a motion 
initiated by the membership, or charges may be preferred by them and properly 
tried. If found guilty he is excluded from the General Executive Board and some- 
body else is elected in his place. You have that system, the very thing tha 
asked for three years ago. and did not get, which was the cause of the split 
in 1914. 

Remember also this, that there is no rule that any organization may adopt that 
will protect it from crooks, so long as the proper spirit is not there. If the 
members have not sufficient intelligence and the proper spirit to watch the interests 
of their organization, to keep their eyes open upon the activity of their officers, 
you may adopt all the rules you wish, and none of them will be of any avail, because 
the officers will do just as they please, whichever way they may be elected, or 
whatever section of the organization they may come from. Do you know that as a 
matter of fact we have no constitution today? Did it ever occur to you? Do 



you know that the constitution that we have has not been printed hsoiisi it to 

no constitution? Yet all of us agree that we have 

of us agree that we have made a great sac peas, and some of 

minority report said that we have la these 2 1-2 years achieved 

organizations have in 2ft years. 

My friends, it to not the constitution that will win strikes far yon. or win 

shorter hours for you. or keei eanlsatfen logetb. the spirit of the 

organisation that keeps the organisation alive, that keeps the membership wid*avakn 

and keeps the organisers and the General Officers and all represents tit as of the 

n conscious of the u everything they do to watched and to 

being subjected to the sen he membership, whether It to done in a formal 

legal manner, or Informal and illegal manner U U this that keeps ovr 

organisation intact and keeps it itrong. If you want to provide yourself with * rule 

now for the future, how can you tell juit what might be required a year from now? 

ay be that this very rule. If you will accept It now. will be the very 
that will play Into the bands of crooks? You don't know what conspiracy 
be formed and in what way this rule might be played. 

U has already been pointed out that the power really remains with the 
officers, and . !>e membership of the O. E. B. to 

people who are not In a position to follow up the work, the detailed work of the 
organization, day In and day out. you will simply leave It to the General Officers. 
If they choose to make use of the opportunity to turn the G. E. B. into a blind tool. 
They will be a group of people who will have to take the word of the General 
Officers and say "Yes" or "No" according to the wishes of thoss 

Let me remind you of one little thing that I think ought to 
for all labor organisations. In France. I am told, the words "Liberty. 
Fraternity" are inscribed over the portals of every prison. Ask 
those prisons what liberty, equality and fraternity they enjoy. The 
beautiful, but It has no meaning at all for the people Inside, ixcept 
We have had demands at the Rochester convention, we have had 
convention, and we will continue having demands st later 
organizers, for a larger representation of women and a 
and more effective organisation of women. We have been working hard, trying 
to find proper persons fit to serve as organizers for women. We have one rapes 
tentative of the women on the General Executive Board. That represents ( 
also acting In the capacity of General Organiser. 1 mention this one member 
because she happens to be the only woman member of the General Executive 
snd at present the only womsn organiser. But I ask you to forget the 
Think of the situation. We have been trying hard to get more organisers A 
women. You know that the women are backward in organisation. Yon 
that we have still a great deal to do in order to educate the women to s 
where they will be able to take care of their Interests, where they will 
to furnish organisers. If this resolution to passed, it would mean that any 
a position to be elected on the G. E. B. would not be eligible for 
ship Aould deprive the women in our industry, you deprive th 

of an opportunity of having someone to serve ss a woman or- .. 

Let me point out one more thing: It has been said here thai we have 
the prejudice against officers from the former organization. It waa perfectly 
for such , to exist there: the average officer was against the 

of the membership. That prejudice we carried along with us. It Is about time far 
us to be freed from It 

You wish to deprive a General Organiser of the opportunity to serve 9* tan 
ral Executive Board, because an organiser. If made a member of the 
Executive Board, would have a right to paaa upon his own work Yon do. 
leave the gate open for local officers to serve on the General Bxecvttve 

give so little consideration to this mstter thst yon dont realise that the 
work of the General Executive Board does not consist mainly la controlling tan 
work of the general organisers. That to a very small part of the activity of the 
General Executive Board. The General Officers, bet' 
exercising such control, day In and day out. When the General 
meets, it has very little to do with the work of the 

Board concerns Itself mainly with the; work of 

That constitutes the bulk of our work. We take up Chicago: we take op New York, 
Philadelphia. Boston. Montreal and Toronto at our Board smttnts Yon 

given an opportunity to the local officers, by allowing them to serve en the O. B. B, 


to pass upon their own work at the General Executive Board meetings, the local 
officers who compose the bulk of the organization staff, and you want to deprive 
the general organizers of the opportunity to serve, though their share of the work 
calls only for a small fraction of the attention of the General Executive Board. You 
are doing the very opposite of what you intend to do. You take the work from the 
hands of the general organizers for one reason and you give i of 

local organizers who will exercise it and must, with the best Ise 

it just in the very way that you don't want the General Organizers to exercise it. 

Looking at the question from every angle, I say brothers and sisters we have 
equal suffrage in this organization we have made our experiment; our experiment 
has worked; all of you have testified to the efficiency of the General Executive 
Board, to the effectiveness of its work; there is no immediate reason, nothing that 
we can see that will improve the ell of the organization by depriving the 

general organizers of an opportunity to run for G. E. B. membership. Don't make 
changes now that are not called for. We make changes as we go along and as 
conditions require. Conditions, you will all admit, those who favor the minority 
report, do not call for the change just now. Let us go right ahead; let us not 
lose a good man, if he is a General Organizer and if the rank and file wish to have 
him on the General Executive Board, because he will be an addition and a 
strengthening of the General Executive Board. Let us not deprive the membership 
of the benefit of his cervices. And if there is a good man on the General Execir 
Board who is not a general organizer, and who may happen to meet the require- 
ments of the organization, who may happen to fit in better than others, let the 
General Office have its hands free to call for that man's services if he is willing 
to serve. If any general organizer is not wanted on the G. E. B., let the member- 
ship decide it by the referendum vote. The great success of our organization was 
made by the very fact that we have removed all restraints, that we have abolished 
all red tape, that we have gone right ahead and worked, that we have not stopped 
here and there and looked into the little book to see if there is a comma after 
one word or a semi-colon after another word, and tried to find out from some 
supreme court what the interpretation of this or that might be. We looked at our 
policies; we looked at the requirements of the situation; we looked at the spirit of 
the membership; with that we worked; with that we built up our organization and 
attained success. 

make no change now when conditions are such that we don't know what 
we might be called upon to do tomorrow. Conditions all over the world are 
such that something might happen tomorrow, as a result of the present situation, 
that might call for the fullest services and co-operation of the greatest and of the 
humblest in our organization. Put no hindrance in the way of anybody. We built 
up a wonderful spirit. We have shown it most particularly in the course of this 
convention. Let us do nothing that shall chill our spirit. Let us go ahead as we 
have and continue our successful work. (Great applause) 

President HILLMAN: I think that there was enough discussion on this question, 
but I do feel that I would disappoint some of the delegates .speaking for the minority, 
if I would not express my opinion at this time. You wish, those of you who support 
the minority, to insure and safeguard democracy. Democracy must be protected, 
and in this grave hour you bring the resolution that no man who is fit to be a 
general organizer must be permitted to run. 1- :'.ie members elect him. Democracy 
must be protected against itself a new kind of democracy democracy by elimina- 
tion. Eliminate these people, and the other people, and then we can trust democracy 
to have Its way. Those are very old policies, but they are new at labor conventions, 
and they sound strange at a convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

Let us compare. There are organizations that have those rules in the clothing 
industry. The Journeymen Tailors' Union of Ametica has that rule. Every 
member of the Board works in the shop, nay, not only in the shop, he works in 
his bed room. And then they come once a month, not in three months, to lay out 
the policies for the organization. I beg to submit to you delegates, the record of our 
organization and compare it with the record of the Journeymen Tailors' Union. 
I think it is not a question of the great danger confronting us. There are only 
three members on the Board who are on the staff as general organizers, and whether 
or not you place fortifications around the election of General Executive Board 
members so that those people or a few more who may be nominated, cannot 
be elected, the organization Is going to -survive. But the organization will be 



guided by A new spirit, the tptrlt of potty poUtica, the spirit of trying to 
ourselves against merit. 

Mr friends. I am ft believer la itmoenc?. I believe with all its faults, wfta 
all iti mistakes. It is much better than autocracy. But democracy, la order to 
saocoed. moat be efficient. It matt pot be hampered by all KliKlf of petty rules aad 
regulations. You are not going to guard the organisation by thia add H toes! rule, 

>^fly of you haow about the rulea of our organisation? 
In tho organisation. 1 tubmii. 1 don't know all the rulea, 1 don't 

I ,! 

1 am not tryiag here to sway 
will have no I 

of the organisation f H t tgi1*r > believe that oar organiiaiioa to 
sjipriosloa of democracy at work, and It la because tho officers of the 
have a groat deal of power, snd you cannot prevent mea of ability in 

r. because, unless they do that, tho 
it should make. The office 
to come in. A delegate asks. 
Give us those men, if they are there! 

say that every other able man must not run. so that those five or six 
Into the ottos. We have made progress because wo have power. Wo have a 

But we also have the _ 
ibled has the right and power to look back on oar 

a are created not to give five or ate mea a 
"Can't we find In the shop six or seven mear 
! Nominate them! Don't make a rale aad 

>e officers should serve or not 

My friends. I will go further and say that, from what I know of the 

organisation, they would never servo if * that they are 

i he membership. Why make these rules? Why play at 
we have a real democracy at work? 

We have been making many attempts to got mea oa oar staff. And lot mo 
you. delegates, that it Is not necessary for a man to be first oa the General 
Board In order to get on the staff. We are making no promisee to the 
Board members that they must get on the staff. Out of a staff of over thirty 
toon, three are serving on the Board by virtue of their election, by virtue of nothing 
else but the fact that the membership at large electd them. Way. delegates. If you 
are so convinced, why not go to the membership when the vote takes place aad too 
them not to vote for those people, because they are general organisers? Why 
make a rule? Why establish a law that we cannot enforce even If we want to? 

My friends. 1 say we have dons well. We have done wen not bscemi of the 
General Executive Board. We have done well because there was the reeJ pro- 
gressive spirit In our organisation. Because we were not playing at dsmoeracy. 
because we were exercising democracy. And 1 do hope that the dologitat will take 
this proposition In the same spirit and permit the membership at large to vote la? 
those whom they think are best fit to administer the alga osloii hi oar iMjiilailisa 
I thank you. (Applause.) 

We will vote right from the beginning by the raising of haads The vote to 

AVI ttiA SWL i - Jd aj Ah^h.M* 

uu in* aiinomy rwporv. 

Delegate GOODMAN: I move that we vote by roll call. 
The motion was carried. 
President HILLMAN: The vote Is on 
organisers should be permuted to run for 
The roll call vote was as follows: 




Jos, Poaalal 


New York City . . David 





? New York City 

4. New York City 


Alex Cohen 
Morris Goldin 
L. Nirenberg 
L. Revayle 
S. Weinsteln 


A. Beckerman 
J. P. Friedman 


Harry Jacobson 
Meyer Senter 

hicago, 111. . . 
7. Brooklyn, N. Y 

8. New York city 

t. New York City 
10. New York City 

N'ew York City 
N'ew York City 

15. Baltimore, Md. 
16 New York Cii 

19. New York City 

24. Newark, N .1 

30. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

36. Baltimore, Md. 

318. Chicago, 111. . 

39. Chicago, III. 

.Nathan Sosnick 
David Weiss 

w York City 
>w York City 

51. Baltimore, Md. 

52. Baltimore, Md. 

64. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

65. New York City 

58. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

59. Baltimore, Md. 

.Aaron Feldman 

.Bennie Bernstein 
Harry Crystal 
Sarah Katzen 

los. Newman 

Frank Dvorak 
.Frank Vaitukaltis 
John Zubauch 

.Wm. Cernowsky 
.Bennie Hurowitz 

Stephan Skala 
Isador Axelrod 
Louis Berger 

Hyman Goldoft 
Abr. Miller 
D. Nirenberg 

A. A. Silverman 
Louis Feinberg 
Louis Adler 
Sam Katz 
Philip Waldman 

Sam Leder 
Bennie Horowitz 
Jacob Gutterman 
S. Riger 
Sam Scheir 

Morris Goldstein 
M. Nitzberg 
Sam Stein 
Louis Zuckerman 
Max Yudelowitz 

Eugene Bucci 
Philip Berkowitz 
Julius Powers 

one-half each 

Morris Zafran 

W. Wybraniec 

Bennie Branzal 

A. N. Fisher 
D. Goldberg 
Rubin Morse 
Mary Resbeck 
T. Uzarski 

Hyman Novodvor 

B. Weiss 
D. Isaac 
Louis Shapiro 
.T Yelowitz 
Philip De Luca 
Ulisse De Dominicis 

Harry Bender 



ulcaco. III. 
43 NOT York Clt 


Md ..Frank J Harlot 
71 taolHyt via 

74. Philadelphia. Pa Harry 

I*. BrookJ) Frank MarroB* 

Brooklyn. N 

.land. Ohio ..victor FnriBUB 
Maltlmore. Md. ..Harry Btaom 

Morris Blrkln 
116 Montreal. Canada A. Walls 

Malllmore. Md. ..Harry Newetadt 

Max Roaliuky 
110. Ixmiati 
ISt. Philadelphia. Pa 
lit. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

Brooklyn. N Y ..Harry Taylor 

PfcfladofehUL Pa, 

Cfctaaco. Ill Morrli Rahlnowlu 

iso Boston. Mass. . 

is: * 'hirajto. ill Joa. Goldman 

lit. Philadelphia. Pa. .Loah Gal bin 

ISC Now York City .iMorrls Adlnaky 

Joa. Gold 
Bam Llpttln 
Jacob Pollack 
U7 Ni w York City -Emma Shapiro Morris Cunt 

IS*. New York City 
1C!. Nrw York 

ItS Brooklyn. N Y 
1? Monir-al. Canada 
ICf. New York < 

Wormter. Maaa. 
175. Brooklyn. N Y. . 

Harry Rabte 

.Harry N. Greenbtrf 


Mamie Saatora 

. . 

178. New York < 
ISC ork City 

Harris Y 
207. Woodbine, N Qlastr 

90f . MontnMil. Canada F. Witt* 

Brooklyn. N. Y. . .Sol Friedman 

Brooklyn. Harry Kaluthkin 




215. Brooklyn, N. Y. ..Max Alexander 
Jack Perelman 

218. Baltimore, Md. ... 

230. Baltimore, Md. . . .John Drasel 

241. Baltimore, Md. ...Sam Bassin 
Abe Sykea 

244. New York City . 

247. Baltimore Md. ... 

248. New York City .. 

249. Philadelphia, Pa. 

259. Brooklyn, N. Y. ..Louis Brodsky 

B. Jackson 
262. Brooklyn, N. Y. .. 

t*9. Chicago, 111 Peter Galskls 

277. Montreal, Canada 
280. New York City 

J. B. Rochester 

J. B. Boston 

J. B. Chicago 

J. B. New York .... Wm. Druhln 
J. B. New York Chi 

Clothing Trade . . . 

J. B. Toronto Jas. Blugerman 

Phlla. District Council 
Baltimore District 

Council No. 3.. 




John J. Dcnkevlcz 

B. Goldsholl 
Morris Fisher 

Sam Flicker 

Henry Dozzo 
P. Monat 

D. Wolf 

J. J. Young 

E. Rahkln 
Lorenzo De Maria 
Jacob J. Levin 
Lazarus Marcovltz 
Hyman Isovltz 

Harry Cohen 
N. Bunln 



Max Steinberg 
Sam Drabkln 

Thomas Frlsa 

Hyman Blumberg 

Sam'l Zorn, Local 1, Boston 
J. S. Potofsky, Local 144, Chicago 


Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: The vote is: For the minority report 62; against 96; 
9 absentees and 2 not voting. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: The motion to accept the minority report has been lost 
All in favor that the majority report shall prevail will signify by saying Aye. 

This was carried 

President HILLMAN: Before adjourning I wish to announce that Resolution 
No. 27, Introduced by Local 2, has been withdrawn. 


R/esolved, that wherever editors of our official organs take the liberty to express 
their personal opinions on questions not pertaining to our organization in the editorial 
columns of our organs, that they do it in their own names and not in the name of 
the organization, which the organ represents. 

J. Goodman, Chairman. 
Harry Schepps, Secretary. 

Secretary Schlossberg read the following greetings to the convention: 


New York. May 17. iflf. 

Best wishes for euccess of Third Biennial Convention of A. C. W. of A. Hope oar 
requests will be granted. 


Brooklyn. N. Y. May If. Iflf. 

Our greetings to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgimated Clothing 
Work. r of America. May success he yours. The two thousand members of Local 
fff. Veatmakers' Union of Brooklyn, are impatient for the forty-four hour week, and 
hope that the neit convention of the Amalgamated will record our having won UUs 


New York. May 17. If If. 
ooccss in all your ndertal 

Accept ear heartiest congratulations. Wish you success in all your 

New York. May 17. Iflf. 

May your deliberations contribute to the continued betterment of the 

of labor and wages In the clothing Industry and to the growth of labor solidarity 


and might, for the reconstruction of the world on the basis 

which the Amalgamated has made the underlying principles of Its 


M. Zaritsky. Secretary. 

Baltimore. May 17. Iflf. 

We congratulate you upon the spirit of the contention and wish you socoese I 
the future. 


The session waa adjourned at 5:35 P.M. 


Ninth Session 

Saturday Morning, May 18, 1918. 
The meeting was called to order at 9:30 AJaf. 

By Harry Cohen, Chairman. 


Whereas, our organization is composed of members of various nationalities, and 
Whereas, delegates attending our convention are not always able to express 
their thoughts otherwise than in their own tongue, and 

Whereas, this hinders many of the active and experienced men from participating 
in the deliberations of the convention and giving us the benefit of their experience, 
therefore be it 

Resolved, that the delegates should have the right to express their opinions in 
their mother tongue and same should be interpreted in English to the delegates of 
the convention. 

LOCAL 3, A. C. W. OF 
A. Cohen. 
S. Weinstein. 
M. Goldin. 
L. Revayel. 
L. Nirenberg. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence. 

President HILLMAN: You have heard the report of the committee. The com- 
mittee recommends non-concurrence with the resolution and moves the adoption 
of its report. 

Delegate WEINSTEIN of Local 3: I believe that those who cannot speak in 
the English language should have the right to speak in the language in which they 
can make themselves understood. 

Delegate DVORAK of Local 52: I am absolutely opposed to this because, if you 
have twenty-five people speaking different languages, nobody would understand any- 
thing. If anybody here, for instance, spoke Bohemian, none would understand him. 

Delegate REVAVKL of Local 3: Yesterday afternoon we talked a whole lot 
about democracy, but when it comes to a convention where 40 or 50 per cent of. the 
delegates are able to express their opinions only in their own languages, why should 
they not be able to do so? 

I should myself like to see that only one language used, but at the same time 
there are many men who are able to express their views only in a foreign language. 
Therefore we recommend this resolution to this convention. I ask you delegates to 
consider it thoroughly. If the Amalgamated claims that it is a democratic organization, 
this should be adopted in order that we should be able to express ourselves in the 
languages we know best. 

The motion recommending non-concurrence in the resolution was carried. 


Whereas, machinery is being introduced in our industry more frequently now 
than ever before, and 

Whereas, with the introduction of this new machinery an overwhelming curtailment 
of employment of our members is being brought about, causing suffering for our 
members and also for our organization, therefore be it 

Resolved, that this Third Biennial Convention go on record in favor of curtailing 



the hours of labor In proportion to the Introduction of such new mnaiieij If the 
Introduction of this new machinery will only apply to one particular branch of the 
trade, the hours of labor for that particular branch ahould be reduced proportionately 
thereby safeguarding our members from lack of work 

LOCAL J, A, C. W. OF A, 

B. Wetttteln. 

L. Revajrel. 
L. Nirenben. 

Committee recommends that this resolution be referred to the G. E. B. for proper 

President HILLJiAN: The recommendation of the ^^MMiKtinr is then, that this 
matter be referred to the Incoming O. B. B. together with a committee from the 
Preasers' Organizations Involved. In order that this matter may be thoroughly Investi- 
gated and a solution sought. Is there any objection to the recommendation? 

There was none, and the recommendation of the committee was unanimously 


Whereas, the Arrangements Committee of District Council No. 3. A. C. W. of A., 
has In a very effective manner looked after the convenience and comfort of the delegate*. 

Whereas, special efforts were made by the Arrangements Committee to entertain 
the delegates in a manner most satisfactory to the delegates, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W. fl 
Us aincerest thanks and appreciation for the splendid efforts of the 
alttee of District Council No. 3 to entertain the delegates and 
stay in the city of Baltimore most pleasant during the convention, 
will surely carry pleasant memories of the Third Biennial Convention held in 

HAKKY rmiEN. Local 7. 
J. P. FRIEDMAN. Local 4 
MEYER 8ENTBR. Local ;. 

H IAOOB00M, Local 4. 
The committee recommends concurrence. 
This was unanimously carried. 

President H1LLMAN: On behalf of the Convention I extend the thanks of the 
Convention to the Arrangements Committee of our Baltimore organization. 

Secretary 8CHLO88BERG: Mr. Chairman. I was asked by a member of the 
Committee on Resolutions, of which Harry Cohen is Chairman, to report a resolution 
that he vetoed, and that they adopted over his veto. Brother Cohen even committed 
the impropriety of tearing up the resolution. I shall read it to you as well aa I can 
from this mutilated document 


Whereas, Brother Harry Cohen. Manager of the Children's Clothing Trades of 
New York, has secured a flat $4 increase for the workers of this branch of the clothing 
Industry, and 

Whereas, this was done without a strike and to the entire satisfaction of the 
Children's CMothlng Workers, be it, therefore 

Resolved, that this convention expresses its gratitude and thanks to 
Harry Cohen for his past achievements, and wish him success in the future. 

LOi A C. W. OP A. 

Simon Haas, 

The resolution was approved. 



By Abraham Beckerman, Chairman. 


Whereas, a great number of our members are being drafted for service In the 
United States Army and Nary, and 

Whereas, Knowing that the Bible la probably the only kind of literature that 
our boys are getting, be it 

Resolved, that the A. C. W. of A. send proper literature to the members of our 
organization in the service. 

H. TAYLOR, Local 42. 
B. INDYKE, Local 161. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence in this resolution. 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: I think the committee should have recommended 
something else, instead of non-concurrence. There Is a mistake in the substance of 
the resolution. It Is not quite so that the boys in the Army get only the Bible. They 
might get that from those agencies who are Interested in circulating the Bible, but 
there are other agencies who look after the distribution of all sorts of literature 
among them. In our own press we published an appeal from the Jewish Welfare 
Board, an organization that was formed for the purpose of looking after the comforts 
of the Jewish soldiers. They have asked for literature of all sorts, on economics, 
physics, religion, sociology, anything at all that any individual or organization desires 
to send for the purpose of distributing among the soldiers. I understand that they 
do not confine their to the Jewish soldiers, but they are really non-sectarian. 

Everyone of us has an opportunity to send such literature. All that they ask 
is that whatever literature is sent should be complete. That is, if there is a set of 
books of three, don't send one; either send the complete set, or if you send one 
book, see that that book is complete in itself, so that the soldier can get a complete 

I would suggest that this be referred to the General Executive Board, because 
a complete system will be worked out as they go along that will enable everybody 
to send literature to anyone in the army, such literature as you want them to read. 

The recommendation of non-concurrence would mean that we don't want to send 
them any literature. We do not wish to leave our action open to such interpretation. 
I therefore suggest that this be referred to the General Executive Board. 

Delegate ZORN: I move that this be referred to the G. E. B. 

The amendment was unanimously carried. 


Whereas, The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America is a progressive 
and democratic organization, ocmmanding respect in the Labor Movement, and its 
aim is, and always has been, to educate its members, because only an organization 
that has an educated membership can successfully conduct the struggles that a 
labor organization is constantly confronted with, therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Third Biennial Convention, at the Garden Theatre, Balti- 
more, Maryland, instruct the Incoming General Officers to set up a book store in 
the General Office in New York City, and be it further 

Resolved, That said officers, or whoever will be designated by them, should 
order books and pbamphlets in great quantities, so as to enable the General Officers 
to sell them at a much lower cost than when the members are compelled to buy 
at the publishers' retail price, and be it also 

Resolved, That the General Office sell those books and pamphlets at a nominal 
cost to the members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, and be It 

Resolved, That a liberal supply of books and pamplets should at all times 
be on stock at the General Office in as many languages as there are nationalities 
represented in our organization, and be it finally 



Resolved. That a catalogue constantly appear In our press of mil the books 
and pamphlets on hand at the General Office, with the name of the book, its author, 
and the price. 

N. naher. 

In conjunction with thU there U another resolution of a similar nature. That 
U Resolu 53. 



Whereas, an increase of ten cents In the per capita to our General Office 
has been voted upon by oar general membership, and. 

Whereas, It was understood that this raise in the per capita should be 
partly for educational purposes, and 

Whereas. It Is Important that a spiritual atmosphere should be created 
our members for the purpose of bringing out the best that Is In them therefore be It 

Resolved, that the General Office stand instructed to endeavor to the beet 
of their ability to establish libraries and reading rooms in all clothing centers where 
conditions will permit so ss to enable our members to enjoy their spare time 
In a wholesome atmosphere among their fellow workers.* 

LOCAL 3. A. C. W. OF 
A. Cohen. 

S \V. !'. ' ' 
M. Go! 

L. Neerenberg, 
L. Revayel. 

The committee recommends that these resolutions be concurred in and referred 
to the Genera] Executive Board. 

These resolutions were unanimously adopted with the recommendation of the 


Whereas, the capitalist press has consistently distorted or suppressed news 
relating to the struggles of the working class; and 

Whereas. It therefore becomes necessary for the working class to maintain 
an organ of its own so that It may have an opportunity to express its views; and 

Whereas, the New York Call Is the only dally labor paper In the East, and 
has always aided and faithfully represented the Interests of the working class; be It 

Resolved, that we, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, in 
ventlon at Baltimore, do pledge our moral and financial aid in Its support 

A. BBCKERMAN. Local 4. 
J FRIEDMAN, Local 4. 

PAUL ARNONE. Local 63. 

The committee recommends concurrence, 

Delegate RABKIN: I believe that Instead of -the only dally paper.** the 
lution should read "the only dally paper in the English language.** 
The resolution was unanimously adopted as corrected. 


ereas. At the second biennial convention of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America, held In Rochester. N. Y., May 1916. It was resolved that a 
publication in the Lithuanian language should be issued by our organisation, and 

oreas. Thousands of our members speak no other language but the Lithu- 
anian. and. with no publication In said language issued by our organisation, they 
are deprived of a very valuable source of education and information about the 



struggles and achievements, the aims and principles of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America, and 

Whereas, The need of a publication in the Lithuanian language is more 
imperative now than ever before, be it, therefore, 

Resolved. That the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America publish not 
later than six months after this date a newspaper in the Lithuanian language, 
and be it further 

Resolved. That the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America now assemble -d 
at its third biennial convention in Baltimore, Md., hereby instruct and authorize the 
General Executive Board to execute this resolution as adopted for the best interests 
of our organization. 

I. Marcovlti, U. Lebovitz, 6. Zorn, J. Blume, N. Biller, I. Takimo, J. Pennini, 
T. Morelli. U. E. Sher, F. Lerman, D. Oilman. 

The committee recommends concurrence and reference to the O. E. B. 

Delegate ZOUBOWITZ: The other nationalities with less members have papers 
In their own languages, and I believe we, Lithuanians, ought to have a papor in 
our language. 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: The great difficulty with the Lithuanian paper is 
that it seems to be almost impossible to get an editor. It was just as impossible 
to get an organizer. We have until now been unsuccessful in getting a competent 
man to edit a Lithuanian paper for our members. The General Office has ;i 
been aware of the necessity of a Lithuanian paper. We have not forgot t 
and we have not given it up. As soon as it will be possible, arrangements for a 
Lithuanian paper will be made. But the Lithuanians must make it their business 
to help the General Office in bringing this about. 

President HILLMAN: At our General Executive Board meetings we have decided 
time and again to issue a Lithuanian paper, but, unfortunately, we could not find the 
proper man to edit a paper. This resolution will instruct the incoming G. E. B. 
to make further efforts for the issuance of a Lithuanian paper. 

This resolution was unanimously carried. 


Taking into consideration the necessity of extensive cultural activity atnongst 
Amalgamated members in Montreal, we decided to demand that this convention assign 
a certain amount of money for educational work in Canada, and to organize lecture 
tours for the discussion of trade union problems and workingmen's politics. 

F. White, Local 209, 
A. Wells, Local 116, 
E. Rabkin, Local 277. 

With this there was also a communication from the Rand School of Social 
Science, offering to co-operate with us in work of the nature asked for by the 
brothers in Canada. A representative of the Rand School was also present at the 
committee meeting and suggested starting different classes correspondence classes 
for members throughout the country. We decided to couple the letter of Algernon 
Lee and the statement of the Rand School together with Resolution No. 44 and refer 
them to the General Executive Board, concurring with the general idea of spreading 
education among the members. 

This recommendation of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

At this point Board Member Levin of Chicago took the Chair. 

Delegate BECKERMAN: There is a Jewish letter here, from the Kropotkin 
Society, asking for co-operation. The committee decided to refer it to the General 
Executive Board. 

The suggestion of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

Delegate BECKERMAN: We have here a resolution which was handed in too 
late for our consideration. 


Whereas, members of the A. C. W. of A., at the Second Biennial Convention 



in Rochester, adopted a resolution to educate its members tnroegboot the country. 
Resolved, tbat $5,000 be appropriated for the above moatioaed purpose. 

LOCAU It, A. C. W. OF A.. 


Although the committee baa not met. it seems to me tbat 
similar to the otber resolutions tbat have already been referred to the 
Executive Board, and 1 doo't see tbat any oiber decision can be made on ibis 
resolution, eicept to couple it along with the others and leave the whole matter 
to the discretion of the (J E. B. 

This suggestion was unanimously adopted. 

President Hlllman at this point resumed the Chair. 

By Hsrry Cohen 


Whereas. We. the Clothing Clerks of the wholesale clothing Industry, numl 
1.000 workers in an important part of the production of clothing, are 
and underpaid, and the manufacturers have us at their mercy, can do as they 
while we suffer hardships and also lack of organization; 

Whereas, The Wholesale Clothing Clerks' Union. Local 158. baa been 
lied and chartered for the past eight months; 

Whereas, Our members, as a part of the clothing industry, are beginning to see 
the li. 

Whereas. We now have a reliable and active nucleus to build up a strong 
organization; be it 

Resolved. That this Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

..a call on the New York Joint Board and the Joint Board of the Children's 

Clothing Trades to seat aa a delegation the representatives of our organization. 

Be It Resolved. That in future the Wholesale Clothing Clerks' Union be 
and supported morally and financially, the same as other branches of the 

LOCAL 158. A. C. W. OF 

Harry N. Greenberg. 

The Committee recommends that it be refrred to the New York Joint Board. 
If Local 158 should be dissatisfied with the action of the Joint Board it may appeal 
to the G. E. B. 

Delegate GREENBERG: The question has been before the G. E. B. at several 
sessions. Our organization has done a whole lot for the clothing industry at various) 
times. At all times we have done all in our power to help various strikes conducted 
in New York City by different organizations in the clothing Industry. We don't 
see why our organization, which has been in existence since January. 1916. and 
chartered for the past eight months, should not get any support from the A. 

< a local union. I believe we should b. he fu'.l rights and full 

support, the same as other locals of the A. C. W. of A. We have no one to toll 
our troubles to. On various occasions we have co-operated with the Cutters' Union. 
We want to go out and try to accomplish the 48 hours that you men are baring 
today. You are going to get the 44 hours in the very near future. Let the Whole- 
sale Clothing Clerks' Union. Local 158. at least get the 48 hours. We are not 
looking for 44. but give us 48 hours at the present time. 

The men in our local have been paying dues at the rate of SO cents a 

he past year. We are not giving them any support They are actually 
for nothing, as you all know as well aa I do. And when a man has not the 
of an organization or the support of the entire industry, he is going to lag in pay- 
ments and drop out as a member. But if be seea that the organization baa some 
power stating him when he loses his position, or seea that be gels what Is 

coming to him aa an organization man. be will stick. Therefore I urge upo 
and every delegate present here this morning to pass this resolution that we 
have representation at the New York Joint Board. 



Delegate SILVERMAN, Local 9: I believe that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America Is an Industrial organisation, and we wish to see all branches in tho 
clothing Industry organized under the banner of the Amalgamated. As to the 
organization of the shipping and stock clerks' union I know that there is a very good 
element In that organization, always ready and on the job, whenever there is work 
for them to do. 1, for one, cannot see why the New York Joint Board would not 
seat their delegates as representatives at the New York Joint Board. I believe that 
we should give a chance to the Shipping Clerks' Union to have their represent;: 
at the Joint Board, and take up their business with the New York Joint Bo 
ever they have some business to be taken up. I, therefore, move to amend that 
the Shipping Clerks' Union be permitted to be represented at the New York Joint 
Board as are other branches of this Industry. 

President HILLMAN: I wish to say to the delegates that it Is all very well 
to come before the convention and make a plea, but it cannot be expected of the 
delegates to acquaint themselves In five minutes time with all the bodies of the 
organization. We have dealt with this question for months. This Wholesale ( 
Organization came time and again before the G. E. B.. assuring tl>< c. E. B. that 
they will raise no issue In the market if a charter Is granted until the organization 
to ready for It. We are an industrial organization, but that does not mean as yet 
that we must sacrifice our existing organizations by undertaking tasks for which 
we are not ready. 

I believe It is unfair for the movers of the resolution to .put it up to the con 
tion. without giving the convention the opportunity to acquaint itself with all the 
facts. There Is the New York Joint Board. The Wholesale Clerks' Union can at 
any time come to the New York Joint Board and lay its case before them. There 
Is the General Organization. If they have any grievance, they may come before the 
General Organization and lay it before them. The whole matter is not as simple 
as It may appear. I do hope that the delegates will concur with the recommendation 
of the Committee, because, after all, the New York delegation may act on it in New 
York City if they feel that some wrong should be righted. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously adopted. 


Whereas, a very great number of the members of the Socialist Party of the 
United States have rendered efficient and valuable service to the national and local 
organizations of the A. C. W. of A., in the hard struggles the clothing workers went 
through, and 

Whereas, the organizations of the Socialist Party acted In close harmony with 
the wishes of the organizations of the A. C. W. of A. in drafting legislative measures 
to be introduced in various Legislatures of the states through the elected officials 
of the Socialist Party, and 

Whereas, the Socialist Party as part of the Workers' International stands for 
a constructive program of social readjustment and reconstruction to take place 
upon the conclusion of the war, and 

Whereas, such program is entirely in accord with the repeated views of the 
A. C. W. of A. on the same subject, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention of the A. C. W. of A. expresses Us 
full sympathy with the work of the individual socialists and organizations tending to 
bring about such readjustment of social conditions that would meet with the trend 
of the world's progress toward a state of society where labor will be fully emancipated 
and class prejudice and oppression will exist no longer. 

The committee recommends concurrence with the resolution, and moves Us 

This was unanimously carried. 

Secretary Schlossberg at this point took the Chair. 



By Chairman Alex Cohen 


Whereas, at the last convention of the A. C. W. of A., a resolution was adopted 
that the New York Joint Board and the Children's Clothing Trades Joint Board be 
emerged in one Joint Board, therefore be It 

that ibis convention order the carrying out of the dedsiesj of the last 

The committee reports concurrence with this resolution 

Delegate GOLD: I was instructed by my local union to take op this 
here and present this resolution. Two years ago we submitted a similar 
which pessed the convention, and up to the present time the) resolution Is still on 
paper. We find It more necessary now than two years ago. especially because of 
the uniform clothing. The manufacturers of New York realize that it Is to their 
advantage to have one Joint Board, and they have merged Into one. We also find 
that In order to benefit our members in New York more than we have up to the 
present time. It will be necessary to have one Joint Board. Therefore we ask this 
convention and the General Executive Board to see that the resolution of two 
years ago. passed at the Rochester Convention, be carried out. 

A point of information. May I be Informed If a 
resolution of that kind was passed two years ago? 

ilnnan SCKLOSSBERG: Yes, to bring the two Joint Boards of New York 

Delegate I would like to know If they met at any time. 

Delegate GOLD I can say that they did. 

Delegate COUKN I beg to differ. 

Chairman SCHLOSS You have heard the answer. 

Delegate GOODMAN: This is a very Important question. We have started to 

the small local unions and we did not meet with success on account of this. 

said, we cannot unite our local unions while our central bodies are not united. 

The manufacturers had two separate bodies, and now they are uniting. Before) we 

could not see it so clearly. The fact that the manufacturers' associations have com- 

. has proven it to them. Therefore I think that this resolution Is in place. 

Delegate Ml l don't know whether a decision of this convention will bring 

about more close unity of the two Joint Boards, but I wish the delegates, particularly 
the New York delegates, would consider this proposition from an organization stand- 
point. I believe that we are suffering in New York ICty very much on account of 
having these here two kingdoms: the Child rens* Jacket Makers' Joint Board OB one 
side and the New York Joint Board on the other side. When we had the District 
Council, the Childrens* Jacket Makers' Locals were united with the locals of the men's 
clothing workers. Now. since we organized the New York Joint Board, we are 
absolutely separated from the Children's Clothing Workers. In New York City we 
had the First of May demonstration, which, in my opinion, was one of the most 
glorious achievements of our organization. Although we had about 10.000 of our 
members present, we could have had many thousands more, many turned back because 
of lack of space, if the Children's Clothing Workers would have also p& : 

In the everyday routine work we frequently come in conflict with each other. I 
believe it is high time for this convention to come out definitely and urge both Joint 
Boards to unite. I believe that when we will do that we will have one of the most 
powerful, one of the most efficient central bodies in New York City. 

Chairman 8CHLO8SBBRG: Delegates. 1 want to call your attention to one 
thing. We have shown in this convention the efficiency of democracy. Now the most 
immediate ideal of democracy for us just now is to adjourn as quickly as we can. 
80 I would urge all the delegates to take op as little time as possible in this dlemtaioo. 

Delegate HARRY COHEN: Regarding the question of amalgamating both Joint 
Boards. I think that the delegates of New York are misrepresenting the situation 
in stating that they are suffering because there are two Joint Boards. I jeg to differ. 
because I can prove that the New York market has gained a great deal because there 



were two Joint Boards. For instance, we all know that the Children's Clothing 
Workers were at all time* on the Job to improve conditions. After the Children's 
Clothing Trades Joint Board got its demands, the New York Joint Board followed. 

For that reason I don't think that the New York market is suffering because there 
are two Joint Boards, although I personally am in favor that we should work out 
some plan for both Joint Boards to work in conjunction. 

There are a few reasons why the Children's Clothing Trades Joint Board does 
not want to amalgamate. In the first place, there is too much democracy in tho 
New York Joint Board. (Laughter and applause.) Now, for instance, take the paid 
officials of the New York Joint Board. I say that the New York Joint Board la 
exploiting its officials, and we, of the Children's Clothing Trades Joint Board will 
positively not stand for such exploitation. (Applause.) 

You all know that when It comes down to trade matters, we always did work in 
harmony. If the only reason why Brother Miller insists on the amalgamation Is 
that we were not present at Madison Square Garden. I think that is not sufficient 
proof that we should amalgamate, although I wish to say that if the New York Joint 
Board would have asked us to co-operate in that demonstration in Madison Square 
Garden, we would have positively been there. I recommend, if it is in place, that 
the resolution be referred to the G. E. B., who should Invite both the Joint Boards 
and work out a plan for them to operate harmoniously. 

President HILLMAN: The delegate moves to amend that the resolution be 
referred to the General Executive Board. 

This was seconded. 

Delegate WOLF: I wish to say to the delegates of Local 156 that they particularly 
know about the attempts that have been made on the part of the New York Joint 
Board, but we have been unable to bring about amalgamation. I want to say 
that the children's clothing trade is not ready to unite. Don't let us fool ourselves. 
They are not ready, in spite of the fact that your resolution was presented by Delegate 
Riger of Local 12. It is not practical and you cannot get it. It will take some time 
before this propostion can be put through, and you simply want a resolution to be 
on record that two years ago we decided and after two years we decided again and 
the very same thing happened. We cannot unite at this time. We can only work, in 
harmony. It is not practical at this time. 

Delegate RUBIN: I would be satisfied, if we could work in harmony. Do you 
call it harmony, when the Children's Clothing Trade makes its demands in 
January, and the tailors in March? Do you call it harmony, when we happen to work 
for one firm, and the men's clothing workers desire to call a strike and the children's 
Jacket makers are opposing it? Do you call that harmony? If harmony would be 
there, the resolution would not be there. But there is a lack of harmony for one 
reason or another, and that is the reason that the resolution is here. 

Delegate RABKIN: Both Joint Boards believe that amalgamation is necessary. 
The trouble Is that it cannot be put into effect now. It is necessary to have both 
Joint Boards amalgamate, but they cannot find the way in which to unite Both 
Joint Boards. 

I would like to call the attention of the delegates to one thing, that the two 
Joint Boards are not working in perfect harmony. It sometimes takes three and four 
weeks before we can get both Joint Boards together for the purpose of taking up 
questions that concern both. 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: I feel that It Is important that this resolution should 
be adopted by this convention, though I myself feel that it cannot be done by simply 
forcing It upon the delegates or the local unions of the Children's Clothing Workers 
in New York. I understand that you will have to find ways and means to make both 
parties see the necessity of merging both Joint Boards Into one. 

Those who know the situation in New York know the importance of merging both 
Joint Boards Into one. I cannot enumerate at this time all the instances for the 
last several years since we have had these two Joint Boards to show the delegates 
why It Is necessary, but I know there were difficulties in coming together on several 
occasions on matters of vital importance to the organization. I also know that with 
the Clothing Cutters' Union we have to make half and half division. We always havo 
to have delegates there and delegates here. When a situation arises in the City of 
New York, a proportion of the cutters receive something, the next half does not 
receive it. We don't know how to manage It. We don't know whom to put in the 
Joint Board of the men's clothing industry and whom to send to the Joint Board of 
f.he children's clothing industry. 



Therefore, delegates, I feel that though, as I said in the beginning. I would not 
like the convention to have it appear that we want to force these two Joint Boards 
to go ah frail and merge, under all conditions Fnd all circumstances I do feel that 
with the adoption of the resolution, and with the co-operation of both parties with 
the General Office, perhaps at the next convention of the Amalgamated ^wt 
Workers of America we may report one big strong Union In the City of New York, 
and therefore I move the adoption of the resolution. (Applause.) 

President HILUMAN The motion is that the resolution be concurred In The 
unrtlMnt is that It be referred to the Incoming General Executive Board. The 
vote occurs on the amendment. All In favor of the motion, as amended, will signify 

*yln Aye. 

This was not carried. (Applause.) 

The motion was carried. (Applause.) 

IYr.ld.-r: I; :.i.MA.V Wo appointed a Finann- romrnltt.-.. hlrh tn-t at th* 
General Office Before we convened here. The Chairman of the Committee Is 
Brother Marcovitz of Boston. The other members are Brother Pollak of Local 156. 
New York, and Brother Bunln of Philadelphia. 

Brother Marcovitz read the report of the Finance Committee as follows: 

By L. Marcovitz. Chairman 

We. the undersigned, having been appointed by the General Executive Board as a 
Finance Committee to audit the books of our International Organisation, herewith 
bee to submit our report. 

We met at the General Office on Tuesday morning. May 7th. and were continually 
in session for three days until our work was completed. 

The Finance Committee appointed before the Rochester Convention did not meet. 
and the General Officers, therefore, asked us to examine the books for that period 
aa well. Accordingly, our audit began with January 1. 1915. when our organization 
officially began Its activity under the name of Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

The committee found that it was impracticable and a physical Impossibility to 
go over each Item for three and one half years, from the establishment of the organize- 

, to the present day. 

TOhe committee therefore selected at random several months In each year In 
the following fashion: A complete audit was made for the months of March and 
November, 1915; February. July and September. 1916; January. April. August and 
October. 1917. and January. 1918. 

For the above months the committee carefully Investigated each Hem of income 
and expense and verified the bank accounts. It also examined the system of book- 
keeping, which it commends highly. The books were found to be well kept and in 
proper order. All receipts were properly entered and verified by the deposits in the 
bank. The expenses were accountd for in the most detailed manner. Receipts and 
checks were found in folded vouchers for each item of expense. The committee 
verified the report, which was prepared by the auditor, and Is herewith given in a 
recapitulation, which shows the standing of the organization as on the first day of 
May. 1918. We also checked up stock on hand and found it correct 


Cash in Banks . . $23631.45 

Third Liberty Loan Bond* 5000.00 $2*441 45 

Petty Cash Fund .. ... IflUN 
Accounts Receivable 

Locals . 16771.73 

Locals 161-244 due on unpaid per capita 772.95 

srhrltt 4986,41 

$100.000 Fund . 1MM *s 

Dlst 1-Loan 600.00 

Joint Board Montreal . . 4- " ::.:r "7 

Inventory of Stamps. Books and Supplier 4815.21 

Furniture and Fixtures. Less Depreciation.. :'.':.':: 
Mailing Equipment 517.60 




Hillquit and Levlne I 500.00 

Bonds . . 5.00 

Check Exchanges 182.50 

N. Y. Joint Board (ft Newark expense)... 1945.28 

N. Y. Joint Board (Sundry expense) S99.00 3531.73 

Net worth $58593.87 

We recommend: (1) That It should be made obligatory for all Local Unions, 
Joint Boards and District Councils to have all of their financial officers, and other 
persons in their employ who handle funds for them, bonded under the system inaug- 
urated by the General Office of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 

(2) That a modern and scientific bookkeeping system be Installed by all Local 
Unions, Joint Boards and District Councils under the supervision of the General 

We find that none of the Children's Clothing Workers' Locals in New York 
pay per capita for their women members, also one of their locals, Local 7 of Brooklyn, 
does not pay per capita for the fifth week in the month. The committee are unani- 
mous In declaring that we not only reprove such practices as being in violation of the 
constitution, but still more so in violation of the spirit of our organization. We 
recommend that the Convention Insist that those Locals pay per capita In full for 
all members, and for each week or month as the case may be. 

L. MARCOVITZ, Boston Joint Board, Chairman. 
N. BUNIN, District Council No. 2. 
JACOB POLLACK, Local 156. 

President HILLMAN: The committee moves the adoption of its report. 

Delegate ISOW1TZ: I heard that some Local Unions do not pay the per capita; 
which ones are they? 

Delegate MARCOWITZ: None of the Children's Clothing Trades Locals pay per 
capita for women members, and Local 7 does not pay for the fifth week in the month 
whenever there are five weeks In the month. 

President HILLMAN: I don't want it to be said after a while that you did not 
receive full information. The committee has reported to you on the stand- 

Ign of the organization. They went through with the auditing of the books. They 
have made their report and ask that you adopt it. Are you ready for the question? 

The report was unanimously adopted. 

Delegate ISOWITZ: I move that the Convention goes on record that the General 
Office be Instructed to enforce the payment of the proper per capita by every Local 

This was unanimously carried. 

President HILLMAN: I wish to say to the Local Unions that the General Office 
will immediately enforce this mandate even before the 44 hour week. (Applause.) 

The following resolution was introduced by the Finance Committee: 


Whereas, the General Office of the A. C. W. of A. introduced a uniform book- 
keeping system for all affiliated Locals with the sole purpose of introducing a proper 
accounting system for the recording of Local funds, and 

Whereas, only a few Locals have availed themselves of this most desirable scheme, 

Whereas. In some cities the Joint Board or District Council is conducting the 
financial business of Locals, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that those Locals whose finances are not controlled by any central body 
be and are hereby Instructed to use the books of the General Office, be It further 

Resolved, that the General Officers stand Instructed to see that the financial 
department devises also a uniform system for all central bodies. 

LOCAL 144. 

Jacob S. Potofsky. 
Morris RablnowlU. 

This was unanimously adopted. 





Resolved, that this Convention endorse the Naturalization Aid League of Hew York 
City and pledge moral and financial aid. 

A. BECKER*! AN. Local 4. 
The resolution wai carried. 



Whereas, the Chicago Dally World la a Socialist dally paper. Issued by the 
Workers' Publishing Association for the purpose of spreading the Ideal of BOfliatiMl 
and trade unionism, and 

o Amalgamated Clothing Workers' Locals of Chicago are In hearty 
support of said paper, and 

oreas. the Chicago dally paper la the only means of strengthening the labor 
movement, as well aa of organizing the Jewish workers of the Western states, therefore 

Resolved, that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America pledge Its moral 
and financial support 

Jacob 8. Potofuky. Morris Rablnowltx. Joseph Goldman. Sam Diamond. Hymaa 
Isowlts. Chairman Chicago Joint Board; R. Morse. A. N. FUher. D. Goldberg and 
Mae Resbeck. Local 39; F. Petrlck. J. Kroll and Sam Geler. Local 61. 

The committee recommends concurrence and reference to the General 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: I move to amend that we contribute $100. 

Preside: I do hope that the delegates will vote down this 

ment I know for the interest, of the Convention that If we are going to take up 
financial contributions here at the Convention at this time, we are not going to get 
through today. 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: The delegates of the country do not know the situation 
In Chicago. On account of the press v. have always suffered. Lately we have been 
fortunate enough to have a dally Socialist paper In the City of Chicago, working for 
the trade unions and the Socialist Party. What this paper has done for the Amalga- 
mated I believe that the $200 will not be sufficient to repay. 1 would surely favor 
more, but at this time I know that the General Office cannot com r* bate more, and 
I therefore made an amendment for only $200. I feel that If the Amalgamated 
Intends to do any work now. It can only be done through the press In Chicago. I 
know that it cannot exist without our financial assistance. 

Delegate GOLD: A point of information: Is not the decision of the committee 
to refer It to the G. E. B. and they shall act on the matter? 

President Hi I.I.MAN: The delegate feels that the convention must act now. 

Delegate DIAMOND: Although I am a Chicago member. I don't agree with the 
other delegate. I believe that this thing should be given over to the General Executive 
Board. They are interested just as much as the delegates here, and I believe that 
$200 is no money. If the Amalgamated really wr. ng for this paper. 

If the Brother should make it $500. probably I would speak on It. 1 expect that the 
General Office knows the necessity of thl* naper for Chicago, and. therefore. I leave 
It to the General Executive Board, and I believe they will do all they can. 

President H1LLMAN: The motion Is that this to referred to the General 
Executive Board. The amendment is that $200 be voted by this convention. 

The amendment waa not carried. 

The motion to refer It to the G. E. B. waa carried. 

President HI LI h to stato. for the benefit of the convention, that 

the General Executive Board will meet right after the adjournment of this convention, 
to take up the requests for aid that the convention has referred to the G. B. B. 

The following resolutions referred to the finance committee were then read: 


Whereas, the workers of Wllllamsburg need a home, be It 


Resolved, that we go on record to assist financially the Williamsburg (Brooklyn) 
Labor Lyceum. 


The committee recommends concurrence and reference to the G. E. B. 
This was unanimously carried. 

Resolved, to aid the Brownsville Labor Lyceum with five hundred dollars. 


Committee recommends reference to the G. E. B. 
Recommendation accepted. 

2 AND 161, NEW YORK (I 

Whereas, the Jewish Socialist Federation can only express and fight the battle 
of the working class through their official organ, the New World, and 

Whereas, this paper, in its course of battle for the working class has found 
itself in financial embarrassment, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the A. C. W. of A. extend its financial assistance to that said paper. 

Nathan Siegel, Morris Rappaport, Joe Goodman, Max Schultz, D. Goldstein, 1. 
Levenson and R. Schepps of Local 2; Benj. Indyke, of Local 161. 

Committee recommends reference to the G. E. B. 
Carried unanimously. 


Whereas, the labor movement in general depends on its own press, and 

Whereas, the success of the Amalgamated is largely due to the loyal support 
of the Socialist Labor Press, and 

Whereas, the official organ of the Jewish Socialist Federation, the Isaye Welt, is 
one of the papers which stood by the Amalgamated through thick and thin, be it 

Resolved, to grant a donation of $3000 for that paper and express our appreciation 
for all the support given to us. 


J. Blugerman. 

Whereas, the organization is carrying on its work slowly and successfully, and 
Whereas, large sums of money are needed for such noble purposes, be it 
Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention instructs the General Executive 
Board to establish a sinking fund of $1,000,000. In order to realize the above mentioned 
sum five cents per month from each member should be laid aside. 

F. DEBOROK, Local 52. 
The committee recommends reference to the G. E. B. 

Delegate RIEGER: I would like to amend this resolution that we establish 
an emergency fund for the purpose of helping carry out the 44 hour proposition; 
I recommend that we put a $2 assessment on each member of the Amalgamated and 
raise a fund of $200,000 in order to help to carry out the 44 hour week campaign. 

President HILLMAN: Do you think it is worth while to place this motion before 
the house? If you are satisfied we will. Almost every local organization is laying 
aside emergency funds. I think it would be too much to come to our membership 
now and ask them for money for another fund. I also wish to state for the benefit 
of the delegates that it has been reported by the Secretary. Some of the delegates 
were not here when the report was read that we are putting aside 5 cents per month 
per capita for what we call an emergency strike fund, which is used whenever assist- 
ance for strikes is called for by the Local Unions. 

The recommendation of the committee is to refer it to the incoming G. E. B. 

This was unanimously carried. 




Resolved, that this convention does hereby endorse the million dollar fund tor the 
Socialist Party campaign and hereby vote fftOO towards this 

A. Becaerman. Meyer Sent. J r Friedman. Harry 
of Local 4; Sam Drabkln. Local 248; Simon Haaa. Local ITS. 

reftrwmoe to the O. at B. 


the General Office haa entered into an arrangement with a reliable 
Surety Company, through which all financial officer* of any Local Union may be 
bonded without regard as to who the officers may be. and 

Whereas, under this arrangement the funds of the organ Ira t ion are fully and 

amply protected continually, as long as the premium for the ensuing year Is paid, be It 

Resolved that It be made obligatory with all Local Unions of in. W. of 

A. to bond through the General Office their respective financial officers for the 

protection of the organization's funds. Be It further 

Resolved, that copies of this resolution be sent to all Local Unions Immediately 
after the convention. 



Committee recommends concurrence. 
Report unanimously accepted. 


i. . n 

Whereas, the Socialist paper. Public Ownership, has contributed a great deal 
towards the growth of the Amalgamated In this city, and 

Whereas, District Council No. 3 of this city has officially endorsed Public Owner* 
ship as the Organ of the Amalgamated In this city, and 

Whereas. Public Ownership Is at this time In an embarrassing financial 
be It. therefore. 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial >n of the A. C. W. of A. now 

In the City of Baltimore does hereby vote three hundred dollars towards the 
tenance of the above paper. 

H KISKN Local 114. Baltimore. 

Committee recommends reference to the G. E. B. 

I 'nanit:i"U>l> c;trr!<'<! 



Whereas, the. Locals In Canada are much assisted by the New Jewish Labor 
Gazette, published In Toronto, and 

Whereas, this Is the only paper In Canada on which we can depend for support, 
be It 

Resolved, to grant a donation of ISO to this paper. 


The committee recommends reference to the Incoming G. E. B. 
Unanimously carried. 

Delegate ALEX COHEN: There Is here a delegation from the Cigar Makers* 
Union and I move that the committee be referred to the General Executive Board. 
This was carried unanimously. 



By J. P. Friedman 



Whereas, the British Labor Party, as the political spokesman of the vast majority 
of the organized working clans of Great Britain, haa come out squarely and uncompro- 
misingly for the international working class program on social, and me 
reconstruction, the adoption and establibhmeut of which must lead the tollers of the 
British Isles from political dependence and industrial slavery to the full enjoyment 
of the entire product of their labor; and 

Whereas, the same principles, purposes and aspirations are also those of a 
vast and rapidly growing portion of the labor movement of America and the world, 
and is the ultimate goal of the great organization of Clothing Workers represented 
by this Convention, and 

Whereas, we firmly believe that at the end of this war, and immediately following 
the conclusion of peace, such a program must necessarily be adopted by the \\ 
of every nation as the logical, effective and scientific method of social reconstruction, 
countenanced by historical evolution and progress, be it, therefore, 

Resolved, that we, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, in International 
Convention Assembled, in Baltimore, Md., do now express our wholehearted and 
unconditional solidarity with our brothers and fellow workers of Great Britain, and 
hereby pledge our fullest moral support, as well as financial, to the end that their 
program may be carried out in its entirety, setting thereby a mighty and glorious 
example to the toilers of the world; and be it further 

Resolved, that the Convention jrr. p o.i r^ord as favoring the adoption of a similar 
program as the standing policy of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
to be carried out along such political and industrial lines as events may determine 
and opportunity may dictate. 




Resolved, that this Convention indorse the program adopted by the Socialists and 
Labor Unions of the Allied Countries held in London, known as the Labor Party 
War Programme. 


The committee recommends concurrence with Resolutions 22 and 8. 
Recommendation unanimously accepi- 


Whereas, financial reports are submitted by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America Bi-Annually at the regular Conventions, and 

Whereas, it is desirable to keep our members acquainted with the financial stand- 
ing of our International, be it 

Resolved, that the General Office issue quarterly financial statements to be 
compiled In bulletin form and submit same to the different Local Unions affiliated with 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. 



The committee recommends favorably. 

Delegate EISEN: I understand, that at the last convention at Rochester a similar 
resolution was adopted, but not carried out to my knowledge. 

CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE: The committee discussed this recommenda- 
tion at length and they took the view, that at times, when we have a great deal of 
trouble, such as strikes, it may be advisable for our General Officers, or the G. E. B., 
to withhold all information from the general public regarding such an important part 
of our organization as its finances. The committee intended to recommend that the 



B. may withhold financial report! at such times M they deem it advisable. but 
they feel that the organisation will always fire them that right and permit them 
to use their discretion ss to when it U necessary to hold back any report* 

Delegate BBCKJBRMAN: I am very glad that Brother Frieda** made this expla- 

nation. because it seems to me that the Committee did not use very good judgment 
in simply making a direct recommendation thai the financial report be made every 
three months. 1 believe we can afford to accept the recommeodstlon of the committee 
that a financial report be made, but I believe it would be the understanding of every- 
body that votes in favor of it that, at any time the General Offlce see fit to withhold any 
report, they are certainly entitled to that privilege, and that sometimes U may be 
pessary for the organluulon to do so. But simply to Insist that every three 
a report must go out may be all right and very democratic so far as we are 
but it Is no good for outsiders who may use this Information against us I 
say that the office Is surely not desirous of withholding InformaUoi 
bers, We have appointed the Financial Committee, and we have given 
time not only to go through the report, but every detailed Information they 
was given to them. But unfortunately, or fortunately, we are always busy 
defensive strikes or offensive, and it is not always advisable to have our financial 
condition disclosed to the public at large. Everything printed is public information. 
We feel that at this tlime we can tend the information to the Local Union. If in the 
future, for some reason, the General Executive Board should feel that is would bun 
the best Interests of the organization, we will naturally withhold It. The 
tlon of the committee is concurrence with the resolution. 

Delegate El SEN: May I offer an amendment to this resolution? My 
is that the words "every three months" be stricken out and "periodically- be Inserted 

President HILLMAN: The amendment Is to strike out the words "three 
and to Insert the word "periodically" In their place. 

The resolution as amended was seconded and unanimously carried. 


Whereas, a spirit of resentment has been manifested by the Crech -Slovaks. Jugo- 
slavs. Poles an at tonalities oppressed by the Hapsburg misrule, be it. therefore. 

Resolved, that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. In this Third 
Biennial Convention assembled at the City of Baltimore, endorse the principles] voiced 
by the President of the United States, the Inter-Allied Labor Conference and revo- 
lutionary Russia for the self-determination of all nations, large or small, which it 
the basis of lasting democratic peace, and be It also 

Resolved, that we appeal to President Wilson and the members of Congress to 
exercise the great powers of the United States in favor of the Independence of thoee 
nationalities that are suffering under the Austrian Govrnment and are striving, for 
their Independence, and be U further 

hat copies of these resolutions be sent to the President and Vice- 
President of the United States, to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to 
the Chairman of the Committees for Foreign Affairs of both Houses of Congress 


Committee recommends concurrence. 
Unanimously carried. 



Whereas, the official organs of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
are published by the General Offlce in five different languages). English. Polls*, 
mian. Italian and Jewish, and we also expect that a Lithuanian paper will be published 
soon, therefore be It 

Resolved, that every member of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 
become a subscriber of on* of the above mentioned papers, and that he or she pay 
for the subscription while paying the monthly or weekly dues, 

P. J. BARTOCZ, Local ft . 

Committee recommends resolution favorably, and If adopted, every member of 
the A. C. W. of A. should receive one of the official journals of oar organisation, to 



be paid for by the Local Unions, District Councils or Joint Boards by paying one cent 
I'.-r week in addition to the regular dues. Local to have option whether to charge 
members or not. 

Unanimously carried. 

President HILLMAN: As soon as this is passed by the membership by a referen- 
dum vote, it will become pan of the constitution. 

Delegate FRIEDMAN: The Committee on Report of Officers calls particular 
attention to recommendation of the General Executive Board regarding the bonding 
of local officers, which reads as follows: 

**We have entered into an arrangement with a bonding company for the bonding 
of the Local officers. According to this arrangement, the office is bonded instead 
particular officer. This is a great advantage for the Local Unions, aa it dispenses 
with all the red tape incidental to bonding, and makes it unnecessary to repeat the 
procedure when a new officer is elected. The bond is continuous for the office, 
regardless of who the officer is. The fee is small. It is most desirable that all our 
subdivisions should avail themselves of this opportunity. The necessity of it need 
hardly be emphasized." 

The Committee recommends that the General Officers, immediately upon the 
adoption of this recommendation, shall enforce this system in all Local Unions, 
District Councils and Joint Boards. 

President HILLMAN: This has been acted upon already In a previous resolution 
reported on by the Finance Committee. 

Delegate FRIEDMAN: The Committee further recommends that each Local 
Union, Joint Board and District Council shall note the recommendations of the G. E. B. 
which read as follows: 

"In connection with the recent wage increases we are glad to note a new policy 
that has been inaugurated by some of our Local Unions. In New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Chicago, and probably also in other places, the members voted to 
contribute the amount of the first week's wage increase to a special reserve and defense 
fund, which the organization may fall back on in case of an emergency. The wisdom 
of such action is so obvious that we heartily congratulate those organization who have 
taken it and recommend it to those that have not." 

The Committee recommends that this recommendation of the G. E. B. be put in 
operation by all the Local Unions, Joint Boards and District Councils as a means to 
further strengthen our organization. 

This was unanimously carried. 

The Committee wishes to impress upon the convention the importance and 
propaganda value of the General Executive Board report. The membership of our 
organization are not fully acquainted with the remarkable progress made by our 
organization throughout the country. This report, well written as it is, is the history 
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America for the past two years. Every 
member of the organization should be acquainted with its achievements. 

The Committee further recommends that this report be printed In large quantities 
in the English, Jewish and Italian languages. (The Bohemian, Lithuanian and Russian 
members can read English.) The expense of the printing of these books shall be paid 
for by the Local Unions or Joint Boards or District Councils. 

The Committee feels that this will be of great educational value for our members 
and the Local Unions should distribute them to every member in their organization. 
Those Local Unions unable to pay for these books shall be assisted by the General 

J. KROLL, Chairman; J. P. FRIEDMAN, Secretary; MORRIS GOLDIN, CHAS. 

CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE: The Lithuanians and the other nationalities 
involved speak English well that part of the organization is advanced in English 
better than any other. 

Delegate ZORN: As regards Boston, this would 'not be fair. In Boston every 
bill is paid by the Joint Board. In Boston the Lithuanians are a part of the Joint 
Board. How are we going to tell them that we are paying a bill of which they are 
not getting the benefit? I therefore amend to include all languges. 

President HILLMAN: It was moved to amend that the report be printed in all 



the languages for which there will be a sufficient demand in our organization 
shoald not force us to print the report If there are only a few members of a particular 


This suggestion was seconded. 

Delegate BAKT<>< / i wlah to state that if the report of the General Executive 
Board is to be printed ia some of the languages. 1 would strongly be in favor that all 
members should read this report. I read this report, and I saw many things ia it 
that are very Important to every member of our organization. The committee stated 
to my sorrow that the Lithuanians and Poles and Bohemiai 
As far aa I know about 90 per cent of the Jewish nationality can read 
out of the other three nationalities only about 60 per cent read 

more Important that these three have it in their own language so that they 
what ia going on in this organisation. Therefore I beg you all. delegates, that this 
report be printed In the Lithuanian. Polish and Bohemian languages. 

The amendment that the report be printed in all the languages for which that* 

be a sufficient demand, was unanimously carried. 

President HILLMAN: This completes the work of the Commute* on the 
of Officers. We will give them the usual honorable discharge aad thanks of 
convention. (Applause.) 

By Abraham Miller 


Whereas, at the present time we have different systems of work throughout the 
country, which we feel are of no benefit to our organization, be It 

Resolved, that this convention go on record to work for the establishment of the 

week work system all over the country, which we feel will benefit oar membership) 





Local 166. 

President Hi I.I.MAN The question of week work has already been acted upon 
by the convention. 


156. NK 

Resolved, that no member of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
leaves our organization In order to accept a position as foreman or contractor or 
in any other capacity as representative of the employers, be eligible for office, of 
whatever description, local or otherwise. ( ars following the date * 

rejoining the organization. 


The committee considered this punishment a little too hard for those prospective 
candidates. We therefore i to one year. 

The. committee recommends that they should not be 
eligible to any office for one year. 

Delegate ZUBOV. ! agree with this motion, but I would amend it. I would 

include also that anybody who was a scab and. afterwards joined the Union, be also 
Included in this resolution. 

Delegate DRUBIN: I feel that we are going from one extreme to the other. I 
would amend it to five years if there is no objection. 

Delegate ALEX CO! think It would help very much to strengthen the 

morale of our organization If the resolution as submitted should be adopted. I don't 
know abou MOW that In New York, on several occasions, we 

had men who have constantly changed from officer of the Local Union to foreman 
or sometimes contractor, and then back again to the organization into the Local 
Executive Board and into leadership of the Local Union. I am therefore in favor of the 


Delegate ARNONE: A point of information: What is the motion? 

President HILUMAN: The resolution is that anyone who takes the position of 
foreman or contractor, or who is otherwise in a position where he would have charge 
of labor in a shop, be Ineligible to hold any office in our organization for ten years. 
The recommendation of the committee is for one year. A suggestion has been made 
for five years. 

Delegate RABINOWITZ: Does this apply to the past, or only to the future? 

President HILLMAN: When it becomes the law of the convention, that is the 
time it goes Into effect. The resolution calls for u ten year term. The recommendation 

on amended for 5 years. The vote takes 
place on the motion, as amended. o 

VU , scabs included? 

Preside: MAN: 1 hope that our membership is intelligent enough not to 

elect scabs to office without a provision of the constitution. 

The motion as amended for 5 years was carried. 

President HILLMAN: Information has been asked about shop officers, shop 
delegates, shop chairman. In a shop organization where we may sometimes feel, 
especially in our unorganized shops, that a particular man may be able to organize 
the shop, I would rather leave it to the local organization to determine it for its 
I don't beleieve that should become part of our constitution. 


Whereas, five recognized nationalities of the large membership of our beloved 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America are the Jewish, Polish, Bohemian, lithu- 
anian and Italian, and 

Whereas, at a special meeting of two Polish Locals of this city, 69 and 116, 
members accepted a resolution that one Polish member be seated in the General 
Executive Board, therefore be it 

Resolved, that each of the above mentioned nationalities should have representa- 
tion in the incoming General Executive Board. 

We beg all the delegates of the Third Biennial Convention to consider the above 
resolution and act on same. 

F. J. BARTOCZ, Local 69. 

In view of the fact that every member of the Amalgamated has a constitutional 
right to run as a candidate for the G. E. B., the committee recommends non-concur- 

Delegate ZOUBOWITZ: The General Executive Board members cannot know 
what is going on among the various nationalities unless those nationalities are 
represented on the board. 

Delegate OILMAN: I hope that the recommendation of the committee will be 
adopted. We are all members of the Amalgamated. We have no national distinctions 
In this organization. Everyone has a right to be nominated and run for office. 

The committee's recommendation was adopted. 


Whereas, the General Officers are the leading figures of our organization, and 
Whereas, it Is important to keep the membership interested in the election of 
such General Officers, and 

Whereas, at times there is but one candidate for any particular national office 
and that candidate is, therefore, considered as elected to that office by the general 
membership, be it 

Resolved, that In case where there Is only one candidate on the ballot for any 
national office it shall take a two-thirds majority vote of our membership to elect that 
candidate to office. 


JOE GOODMAN, Chairman. 
HARRY SCHEPPS, Secretary. 

The Committee recommends non-concurrence. 



Delegate DRUBIN: I want to ask, whether the resolution means two thirds of 
the membership or two third* of the votes cast? 

President HILLM AN: Two-thirds of the votes cast 

Delegate GOODMAN: We have la the City of New York a membership of about 
40.000 or 50.000. When It cornea to elections, a small number of our members parti- 
cipate in them. 80 far we have not made any blunder la electing officers, but we 
know from the past that in the future we may. So. therefore, in order that our 
member* may safeguard themselves for the future. I hope that this resolution will 
be passed. 

Delegate I8OWITZ: Does It mean that If a man doea not receive two-thirds he 
won't be elected? 

President 11 1 LL MAN: That la what It means. The motion Is for non-con cur- 


This was carried. 

Delegate GOODMAN: I move that we vote by roll call. 

This motion was defeated. 


In consideration that each Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 

upon the place for the next Convention, be It 
Reeolved, that the Convention name two cities and that same bo submitted to 
a referendum vote of the general membership to choose one of them as the place for 
the following convention. 


JOB GOODMAN. Chairman. 
HARRY SCHBPPS. Secretary. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence, with Brother Rappsport ia the 

Delegate ZORN: Does this go to a referendum? 

Secretary 8CHLO88BBRG: The convention chooses the City, which is thea 
submitted for ratification by the members. 

Delegate ZORN: The members can reject it? 

President HILLM ; that Is correct. 

Delegate GOODMAN: If we only nominate one city and that la voted down by the 
members, what are we to do then? 

President HILLM AN: Another referendum vote would be initiated and in that 
way a city would be chosen in the course of the two yean. 

Delegate GOODMAN: Instead of nominating one. why not nominate two and let 
the members choose one of them? 

President HILLM AN: The convention will answer your question by voting oa 
the proposition. The committee reports non-concurrence. 

The report of the committee was adopted. (Applause.) 

By Abraham Miller 

Delegate MILLER: We have three resolutions covering the same ground. 
Delegate Rosenblum took the chair at this point 


Resolved, that due to the tremendous Increase In the cost of living we do herewith 
aae the salaries of our General Officers to 14.000 a year each. 


Local 4; A. SILVERMAN. LOUIS FEINBERG. of Local 9. 
Whereas, the high cost of living Is Increasing rapidly and. 



Whereas, that applies to members of our organization as well aa to our officers, and 

Whereas, the salaries of our General Officers hare not been increased since the 
establishment of our organization, therefore be it 

Resolved, that this Third Biennial Convention votes an increase of salary to our 
General President and General Secretary from $2.600 to $3,120 per year. 

Local 3. 


Whereas, our organization, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, has 
widely extended its activity and made much progress in the different clothing centers 
throughout the country, and 

Whereas, the initiative and responsibility for the successful growth of our organiza- 
tion are the burden of our General President and General Secretary, be it 

Resolved, that the salaries of the General President and General Secretary be 
Increased to Seventy Five Dollars per week. 

J. GOODMAN, Chairman. 
HARRY SCHEPPS, Secretary. 

The committee recommends concurrence with resolution No. 23, and non-concur- 
rence with resolution 58 and 26. (Applause.) 

Delegate BECKERMAN: On this particular question I feel that it is important 
that the resolution be adopted by the members with the proper spirit. It seems 
to me that there can be no discussion on it. There are no additional arguments 
to be made in its favor, and I know of no arguments that can be made against it. 
This is one resolution that I should like to see adopted by a strong, unanimous vote, 
with everybody voting. (Great applause.) 

The report of the committee was unanimously carried. (Great applause.) 
President Hillman resumed the chair at this point. 

President HILLMAN: Delegates, I shall abstain from making any remarks. 
Delegate SCHAPIRO: I move that the first raise goes to the emergency fund. 
(Laughter and applause.) 

President HILLMAN: A delegate has suggested that the first weekly increase 
should go to the emergency fund. Does it mean for a possible strike of officers? 

Delegate WOLF: No, it means, you pay as well as I do. (Laughter.) 

President HILLMAN: I shall abstain from thanking the delegates, as the matter 
has still to go to a referendum vote. The salaries of the General Officers are deter* 
mined by our Constitution. In my judgment, it is not the proper method. But that 
is in the Constitution. All the other officers are not subject to the- Constitution. Their 
wages may be raised and may be reduced (laughter) without submitting the matter 
to a referendum vote. 

This completes the work of the Committee on Law. We will give the thanks 
of the Convention to the Chairman and the members of the Committee on Law for 
their work. (Applause.) 

By Harry Cohen 


Whereas, the General Executive Board has successfully carried out the Rochtester 
decision to establish the 48 hour week, and 

Whereas, the General Officers and Organizers have done splendid work for the 
past two years in behalf of the organization, be it therefore 

Resolved, that the Third Biennial Convention express thanks for the good work 

LOCAL 30. 


OMMlffet recommend* concurrence with the tttitfim. 


Whereas. It is the aim and object of thfa organization to organise the Industry 
100 per cent, and 

are a pan of the clothing industry, as 
they are of great value to the employers la times of strikes, and 

Whereas, their membership In this organisation would be an asset to the imasge 
mated Clothing Workers, be It, therefore. 

Resolved, that this Third Biennial Convention assembled In Baltimore, Md. 
does hereby authorise and Instruct the incoming General Executive Board to grant 
a charter to any organization of machine adjusters whenever same la applied tor. 


1 1 

introduced by unanimous consent at Saturday morning session. May IS. 

The committee reports non-concurrence with <ls resolution OB the 
thst there Is a Machinists' Union in existence. 

Delegate ZORN: If these machinists who are working in clothing factories are 
<> join the Amalgamated. I say it will do no harm If the Amalgamated make* 
them a pa organisation as they work In the tailor shop. I believe that the 

Amalgamated should endorse the resolution as presented. 

Delegate RIBGER. I am In favor of the recommendation of the committee for 
the following reason: We should not enter Into a fight with the International of the 
Machinists. We do not wish to take up Jurisdictions! fights. 

The recommendation of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

President HILLM AN \Ve have with us one of our old friends. 
Yanofsky came in. I asked him to wait until we completed our work on the 

rade Yanofsky desires to leave not Baltimore, but just simply to 
hall and to return before we adjourn, but I feel that the delegates would 
actlo Chair if I should cause him to delay his address. 1 should, 

call on him now. Comrade Yanofsky. (Great applause.) 

Address of 8. Yanofsky 

:r,ATES: Speak Yiddish! 

I shall speak to you In the vernacular that you all 
and probably tonight, at the banquet, I shall speak to you In the international lan- 
guage, in Yiddish. 

Of course, it is not necessary for me to tell you that it is really a great pleasure 

to address you today. If It were not. I would not have come. I don't believe la 

do whatever I like, whatever I please, and whatever I think Is agreeable 

It Is really a pleasure to come to the Amalgamated, to this Convention, and address 

I don't regret that I came, in fact. I consider the two hours that I have spaat 

you aa the most agreeable ones that I have ever spent though the questions 

discussed were not very interesting. The debate was so good, clever and to the 

point, that 1 though everybody had read the Fteie Arbeiter Stimme and profited by 

it. and especially the Chairman, who is so sharp and so ingenious in his replies at 

times, that I know he must certainly be a student of the Briefkasten. (Laughter.) 

l ieard several things that I liked very much in this debate, and several 
I felt like getting up and saying my word too. What struck me as the 
thing Is the fact that there Is no machine at this convention. I have been at several 
conventions of different organisations, and It seemed to *me that everything was 
ruled from here (pointing to the chair) and that those people there (pointing to 
the delegates) were simply lambs doing the bidding of the so-called platform. 

are such tricky politicians that you hide it all from me (laughter) 
(turning to Hillman and Schloesberg). it seems to me that you are really all taking 
part in the Convention. There Is one great thing that I find in the Amalgamated, and 
in fact I never expected anything less. In sn organisation that was born In the spirit 
of revolution, in the spirit of freedom, in the spirit of watchfulness, even over their 



own officers an organization that has overthrown those who were becoming too 
despotic, I should be disappointed if I should find anything less, no matter whether 
your decisions are wise, or not. But it seems to me that they are the result of your 
own reasoning; that there was no caucus meeting before; that the resolutions were 
brought to you and you decided on them according to your reasoning. That was 
very good; although I disagree with many things, but since it is the decision of your 
reasoning, of your mind, it Is important and good. 

I am very much pleased to seo that the Amalgamated has grown to that degree. 
I expected a somewhat quicker growth, I must say, but, of course, I expected many, 
many things. In which I must acknowledge myself disappointed. But 1 can say and 
testify that It is a normal, natural growth. You have not yet achieved everything 
that Is to be achieved. There la no question about it. I know that the clothing 
industry is not yet 100 per cent organized, and yet it should be. I expect that at the 
next convention the Amalgamated will really represent the whole clothing industry. 
But of course, "Rome was not built in a day." I am sure if you should go on as 
you huvo. that you will grow and grow, and that there is no power that can really 
hinder you from growing. It is the confidence that you have In yourselves it is the 
spirit of trying, of getting there, that Is what brought you up. And if that spirit 
should continue, I am sure you will grow and grow and get stronger and stronger. 
I understand now that you are trying to work for the 44-hour week. That is, that 
you have achieved the 48 hour week and that you want 4 hours less. And you will 
get it, too. 

But I am afraid that the fact that you raised the salary of your officers, especially 
the big ones, will hinder you a little (laughter). You did not consider that point. 
I have come to the conclusion, by experience, that the less you pay your officers, 
the better they serve you. (Laughter and applause.) Of course, you are paying 
them such a salary that they will never become foremen, or contractors; there is 
no question about that (laughter); but it is the same thing with you, too. In order 
that you should not be tempted, you must not only achieve the 44 hour week, but 
probably 36 hours. There are some people who are working only 36 hours a week, 
and they are making a salary of $33 a week, and they are growing every year, and 
they are getting each year a dollar more. Next year they will get $34, and the n 
$35, and let me tell you that the work they are doing, a child could do. Why you 
don't have to learn it; it is no trade; it Is, you know, that strumming on the piano, 
on the linotype machine they even don't know how to read my copy, and still they 
get $33 a week (laughter). 

Now, I understand that In the tailoring trade a great deal of skill is required, 
and it is not too much to expect that in the next year or two you will get the 36 
hour week for $35 a week. In fact I believe that after the war, we might dispose of 
the question of hours and wages altogether. We might become of ourselves one 
big, great commonwealth, and the whole trade of thr* tnllors would not ' - n the 
hands of tailors and bosses but would be in the hands of the tailor* oniy. (Applause.) 
It is not because I am so Utopian that I say this. It is not because I am such 
a dreamer. But I see that things are going that way. It cannot be helped. Sooner 
or later, and I believe sooner than later, we will get there. But in the meantime, 
while there are still bosses, try to get as much as you can, Brothers. (Laughter.) 
I don't know what you did get at this convention, simply because I have not yet 
happened to read the reports. But let me be frank with you. I don't expect any 
convention to do anything. I see the convention simply as pay as a compensation 
for the whole year's work you did. The Union gave you a holiday for a week; go 
on and enjoy yourselves! (Laughter and applause.) 

I don't know whether all the delegates have the clear conscience that they should. 
But if you don't, try to do better in the future. Decide today that you are winding 
up your affairs, that you have adopted all the resolutions, which are really scraps 
of paper. If you don't act upon them decide that the next year or two years later, 
when you will again be sent to the convention, you will deserve It, you will not be 
parasites, simply eating up $100 or $150 of the Union's funds, and doing nothing 
for it the whole year. 

If you Idle away your time in the Convention, I don't blame you. You don't have 
many idle weeks. But if you idle away your time after the convention, why 
crime, my friends. You have taken money for nothing In that way no Union can 

I am very pleased that I was not one of the speakers who opened the convention, 
because those speakers have to advise you, to tell you what to do, and they < 



know a thing about it themselves (laughter). Having heard the debate to-day. I 
am sure that I have to learn from you for years and years especially your jargon. 
It is something fine: O. B. a. etc. (Laughter.) 1 wiil have to study it. if 1 am not 
too old for that. 1 am glad 1 don't have to tell you what to do. All you had to 
do you have done already. 1 am sure that if you did not do it well this time, you 
la It better next time. 

1 am pleased to have come here and I wUb to tell you that no matter what 
you have done; no matter what aina you have committed, yon are so young yet. so 
fresh yet. that you have your time to regret it and do better. And that is alt (Great 


By William Drubln 



Whereas, we find that the prices on army clothing are different in different 
cities where such clothing is made, be it therefore 

Resolved, that we ask this Convention to Instruct the incoming General Executive 
Board to work out uniform prices on army clothing. 


The committee recommends concurrence. 

Unanimously accepted. 



Whereas, workers in the clothing industry, by the nature of their occupation, are 
compelled to earn their livelihood by working Indoors, and 

Whereas, because of this dominant fact a large percentage of the workers 
afflicted . rculosto. and 

Whereas, this terrible plague causes untold suffering, not only to the 

Whereas, the family of such a person not Infrequently is unable to give tht 
afflicted, bur likewise to his family, and 

afflicted member proper care, in order to cure him. or at least bring relief to him. 

Whereas, it is our earnest and sincere desire to do our utmost In order to 
all possible aid to a Sister or Brother, who is afflicted with this terrible 
be It. therefore, 

Resolved, that we, members of Local 61, assembled at a regular and 
meeting, at 409 3. Halstead St., Chicago, recommend to the Third Biennial Cow 
tion of the A. C. \V. of A. that they devise some ways and means in order to create 
a general fund for the erection of a tuberculosis sanatorium for the purpose of 
sheltering such members of our organization as may become the victims of tail 
ble plague. 


I KKOLU and 

F. PETRICK. Local 161. Chicago. 

The committee recommends non-concurrence. 

Delegate GEIER: The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America is In a very 
good position to fight for better hours and better wages and everything that wfll 
benefit the worklngmen. but tailoring is a hard job it best It is hard work. With 
Its shorter hours and better pay. It is still very hard work. Every day members 
of our organization become afflicted with that terrible disease, tuberculosis. That is 
something that at present seems to be unavoidable. When we get that awful sickness 
our friends do all they can for us for a certain length of time. The organization 
* $100 or $200. which is only a drop In the bucket. It is up to this membership 
not to allow those who are with us and have struggled with the Amalgamated, to 
drop by the wayside the moment they get sick to abandon them and their families. 

I think that the General Executive Board should make every effort to provide 
assistance for members so afflicted. 


Delegate ISOWITZ: I move that entire matter be referred to the G. E. B. 

The amendment that this be referred to the incoming G. E. B. for investigation 
and action was unanimously carried. 

President HILLMAN: There was a request made this morning that we hold this 
session until we get through, but I feel that everybody is tired. I am tired, I know. 
I feel that we should adjourn now and reconvene at 2 o'clock sharp. 

At this point Delegate Drubin stepped on the platform and presented each of 
the officers of the Amalgamated, President Hlllman, Secretary Schlossberg and Treasu- 
rer Wolf with a beautiful bouquet of flowers. 

Delegate DRUBIN: On behalf of all the locals of the New York Joint Board, 
we wish to pare the way for the next two years to the incoming officers with flowers. 
This is for Sidney Hillman. President of the Amalgamated (applause); this is for 
Secretary Schlossberg (applause) and this is for Brother Wolf (applause). 

This one is for Brother Rosenblum. We are giving these roses to Brother Rosen- 
blum because he is leaving us today for the camp, and we wish on this occasion, to 
express our appreciation of his work for the organization in the past. (Great applause.) 

Address of Frank Rosenblum 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: Like a good many of our brothers in the ranks 
who have preceded me, I am called for military service. It is expected that I do my 
bare, do my bit, and take my chances with the rest of the boys in the trenches. 

I am not a pacifist never was I don't suppose I ever will be. I believe in 
fighting. There have been changes in the war situation; I have come to the conclusion 
that it will be better for all of us, better for the people at large, better for the 
workers, better for the revolution in Russia, better for the democracy of the world, 
that the autocracy of Germany be licked into submission. 

And since those are my views, I am accepting my fate as a matter of course, 
and will proceed. Needless to Buy, I expect to come back. I hope to, anyway. 

We are called to fight for democracy in France. But if we are to have democracy, 
it must be fought out at !.:.. as well. And we leave to you folks here, the burden 
of making democracy safe at home industrially and politically. 

You are about to adjourn. It depends a great deal on how you go back to your 
home towns the spirit you go back with how much democracy you will have at 
home. If you are to go along as others do, and be satisfied with th; .ay are, 

I am afraid that when we come back we will find that our victory over there will 
prove to be an empty shell. The boys who are in the trenches ask of you, and they 
demand of you, to do everything in your power to organize the industry as a whole, 
so that when they come back there will be a place for them to live in and t*at they 
will not be compelled to walk the streets suffering Hum i>ii\a<.iou ..*...u vainly 
searching for jobs, as has been the case after the wars in the past. 

Whether this country will be a good place to live in after the war, as I said 
before, does not depend mainly on the trenches in France, but on the people right 

I hope and trust that, when we come back, the Amalgamated will be able to 
show a record of achievements that will surpass that of the past. We have done well, 
undoubtedly. But there is still much more room for improvement. No member of 
our organization should content himself, should rest satisfied, until every man and 
woman in the needle industry is in the organization, until the organization is able 
to enforce its standards for the protection of the people; until the men and women 
in the industry have legislated for themselves what hours, what conditions, and 
what compensation they should receive. No man has a right to rest until that is 

It has been my good fortune to be with you at the inception of the organization 
and to be singled out for honors. 

I did not think that the call would come so soon. I told you yesterday that I 
expected to be with you some time yet, two or three months. It came sooner than 
I expected. 

But I am glad that it came now, and I am able to bid you all goodbye in Convention 
assembled, that I am able to ask of you to do your share in this work of freeing 
mankind, that I am able to ask of you to do your duty in this work. 

You responded to the call in Nashville. You have given a good account of your- 
selves. I hope that the occasion of my leaving will be an inspiration to you, fellow 



delegates, and that you will carry a message to the workers in the ranks foi 
greater efforts, and work and organize the men and women in the clothing 
and that your activities will go further and further, and that you will be the 

'. organized labor movement of America, that your actions and your 
ments will be the envy of every right thinking man and woman, that you will do 
share, your duty 

1 hope to be back with you and to find you with a still greater organization, with 

Roaenblum received an ovation, everybody rising and vigorously applauding 

President MILKMAN l shall call upon Secretary Schlossberg to make a few 
remarks on this occasion. 

Address of Secretary Schlossberg 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: 1 think I can speak in the name of all who have 
been favored by you with the beautiful flowers, when 1 say that we thank you for 
this expression of your sentiments. We know that this Is s mere shall I call It? 
physical expression of your soul for the work done by the organizationnot to 
the officers as singled out from the entire organization, but through the oflcsrs. tor 
the organisation. 

Brother Rosenblum. this Is the second time In two days that we have been 
called up on. to take leave of our best co-workers. This Convention has to quite some 
degree been converted Into an American edition of the Russian Council of Soldiers 
and Workmen. It la perhaps the only Labor Convention surely the first one in whose 
midst a representative of the fighting forces of the United States was a fully accredited 
delegate. We had occasion yesterday to give expression to our feelings In a situation 
that now exists throughout the world, and our feelings toward the delegate particularly 
who was called upon to part with us. 

We have to do it again today. Brother Rosenblum occupies a place In our history 
that in entirely unique. My friends, we have a good many here who were with us 
in Nashville, who were sitting in the gallery, watching Brother Rosenblum. who was 
one of the few representatives of the organized clothing workers admitted to the 
convention, fighting for the admission of all the representatives of the organised 
clothing workers. We were sitting there and looking at him as our champion in 
the fight for labor's rights, not against capitalism, but for labor's rights in labor's 
own ranks. In a labor organization. 

He waa our champion in the fight for the initial rights of Industrial democracy, 
which we had to acquire then in order that we might conduct the fight for Industrial 
democracy on the larger and larger scale against autocracy in Industry. It was the 
power of the large delegation In the gallery, relegated there after they had been 
. ed of the right to represent those who had elected them: It was that power 
that gave strength to Brother Rosenblum to fight for the great principle of democracy 
in labor's own organization. No one of us who has gone through that historic 
fight can ever forget that scene. You will all remember that after we left Capital Hall. 
delegates, grown up persons, hardened men who had gone through all sorts of 
struggles, industrial and otherwise, walked through the streets of Nashville with 
tears streaming down their cheeks! I shall never forget that scene. If ever there 
was a fight put up by representatives of organized labor for labor's rights. It was that 
fight In Nashville It was that purity of the souls of the representatives of the 
organized clothing workers, It was the purity of that atmosphere. It was the sacred- 
ness of that atmosphere that gave birth to the organization which we now represent 
here. And It Is no wonder that an organization, born in such an atmosphere, has 
developed so pure and so strong and so solid, physically, materially, spiritually and 
in every other sense. 

Brother Rosenblum may consider himself fortunate that, when he Is called upon 
to leave us temporarily, and he has to go to the front to participate In the great 
world war. he can carry with him the consciousness that the great A *n a 1t*rtM+4 
family holds dear the memories of that great fight that he conducted for us in Nash- 
and which was the Initial fight for the upbuilding of this organization. I feel 
that I can speak for all who are here, and for all who are not here, but who watch 
our proceedings from the various towns and cities from which you came here to 
legislate for our organization; I say. I feel that I can speak for all of them, when 
I say to Brother Rosenblum. and to all others who will be called upon to follow him: 
we. those who are of older blood, and are not called to the colors; we, who remain 


here and will continue the work of this organization; we pledge ourselves In the face 
of this great world tragedy, where the best blood of the human race Is being poured 
out on the battlefields we pledge ourselves to carry on our fight for democracy, 
with more strength, with more rigor, with more determination, because of this 
tragedy. We all realize that we are new passing through a period In the history of 
life that haa never had Its equal. We realize that everything that IB being done now 
will mean for the coming generations either their happiness or unhapplness. \V 
realize that the work that we are now doing here is not only for us. It is for those 
who are still too young to participate in the world's work, and it is for those whom 
we or our children may bring into this world. This great world tragedy brings this 
home to us more strongly and more forcibly than anything else ever did. I say, 
I feel that I can speak for all of our membership, when I tell Brother Rosenblum, and 
all others who have already left and those who will leave, that we shall continue this 
war here relentlessly, mercilessly. We have given our blood to this battle that is 
now being carried on on the other side. Our sons, our brothers, our dearest ones are 
there. Our blood is being poured out. We are sacrificing the lives of those who 
are dearest to us and whom we need here most to help us make our lives happier 

We serve notice upon all who are responsible for this carnage that is now being 

led on In Europe, that we shall clcni md an accounting! 

When these boys come back, when Brother Rosenblum and Brother Senter, and 
all the others, come back here with the training that they have received there, with 
the additional experience, with the greater fighting capacity that they will bring 
with them, we shall again enlist them into our ranks and put their greater capacity, 
their greater skill at the service of the people, at the service of those who, when the 
s over, will begin the reconstruction of society, so as to make wars impossible 
in the future, and make society, the world, a place worthy to live in! 

What would have taken a hundred years otherwise, will probably be brought 
about in a very short time, possibly within our own generation the overthrow of 
autocracy everywhere in everything, political and industrial and in every other respect. 

That has been emphasized here a number of times, but, my friends, we cannot 
emphasize it too much. This is our struggle. This is now our problem. We shall 
go right ahead with it. 

And we say. Brother Rosenblum, you take with you the love of every man and 
woman in this industry. You take with you a memory that people would pay fortunes 
to be able to acquire. You take with you the best wishes of all of us. You take 
with you the blessings of all of us. We pray that you, and the others of our ranks 
may come back here just as vigorous, just as strong as you leave us. And when 
you do come back to us, and when others come back to their organizations, then! 
by God!! then!!! the final battle for the emancipation of the world will begin | 

(Tremendous app'.ause, everybody rising and cheering.) 

President IIILLMAX: It is getting late. I shall not take any time now to make 
any remarks. Whatever I may wish to say I shall say at the close of the Convention. 

The session adjourned at one o'clock to reconvene at 2. 



Tenth Session 

Saturday Afternoon. May 18, 191* 
The meeting vat called to order at 2.20 P.M.. President Hill 

Secretary 8CHLO88BBRG: I was aaked by the Resolutions Committee to report 
for them on Resolution No. 46. 


142 AND 161. NEW YOU I 

the present war In Europe baa brought about one of the 
'vernment In Russia, and 

Whereas, the present Soviet Government In Russia la the only Government tbat 
can bring about the deliverance of the working claaa In Russia, and 

Whereas, knowing that those things tbat are done by the Soviet Government la 
Russia will have a great effect upon the workers of sll other nations), especially 
In Germany, that may result in the overthrow of the Kaiser and Junker Government 
In Germany, therefore be It 

Resolved, that the A. r. W. of A. should use Its Influence aa a labor organisation 
upon the Government of the I'nltod States to make It recognize the Soviet Government 
and that the A. C. W. of A. wire Us sympathy to the Soviet Government. 

H TAYLOR, Local 142. 
INDYKE. Local 161. 

The committee recommends the adoption of the following substitute for Resolu- 
tion No. 46: 

Whereas, the Russian people have emancipated themselves from the tyranny of 
Cxardom and established a free people's republic, be it 

Resolved, that we hall with joy Free Russia and send to her oar most fraternal 
greetings. We realise the tremendous difficulties that are now in the way of the 
Russian people in the working out of order and national prosperity. Those difficulties 
are but natural for a great nation just freed from autocracy, freed at a time when 
the world is In such a state of universal upheaval as the present. We do not wish 
to enter Into a consideration of the merits of the several nartic* In Russia, but we 
- in tho fact that the Russian nation is free, and are confident that it will success* 
Aork out its own salvation. It is our fervent hope that our own country, and 
all other civilized nations, will come to the assistance of Free Russia by recognizing 
the Russian People's Soviet Government, and giving the Russian people all aid in 
working out their own destinies. 


The substitute resolution was unanimously adopted. 

Secretary SCHLOSSDERG: The General Executive Board, as was announced at 
:no Its report was read, has recommendations to make. We submit to yon the 
following declaration: 


The war haa demonstrated the complete bankruptcy of the system of private 
ownership In Industry and its danger to the nation. Its failure to meet the ne^ds of 
the country when the emergency arose, while It has been bleeding the country by 
profiteering, proved beyond a doubt that tbat system baa no justification f. 
continuation. It has become a menace to the best interests of the people. Condi* 
tions are now fully ripe for the public ownership of Industries, with the workers 
in them In control. 


While affirming our aspiration for that ultimate goal, there is one problem that 
is of immediate concern to our members, and calls for relief forthwith. It is the very 
much aggravated wool situation. The woolen industry, though highly trustified and, 
therefore, more easily regulated than other industries, has collapsed at a time when 
the country needs its service most. The workers are there ready to do the work. 
but the curse of private ownership and management, the curse of greed, rests on this 
industry as well as on others, and does not permit of sufficient production to meet 
the requirements of the country. As a result, a large number of our members have 
been thrown out of employment at a time when the government needs their labor. 
For the purpose of speedy and effective relief in this emergency we urge that th.- 
Government should immediately remove the woolen industry from the hands of the 
selfish and greedy private interests and take control of it. As a matter of justice, we 
further urge that labor be given ample representation on the committee that is to 
control working conditions in the Industry, and Inasmuch as we are so vitally interested 
in this problem, proper representation should also be given to our organization. 

We feel that by urging such action we not only voice the sentiments of our 
membership, but serve the interests of the country generally. 

The same causes that are pressing on us public control of the woolen industry 
operate with equal force to all other industries and public utilities. They also cry 
out for the checking of profiteering. The people pay ungrumblingly all that the 
Government asks of them, but they should not be allowed to be bled and victimized 
for the benefit of private interests, that have been enriching themselves upon the 
great world catastrophe. (Applause.) 

This was unanimously carried. 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: There is another recommendation that the Executive 
Board wishes to make, and that Is this: 

Article 5 of the constitution, entitled "General Officers and How Chosen," reads 
as follows: 

"Section 1: The General Officers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America shall consist of a General President, a General Secretary, a General Treas- 
urer, a General Auditor and three Trustees." 

The General Executive Board has come to the conclusion that the office of General 
Auditorship is entirely superfluous. We have inherited that from the former organiza- 
tion, where it was simply another name for a General Officership, but in our case it 
serves no useful purpose. For the purpose of auditing the books of the local organiza- 
tions, we have engaged a professional accountant. The General Executive Board, 
therefore, recommends that this section 1 of Article 5 should read as follows: 

"The General Officers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America shall 
consist of a General President, a General Secretary and a General Treasurer. The 
CpDpral Executive Board shall consist of eleven members, including the General 

The number on the Board remains the same, but the auditorship is abolished, 
and also the trusteeships, which mean nothing. When this is adopted, it will dispense 
with Sections 1, 12. 13. 14. 15 and 16, of Article 5. which refer to the General Auditor- 
ship and the Trustees. That is the recommendation. 

The recommendation was unanimously adopted. 

By Gabriel Vastano, Chairman 

Having no resolutions to act upon, the committee discussed the value of the 
label in the clothing industry- for the Amalgamated. The point was brought out 
that although there have been about 250,000 labels used up to the present time, the 
organization has not felt the necessity of encouraging the use of the labels, for obvious 
reasons. The committee, therefore, recommends to refer the matter for further 
consideration to the incoming General Executive Board. 

The report of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

President HILLMAN: The next on the order of business is Nomination of Officers. 
Before proceeding with the nominations, Secretary Schlossberg will make a sugges- 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: In our Constitution we have no provision as to 



how the nominations for officers or Board mambsrs are to be made. The 

:* that the Convention osatMU and the ben vote. At the prerlosja 
i-ntlon. you will remember, everyone that waa nominated went oa the 
>oa found that that system waa moat unsatisfactory. The Board assabsra, 

recommend this to the Convention: That in order that aay 
a General Office or Board membership may go oa the ballot for a referendum vote, 

ist secare the support of 2ft per cent -of the Convention- 
Delegate ISAACS: I move that that be accepted. 

Preaftdaa* H1LLMAN: The suggestion to made la order DOC to permK aay practical 
jokes. Some delegates may feel In good humor and nominate anyone who comes to 
his mind, and we would be obliged to place the name OB the ballot. It baa bean 
suggested that the percentage of 26 may be too large. Do the delegates feel that 
way? We can make It 20 per cent or 15 per cent. 

Delegate BLUGBRMAN: I amend It to 10 per cent. 

President HILLMAN: flupoae that Instead of requiring a 
twenty seconds for a nomination. 

Delegate LEVINE: May I suggest that the 20 delogatea should be Cram dlff< 

Presldonr HILLMXN: Don't you aee. Delegate Levine. that the only 
of this Is that we should not be obliged to place on the ballot people 
considers eligible for officers? JO delegatea desire to place a 

the membership for election, they should be entitled to It. It does not make much 
difference where they come from. 

Delegate GOLDBEK* -Int of information: Have these delegates a right 

to nominate men who are not at the Convention? 

President IIILLMAN: That has been the rule of our previous Cooi 
Is a motion that twenty seconds be required for a nomination. 

This* motion was unanimously adopted. 

President HILLMAN: As the nomination of the President of the Amalgamati 
Is the first on the list. 1 shall ask the Secretary to take the Chair 

Secretary Schloasberg thereupon took the Chair. 

Delegate RIK<;i:u I appeal to the members that nominating and 
be left out.* on account of the lateness of the hour. 

Secretary Schloasberg then called for nominations for the ottce of 

SEVERAL DELEGATES: Hlllman. Hlllman! 

Delegate TOUNG: I move that we close the nominations. 

There was no objection and nominations were closed. 

Secretary 8CHLOSSBERG : All those who are In favor of nominating Sidney 
Hlllman for President of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America will signify 
so by saying Aye. 

The convention ensemble: "Aye!" 

(Everybody rises and cheers enthusiastically for several minutes,) 

A VOICE: Three cheers for Hillman. our next President! 

EVERYBODY: Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! 

President HILLMAN I wish to thank you very much for the nomination, aad if 
elected I shall agree to serve for the next term. 

The dominations are now in order for the office of General Secretary. 

SEVERAL DELEGATES: SchJoasberg! Schloasberg! 

President HILLMAN: The Chair thinks that the name of Brother Schloasbarf 
haa been suggested. (Laughter.) Any further nominations? 

SEVERAL DELEGATES: A motion to close the nominations. 

President HILLMAN: All those In favor of the nomination of Brother OchlatJ 
berg, the only candidate so far nominated, will signify by saying Ay*. 

Convention ensemble: Aye! 

(Everybody rises and applauds vigorously for several minutes.) 

SEVERAL DELEGATES: Three cheers for Brother Schtoftberg! 

Everybody: Hurrah! Hurrah; Hurrah! 



President HILLMAN i tie next office in that of General Treasurer. 

President HILLMAN: All those In favor that Brother Wolf should be nominated 
will signify by saying Aye. 

Everybody: Aye. 

President HILLMAN: I won't ask for those against. (Laughter.) 

We shall still go through with the nomination of General Aadltor. r the 
recommendation of this Convention Is accepted by the membership, th> (.eneral 
Auditor will become a member of the Board. The nomination Is open for the General 

Delegate GOLD: I nominate Brother Alex Cohen of New York. 

Delegate COHEN: I accept. 

The following other nominations were made: 

Abraham Miller: I decline. 

Harry Cohen: I decline. 

P. Monat: I decline. 

J. Potofsky: I decline in favor of Alex Cohen. 
Marimpietrl: I decline. 

II. Madanick, of Montreal: I decline. 

P. Arnone: I decline in favor of Alex Cohen. 

W. Dnibin: I decline. 

J. Blugerman: I decline. 

The nominations were then closed. 

President HILLMAN: All those in favor of the nomination of Alex Cohen 
will signify by saying Aye. 

(Everybody rises and cheers.) 

President HILLMAN: There are now nominations for how many Board members? 

Secretary SCHLOSSBERG: Seven. 

President HILLMAN: There are now nominations for seven members of the 

A number of names were proposed. The following were nominated with th* 
twenty or more seconds, as provided by the action of the convention: 

Harry Cohen, Local 17. New York. Paul Arnone, Local 63, New York. 

Samuel Levin, Local 61, Chicago. Harry Madanick. Local 15, Baltimore. 

August Bellanca. Local 63, New York. Joseph Goodman, Local 2, New York. 

Dorothy Jacobs, Local 170, Baltimore. Harry Crystal, Local 36, Baltim 

Hyman Blumberg. Local 36, Baltimore. Jacob P. Friedman, Local 4, New York 

A. D. Marimpietri, Local 39, Chicago. Louis Revayle, Local 3, New York. 

Lazarus Marcovitz, Local 172, Boston. Peter Galskis, Local 269, Chicago. 

Joseph Gold, Local 156, New York. Nathan Bunin. Local 140, Philadelphia. 

James Blugerman, Local 211, Toronto. 

President HILLMAN: Delegate Goldberg of Chicago asks for the floor. Is there 
any objection? 

Delegate GOLDBERG: Mr. Chairman, I asked the floor before the recomm* 
Uon of our General Secretary was passed. I believe the recommendation was not 
practical, that any man In order to be nominated must secure 20 seconds. I am 
even more surprised that the delegates accepted this recommendation than 
when the convention rejoctert the minority report on the resolution that an organizer 
should not be permitted to run for G. E. B. membership. Here is a man nominated 
from Chicago. There is no r-hance for any man outside of this body to get in on 
this nomination list, and we have good members who ought to get on the G. 
I don't see any sense in it. I think it Is a crime that we should pass a recommendation 
like that, that each member in order to be nominated must have 20 seconds. What 



is the result of this Here Brother Galskl was nominated. A Blotter says. -We don t 
know him." He is probably a better man than any other. 

My speech will not do any good because the motion has already pssssd. t 
believe it was wrong, and I believe some day you delegates will regn 

i.*i me correct the delegate that Delegate Galskls* name 
was placed In nomination. 

The next order of business Is the selection of a place for the next convention. 
The nomination of a city for the next convention of our organization to be held to 
now open. The Chair will recognise Delegate Harry Cohen. 

Delegate l: Mr. Chairman and Delegates: two years ago 

nideot l' .,> speeches. 

urrahs and applause.) 

Delegar I propose that our next convention take place In Chicago. 

rahs and applause.) 

ropose the City of Boston (Hurrahs and applause,) 

urther nomination-* The delegates from Brownsville 
have introduced a resolution. 

>gate BI I nominate Brownsville 

Delegate GOODMAN: I nominate Broo: 
(It was moved and seconded that the nominations be closed.) 

I propose Montreal. 

"Iden- nil. I.MAN: The secretary will read the name* of the cities proposed. 
ietam Secretary POTOF.- Mcago. Boston. Brownsville. Brooklyn and 


Preside Each delegate may vote only or 

The following is the result of the vote taken: Montreal 2. Boston H. Chicago IS. 
Brooklyn 0. Brownsville 0. 

Delega* "/ I noticed seteral member* voting for more than one 

Preslden: HI Brother Rabinowltx. be a game loser. 

Delegate C < I move that the nomlnat'nn of the city of Boston be made 


This w*fl unanimously carried. (Applause.) 

Under the heading of Good and Welfare of the organisation. 
I shall call upon one who has shared the responsibility of the General 
we organized. There Is no need for an elaborate Introduction. You all 

'. General Treasurer of our organization. Manager of the New York 
I shall call upon him to address the Convention. (Hurrahs snd applause. 

Address of David Wolf 

I am only going to take five minutes, as the Chairman ruled. I think the delegates 
have had enough speeches at this convention. I have participated In only a few 
questions at this convention. I believe that Instead of talking and making 
we have got to get busy and do work. 

There is only one propostion that interests me that has passed this 
and that the General Executive Board together with the entire organisation will have 
to get busy on. That is the question of the 44-hour week. (Applause.) 

It will not be an easy matter to get It. yet I believe that there is not * 
that the Amalgamated haa ever undertaken In which It has failed. I am 
we are not going to fall in this propostion either. 

Our work has been successful because of the harmony that we have had all the 
time since the inception of the Amalgamated. 

This has been the most interesting Convention that has ever been held to my 
knowledge, not only as compared with the Conventions of the United Garment 
but even with those of other organisations, I attribute this only to the 
prevailing In our ranks Whether It has been joy. or sorrow we have always 
together. Our accomplishments have been great; our accomplishments hare bees 
wonderful. Ytt I remember one of the speaker* on this platform said to as that 



there are bad times coining, and I fully agree that they are coming. He asked: 
-Will there be a 100 per cent. Union when that time comes?" 

in say, "Members of the Amalgamated, I don't doubt that a 10ft i< 
Union will be here ng will set back these tailors whom it has taken 25 years 

to organize. I do not refer merely to the city of New York. I am pretty well ac q ua 
with other cities. As for New York, 1 don't believe that there is any power in this 
world that can break that organisation. The spirit shown throughout the history of 
the Amalgamated by the New York membership, and by the membership everywhere, 
U guaranty that if we ever were in a position to rejoice, it is right now at the close 
of this convention. We have achieved everything that we possibly could under the 
circumstances. We shall now adjourn and work until the next convention in Boston, 
when we shall report on greater achievements. We will achieve our 44-hour week. 

President HILLMAN: Secretary Schlossberg will read a message which has been 
drawn up, and for which we will ask your endorsement. 

Secretary Schlossberg thereupon read the following: 

We, the delegates to the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America, deeply stirred by the farewell addresses of Brother Meyer Senter, 
who is now in the United States Naval Reserve, and General Executive Board Member 
Frank Rosenblum, who has just been drafted into the National Army, unanimously 
adopt the following message, to be sent to all such of our members as are either 
in the service now, or will be there in the course of time: 

We send greetings to you, you who are on the firing lino. \\v. who have remained 
here, solemnly pledge ourselves to continue the noble fight in which you participated 
until you were called to the national colors, and double our energies in view of the 
present world crisis, in order that we may make the world a safe place for political 
and industrial democracy. We want you, our brothers, to know that you occupy 
a big place in the hearts of all of us. We send you our greetings, our love, our 
blessings. We pray that you may all return safely and give the American people 
at home the benefit of your increased fighting capacity in order to free the world 
from all sorts of autocracy. 

This was received with applause and unanimously adopted. 

President HILLMAN: I shall ask, at this time, Brother Samuel Levin, of Chicago, 
member of the General Board, to say a few words to the convention. (Applause.) 

Address of Samuel Levin 

Brother President and Delegates: About four years ago we were put to a test 
which was to show whether the Clothing Workers of America could be organized. 
We had been told thai to organize the tailors was an impossibility. 

We undertook the task. We found that not only was it possible to build a 
labor organization of the kind that existed in other industries, but we succeeded in 
building up an organization that should be the pride of the labor movement. Our 
accomplishments outside of the material benefits for our members the moral achieve- 
ment, the uplifting of the spirit among the great masses of the clothing workers, 
was the greatest victory attained by our organization. 

We have been put to many tests. We have been continually forced Into great 
struggles in every part of the country where clothing is being made in Baltimore. 
New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia and Montreal and the people everywhere 
fought bravely. Now nothing can keep us from further progress and further achieve- 
ment. There are great missions yet before us, not only in the improvement of our 
conditions materially but also spiritually. We have been told by our friends that the 
labor movement is to look upon the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America as 
the banner carrier of the American Labor movement. (Applause.) This we should 
remember and strive to live up to. 

I am happy to have been able to attend this convention. I am ready to say that 
the British Labor movement in its councils cannot conduct its business any better 
than the Amalgamated has done it within the last few days. (Applause.) When we 
go back home let us remember that there are great missions before us. We must 
remember that, while our brothers and sons are fighting autocracy on the other side 
of the ocean, we have autocracies that are just as bad as that of the German Kaiser 
within our own industry. Let us remember that we have to fight them here as well 
as our brothers and our children are fighting them there. We must put up an industrial 
fight here so that our organization will be one hundred per cent, strong when our 
brothers come back. On us rests the responsibility of making our home safe for 
democracy. We are carrying that responsibility along with all other people who are 



fighting for the same cause. History has shown that progress was never made by 
the human race, unless it was stubbornly fought fur We art going to carry this 
We are to fight for the improvement of our economic ooaditlomi. ami 
iber that when this war is over we are to bo a great pan of the 
reconstruction forces of the Workers' Internationale. (Applause.) 

Md. nt i Is Delegate Zuckerman in the hall? I should like to have 

Brother Zuckennaa. ss one of the old members, say a few words to oaf nosjfssjtmn. 

n was not pres 

u.i.M \N We will hear something from Brother Gold. Manager of 
the New York Coat Makers' On anliatlon. 

Address of Joseph Gold 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: Whan I came into this industry about tt 
ago, when I came into the workshops. I found the necessity of such an 
as we have today, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. I joined tho organi- 
sation of my trade at that time, the so-called United Garment Workers of 
Hut h<n 1 came there snd I preached the principles on which tho 

kers of America is now founded, it did not take mo vary long ft find 
myself downstairs from the fourth floor. The men In the organization then did 
not have an organltatlon such ss we have at the present time. 

It took over 20 years to build the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
We hsve it now snd are getting the results. I hope and trust that wr 
on our road of progress; we M - not only for 44 hours s week, but all 

due to labor, and that is. all that labor produces. I hope and trust that 
delegates, come back from this convention to our Local Unions we will briag to 
the spirit in which we have conducted this Convention. We will ask the 
continue the work that they have done up to this Convention I 
come to the next Convention In Boston, we shall be able to report the 
or thf* 44 hour week. Then we will take up the task of abolishing capitalism as a 
whole. I thank you. (Applause.) 

President H1LLMAN I am sure that we should sll like to hoar from a mem Mr 
of the Board, from this city. Sister Dorothy Jacobs (Great applause ) 

Address of Dorothy Jacobs 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates to the Convention: 1 am surprised to be called upon. 
will Kay that I am a little bit conceited about this fact, that I am. I think, the 
first woman to address the Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

A great many things have been said about the labor raovement- 

that there Is hardly anything left for me to add. This week, as I was 

of the theatre, waiting for some of the delegates to come up to tho 

s man approached me and said: "Is this tho convention of the Garment Workers r 

si Is the convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 

America. The Garment Workers have stopped having conventions." Ami he said. 
"Well, what Is the difference between the Garment Workers and the 
\Vorkers of Amerlcar 

And I said. "The difference Is between the dark night and tho smiling dawn.* 
And he walked away. He was evidently satisfied. 

As I was sitting st the first session, snd listened to the eloquent speakers compli- 
ment In* us on the achievements that we have made. I thought to myself. "Well, they 
are our guests snd they have to compliment us." But, then, aga 
I realised that we have come here with some achievements. But there are a 
many things still left for us to do. The world Is moving very rapidly, and It 
almost all of our strength and every bit of our breath, to run alone ith the 
The great problem before us today in our industry, and In every other industry, la 
the woman problem. Many, many of our boys wart *+ n + A to 
have answered the call of the Government, and many, many of our boys are 
to RO. and their places are going to be taken by the women that are coming Into the 
industry, women that perhaps have never heard of an organization before. Ami I 
say that this is one of the important things that the delegates at our convention must 
reckon v. 

I remember reading that In Great Britain, when war first broke out, and the boys 

answered the call of their government, and the women followed into the Industry. 

he mines snd the mills and factories, there were no laws provided for thorn to 

protect their health. There was no organisation to protect them. In a very short 


lime these women were broken In body and spirit. If things had kept up as they did. 
there would have been none left to more the wheels of Industry. Great Britain just 
woke up In time to check the disaster. And 1 say that we must look out for thes 
things, not only to protect the women that are now coming into our Industry, but to 
protect those that are going to remain In It and those that are coming back into the 
Industry. I hope that every delegate at this convention will go back to the local 
organization he represents here, and take this question a little bit more seriously 
than has been heretofore. We have got to give every encouragement to the women 
that are in the Industry and to the women that are coming into the Industry. I thank 
you. (Great applause.) 

President IHLLMAN: I shall call next upon Board Member Marimpletrl. 

Addrtas of A. D. Marlmpletri 

Brother Chairman and Delegates: I am not much of a talker. I am one of those 
who believe that actions speak louder than words. To tell you the truth, I expected 
to be asked to say something, and I was prepared to welcome the next convention in 
Chicago. Chicago has lost. Hut I tell you that Chicago cannot be defeated. We accept 
the loss at this time, but we are sure to come back. You have only to ask the Chicago 
manufacturers; they will tell you that we do come back. 

In Nashville, I was one of those privileged to be seated In the Convention. When 
t many of you who are now here, I had to raise my eyes to the gallery. 
You know 1 was seated there. Local Sy, whom 1 had represented at that convention, 
paid $229.00 for me to sit there. The admission ticket was so high that it barred 
many of you who did not have the price. It cost my local union $229.00, and I'm 
proud of it, because that $229.00 helped to buy a casket for the United Garment 
Workers of America! (Laughter and applause.) 

The main progress made by our organization has been the elimination of national 
prejudices. That progress is immense. I am so proud of it, more proud than of 
any other achievement that the organization has made. We must keep out national 
prejudice. We are doing it. We must continue to do it and help develop human 
solidarity in the broadest sense. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: It Is always well to go from Chicago to New York. After 
Brother Marlmpietrl, of Chicago has addressed the convention, I feel that we should 
be very glad to hear from one who Is an old time New Yorker with the Amalgamated, 
and this is Brother Miller. Manager of the Pants Makers' Department. (Applause.) 

Address of Abraham Miller 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: One of the things that has impressed me mostly 
at this convention is the fact that all were imbued by one spirit, the spirit of putting 
everything aside for the benefit of our beloved organization, the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America. (Applause.) 

I can tell you, delegates, that the delegates of Local 2, who fought so valiantly on 
for the things that they considered to be right and to be just, also compromised when 
it was a question of preserving the unity of our organization. This is the spirit that 
has run like a golden thread through all of our proceedings. 

It has been our fate to be always on the battlefront. I remember very distinctly, 
as If it were but yesterday, when we received at the Duncan Hotel a telegram Informing 
us that three thousand members were locked out in the city of Baltimore, and that 
the cutters were getting financial support by the repudiated officials in order to 
get them to betray the tailors. 

I also recollect that while we were In the city of Rochester at our Second Con- 
vention the Chicago delegates received word to return Immediately to the battlefield 
in that city. And now while we are meeting in this city we have the strike at Schloss 
Brothers. It is a characteristic phase in the history of our organization. Always 
on the firing line. 

If we go on with our organization work along these lines, and if we are permeated 
with that spirit with which we were imbued In the city of Nashville, I think that 
when we gather again in the city of Boston, we will be able to report a record of 
achievements that will surpass our record to-day. (Applause.) 

President HJLJuMAN: I will next call upon Brother Bellanca, mtmber of the 
General Executive Board. 



AddrM of August Beilanca 

What do you want me to talk ID. Jewish or Engllah? (Laughter and applasse t 
Dear Friends, I did not ezpect to be to the contention ball today, because my 
duty waa to be with the striken, but 1 managed to come her* too. Tbli It a Ume to 
ttrtBffthen onr organization. Every time I look at Montreal. I see tbat 
rouat bo organised. The same la true of Philadelphia and Chicago and 
cltlea. And after we urfaalte Chlcaio. Montreal and Pblladelpbla. and other 
we will come to the next contention In Boatoo and report that the 
hat* succeeded In aecurlng the 44 hour week, and that we have a few 
to repreaent the Amalgamu era of America In the legislative bodies 

of the land. (Applau 

:!.! M AN I hall now call upon brother Harry Cohen of New York. 

Addreas of Harry Cohen 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates. Other ipeaken mentlond the Conveatlon of 

Naahville. and I might aa well atart the aame way. When we went to the convention 

- * we all felt that were going to a strange convention, that we were out 

of place there, and we felt also that we would not get Justice. The rawlhi )MtHM 

our feelings. 

the Convention In New York and at the Convention In Rocheater. we felt 
that that we were going to our own convention, where we ahould make o*r own 
lawa. In this case, too, the resulta justified our feelings. 1 now claim. Mr. Chalnaaa 
and Delegates that this meeting la not a convention, aa It Is usually understood. We 
have come here to celebrate our great victorlea for the paat two years. ( Applamae ) 

The moat Important bualneaa done today waa the ovation given to oar oaHenrm. 
That waa a sign tbat the members of the Amalgamated are satlafled with the work 

In conclusion, a word about the 44 hour resolution. We all know the history of 

the Amalgamated. We all feel that If a resolution baa been paseed. It will poaltively 

be carried out. I for one wish to state that New York will be the first one to gel em 

the job. and 1 am almost sure tbat. as long aa you have decided It we are going to pet 

ffert in a very short time. (Great appplauae.) 

President I: I shall now call upon a Board member. Delegate Blamberg. 

Address of Hyman Blumbcrg 

The previous speaker* referred to the achievements of our organtsatloa la this 
It in Impossible for any man not Immediately connected with the workings of 

organization In this city to thoroughly realise Juat what the 
to overcome In order to establish a permanent organization a 
In the full aenae of the word an organisation that la In a position today to 
dlscnsa terms and conditions with every clothing manufacturer In the city of Balti- 
more. On behalf of the Baltimore organization I will assure the Convention and the 
delegates here that Baltimore will steadily attend to Its affairs In 
interests of the clothing workers In this city, forever Improving their 

I want A to the delegate* an Invitation to our banquet tonight. I dont 

want - -Rates to leave thit city without having been preaent at the banquet 

that we have arranged at the Lyric hall < Applause.) 

tiuVnt H M.I.MAN I am sure that our list of speaker* would not be roamplete 
If we ahould not call at thla time upon the former Secretary -Treasurer of :Jie New 
York Joint Board and preaent General Organiser. Brother Alex Cohen. (Great aaalasae.) 

Addreaa of Alex Cohen 

Brother Chairman and Delegate*: I have heard so much praise for oar 
tlon. I have heard It from men and women who were and are BOW 
organization. I have heard It from men who have changed their opiate 
organization, and I am glad. I also aaw men who had abuaed aad 
organization, come before aa aad praiae our work and rejoice In oor 
whereas I know that these men never mean what they say. In their 
are not glad to aee the Amalgamated Clothing Worker* of America la It* 
i:th. with Its present high and wonderful achievement* They woak 
see us on our knee*, cringing before the American Federation of Labor aad 
for chan 



I have juat come from little Germany. I doubt whether you know where it is. 
It ia in Rochester, where the worst form of autocracy prevails in the clothing industry, 
worse than the autocracy in Germany proper. The employers there are masters in the 
art to camouflage ive yon something but you don't K>t it 

We have the 48 hour week, but I have never met a man there working less than 

60 or 65 hours. We are supposed to have good wages, but I have n< met a 

man there that made sufficient to live decently. Twenty-two and twenty-three dollars 

sidered a good wage there. In that stronghold of industrial autocracy we have 

taken up the fight for democracy. 

.ill to know that the name Amalgamated Is filling with hope 

and joy all the slaves in the clothing industry in Rochest i feel now more 

than ever that there are still greater things ahead of us to achieve. 

I am sorry that the terms democracy and industrial Union do not include all 
the men and women that are anxious to come into our ranks. I hope that tho tlm<> 
will come when the Amalgamated will really become not only the expression of 
industrial Unionism among the clothing workers, not only the expression of a tru*> 
labor movement for the clothing industry, but that it will become the industrial Union 
expression for America, for the whole labor movement, and will call out: "Welcome, 
each man and each woman who wants to come and join the ranks of organized 
labor!" (Great applause.) 

President HILLMAN: Board Member Rosenblum will read a few greetings to 
the convention, and also bid his last farewell to the convention. 

Address of Frank Rosenblum 

Mr. President and Delegates: I want to express my full appreciation for the 
feeling yon have had toward me in all these years since the inception of our 
organization. I know that I have had many friends in the Amalgamated. Very few 
members of the Amalgamated perhaps enjoyed the full confidence and the love of 
the membership that I have enjoyed. I want to say that my feelings toward them 
have always been the same. I also want to say that as far as my fellow officers 
are concerned, President Hillman, Schlossberg and Wolf and all the Board members, 
our relations have always been the most friendly and cordial. We have been more 
than colleagues in the work. We have been real good friends, and it is really with 
that I leave them at this time. I want to thank you, one and all, for all you 
have done for me. It has certainly been a privilege for me to work with you. I 
hope and trust that I will be able ta come back and continue where I left off. I thank 
you (Hearty applause.) 

President HILLMAN: I am sure that the delegates would like to hear from 
one who always makes himself heard, and that is, Brother Arnone of New York. 

Address of Paul Arnone 

Brother Chairman and Delegates: I have promised that tonight I will deliver 
a speech in Yiddish at the banquet. I appreciate very much the opportunity of saying 
a few words to the delegates. There is one thing to which I want to call the attention 
of the delegates. The success of the Amalgamated is dne to the fact that no one 
working for it has any selfish interests. (Applause.) And I say to you, brothers, 
that 1 for one, who have worked for the radical movement for the last 14 years, am 
Y*ry proud to be one of the rank and file of the Amalgamated. 

I hope that when we meet again in Boston we will have a bigger family, a stronger 
organization. I thank you one and all. (Applause.) 

President HILLMAN: I shall now call on one who is representing the interna- 
tional office in Canada, and who comes originally from the city of Baltimore, General 
Organizer Harry Madanick. (Applause.) 

Address of Harry Madanick 

Hrother President and Fellow Delegates to the Convention: I am sure that it is 
a pleasure and an honor to address this convention, especially for one who comes 
from the frozen north. I want to impress upon the delegates here the fact that the 
clothing industry in Canada is an industry that has been very much improved since 
the Amalgamated first began its activity in that country. 

Wben you decided on the. 44 hour week, some of the delegates remarked that 
their cities are going to get it first. I want to tell you that there is a city in Canada, 
and that is the city of Toronto, that has had the 44 hours week for the last year, 



and it got it through the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of amerioat (Great 

iMmt Hii.i.M \.s Delegates. I am going to preaeat to you a man who has 
always stood by our organixatlon aad who Is well known to our member ship. I am 
sure that you will al the glad to hear from Brother Balutsky of New York City. 
(Great applause.) 

Address of Jscob B. Saluttky 

.irman and Delegates: I am In rather grave doubt aa to whether 1 eaa add 
t or importance to what baa been said before, aad especially to 
the assertion that even in the council* of the British Labor Party 
nothing wiser and nothing more beautiful could have bean achieved 
achieved in this conveir 

I must confess very frankly that I have my doubts on the subject, aad I am 
Inclined to believe that probably something wiser and something better could have 
been done la the councils of the British Labor movement 

It is. however, no reflection upon the value of your work. You just take It from me 
as from an observer, who has not the least desire to belittle your work In any wsy. 
I tut It Neems to me that a great many of those who have occupied this 
during this afternoon have Ignored one point which Is of com 
It is undoubtedly true that the convention of the Amalgamated, as well aa the 

of the Amalgamated, la a bright spot one of the few bright spots on the not 
bright horizon of the American Labor movement, aad wo certainly have the right 
to re. it. We certainly have the right to be complimented upon it aad we 

have the privilege and the duty to compliment you upon It. 

However. I feel that It would have been much better for all of us. If the Amalga- 
mated had not been one of the few bright spots In the labor movement in this country. 
We would have been probably just as able to accomplish what the British 
movement accomplished If the organizations of the labor movement of this 
If very many of them, possibly if all of them, were of the tame nature, of the 
i as your organization. It Is not a great pleasure to announce 

.entlon Is a beautiful place to sit in snd the achievement of this 
Is a grejit thing to glory in It Is not. when you feel that the rest is not up to th 
mark, and when we praise this organisation it Is with a deep aeaae of sorrow fur the 
others. We are bound to praise this one. and the praising of this one only aooattuatea 
Its being different from the rest I say frankly that 1 don't think you are the very 
bes| people on earth. I hope you will never become that. It Is quite a tedtoua bunch 
of people, those that are the best on earth, and their place Is In Heaven aad not 

We are BOW going through a very grave crisis possibly the gravest so far la 
human history, possibly the most Important In the whole trend of 
Democracy itself Is being subjected to the acid test of reality. Let us be frank 
It. It ban failed on a number of occasions. It has been attacked very severely aad 
been forced out of a great number of Its positions. This Is a fact, a sad fact but 
we have got to reckon with It. And. therefore. It behooves a body of 
of a large labor organisation assembled together, to deal with this particular 
It seems to me that If that problem Is ever solved It will not be solved by 
Professors; by people with nice manners and still nicer words. It aanma 
that the solution might emanate from here. Ther* Is the good will among 
many of you to help in solving this great problem, and that is of the 
importance not or ry one of you. but. I believe, to every one In the 

I hope that the soldiers In the military army will be able to conquer autocracy 
Hut if autocracy IK conquered, as I hope it will be. on the fields of actual military 
battle*, democracy will never be established through military battle*. Democracy 
will be ratabllshed by the soldiers of the Industrial army And the soldiers of the 
Industrial army and Its Lieutenants and Captains are aasembled here, as In a treat 
many other conventions and gatherings of thl sort. 

-ins to me that I have spent with advnntm w days of this convention. 

watching, observing you in thin great process of building up the army that will 
make this world a decent place to live In. I have enjoyed It and hare benefited by it 

If your organization Is able to bold Its grip on Ita membership, it will be not only 
because yon will be able to show next year or in the next two years one hundred par 

organisation, but it will be due to the fact primarily that you are able to 
100 r of real, progressive, of real democratic spirit the thin* 

larking for years and years In the ranks of your branch of the labor 



I think that you have tried to solve the great problems before us as well as 
could, and I congratulate you most sincerely, most earnestly upon it. (Applause.) 

Pr< 1LL.MAN: Secretary Schlossberg will say a few words before 

adjourn the convention. 

Address of Secretary Schlossberg 

Mr. Chairman and Delegates: We have had some emotional moments here, and 
some dramatic situations. We may have tin in repeated ;.t other meeting!*, not 
necessarily conventions, as the war has not yet ended \v.- shall not at these last 
few minutes of this convention indulge into anything in connection with those em 
and the causes thai < .-. m forth. 

inr i'll you frankly that my heart is full to overflowing from the ham. 
the wonderful spirit of this convention. All of our conventions have been harmonious. 
AH of our ions have displayed the spirit of fraternity and cooperation and 

aspiration for high ideals. But I don't remember any of our meetings where that 
has teen brought out so completely and so forcibly and powerfully as at tins 

What I appreciate most and above all I am sure that we all did was that when 
a point was reached where there were serious and sharp differences of opinion among 
the delegates, and while these differences of opinion were being argued out. 
fought out, on the floor of the convention, it was all done in the most brotherly 
manner. The party that lost, accepted its fate in the best spirit and with good 
grace. The spirit of cooperation has prevailed from the very beginning until the 
our very end. It is this that renews our courage for further work. We are going 
back to our respective cities now. We will have to take up the problems of the 
organization some new one and a great many old ones and w- will have the same 
hardships, the same troubles that we have had all the time. We are stronger now 
and better prepared to tackle them. But the problems are there, with all that they 
imply. It is just this consciousness of having behind us the full backing and support 
of the entire membership and their representatives at such gatherings as this that 
gives us the necessary moral and spiritual courage to cope with all of the situations 
as they arise. 

I think Brother Hillman will agree with me when I will say that the General 
Officers are perhaps in a position to appreciate this better and to be more grateful for 
it than any other member, because the local members have the opportunity of 
complaining and handing over their grievances to the Local Officers, the Local 
Officers have the opportunity of kicking at the General Officers; the General Officers 
cannot kick at anybody. It Is our business to come to the members, even at the 
time when we feel like kicking hard and strong, and talk to them in a manner that 
will keep up their courage and strengthen them. And it is just such demonstrations 
of the spirit of our organization that gives us new strength and new vigor for the 
work that is before us. 

I feel that when we go back home from this convention, all of us will be able 
to take the message back to our constituents that the harmony in our organization 
is complete. There is not a single defective spot in our great structure: our great 
structure and our great army are growing more strong as we go along; we are growing 
stronger with time and experience. Our determination is strengthening. Our 
is strengthening. Our army is increasing. Our consciousness becomes clearer. We 
become ever more clear as to what we want and how we can get it. Never before 
In the history of our organization was there such clearness as to what the Amalga- 
mated stands for, as there is today. 

And that clearness has not been brought out by theoretical discussions. Usually 
theoretical discussions only help to create a thicker and heavier cloud. In our case 
clearness was brought out by the handling of the problems that we were called upon 
to deal with. It was in real life, in actual fight, that we learned clearly what 
that we are after, and what is the best way of getting it. 

We keep on learning this. It is Just because we are learning it and we understand 
what we want and what we are after, that we are in a position to say the word 
that the situation calls for and that other orgnizatlons have failed to say. It is because 
we happen to be so situated that while we have our natural enemies in the capitalist 
camps, we also have enemies where we should have nothing but friends, in labor's 
own camp, and we must fall back upon our own strength, and we must think out our 
own thoughts, and we must formulate our own ideas, in our own way; and we must 
speak so carefully and so clearly and so strongly that there should be no room for 
misinterpretation, which might be used to fight us with; 'hat there may be no opportu- 
nity for using any of our utterances, any of our acti f !* t'ation of our principles, 


in order to injure us. to increase tbe prejudice againi u* because we are so 

hituated that we have learned bow to think clearly, bow to speak clearly and concisely. 
o act csrefuliy and wisely. 1 say that it Is because of that tbat we nave put our- 
selves in a position where we command tbe full confidence of our members, wbo know 
tbat they can depend upon their chosen representative*. They know that If any 
representative is selected wbo doea not live up to tbe spirit as conditions nave 
1 in tbe Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, bo will naturally and 
automatically have to drop out and make room for one who will measure up to tbe 
requirements and tbe o Amalgamated Clothing Workers of Amoriea. 

I> . -tion be like tbls one. in a larger degree an International 

celebration of the progress made, of tbo spirit strengthened, of tbe understanding 

made clearer. May we. then, perhsps. be In a position to impart tbe strength of our 

light of our message to tbe rest of tbe working class, so tbat they may 

fOllOW ft 

ctnendous applau 

Before introducing the next speaker, wbo will bo tbo last 

speaker. I should like to announce that after tbe convention is adjourned, those of 
you who wou: ' . : a of tbe convention from tbe 

pho: 1.* in the ball. 

-do and Friend Yanofsky to the to 

we. adjou nc the oppo 

to cal omrade Yanofsky to say a ft . worcu Defer-, we adjourn th 

Address of 8. Yanofsky 

hard to oome here to sp - .re all such beautiful speakers. 
there is nothing else for us professionals to do but to bow 
11. we are surpassed." 

I want to say a few words: I think wo are harping too much on tbe past, and 

tbat U *ood sign. A real live man never thinks too much of the pas:. Tbe 

moment be starts ' <x> much of tbe past. It is a sign of degeneracy, of deatn. 

ti - Ksnlration. no matter what your achievements have been, bov 

great greater achievements In store for you. Never m!nd tbo 

Let us think of the future. .Let us think of wbat we will do in tbe future. 

. - 

You a: .< bouquets at each other, complimenting eacb other for all yov 

have don. :; you something. If you ascribe everything to yourselves you 

are making a little mistake It was the times. It was tbe new spirit; tha. is wbat 
helped you so much. You ought to thank all those wbo come before you. but wbo 
did not achieve anything, although they laid the foundation. 

I remember In the olden times the so-called leaders, tbe so-called members 1 
used to go to a meeting to speak to them. I felt that I was not understood by anybody. 

that neither the leaders nor the members really bad any Idea of wbat 
meant, not to speak of industrial democracy. Hut still, something was done; 
was achieved. You a:-- tke grandsons of those people. Therefore you 
their foundation. 

But what you are building. Is not enough. Let me tell you tbat Ideal Union baa 
not been achieved yet. There are many, many things to achieve yet in your relations 
to the outside world. In your relations to the labor movement at large many. 
things to be done yet; there is much room for Improvement. True, the past is 
The past Is really somethlsg that should make us proud. But we should never 

ting upon what w v.av* achieved, but always of going further and farther and 

And I should be very much disappointed If In two years from now. at tbe 
convention, you are the same Amalgamated that you are now. Tbat will 
practically tbat you are going back. Everything rhat is living must always bo 
ressive If It does not progress. It means that it is going backward and it is 
to die. In order that tbat should not happen, you must always bo on your 

ays see that you are not be misrepresented; always see tbat people do I 
In your name things tbat yon never meant to say or to do. Your freedom 
as doar to you as your own life. Remember bow you bad to fight until yov 
of tbose despots, of those parasitea of tbo olden times. Therefore, bold your 
as dear as your life. He watchful. Never fall asleep, and your Union will grow and 
grow to tbat state of idealism, tbat we ai: want. (Applause.) 


Closing Address of President Hillman 

Delegates to this Convention: A few minutes more, and this convention will be 
adjourned. This convention has been memorable in many ways. We have gone through 
our record of the past, but only in order to search for mistakes and to learn from 
them, so as to be properly guided in the future. We have looked over our achievements 
of the pa? > learn what can be, and should be done in the future. If we pride 

hat which has been accomplished, it is because we know that a greater 
achievement will be had in the future. 

The forty-eight hour week the fact that It was brought into life, means so much 
to us, because we know that the same power that brought us the forty-eight hour 
week will also bring us the 44 hour week within the next year! (Applause.) 

We have laid out for ourselves a program for the future a program for the improve- 
ment of our conditions a program to make our organization felt in the life of the 
country * program to make our organization felt when international problems have 
been solved. My friends, this convention has illustrated once more the tremendous 
strength that the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America can call forth in its 
members. That which has been done has been done because of the wonderful spirit 
of harmony, of loyalty, of determination that prevails in our organization. And 
throughout this convention this spirit has asserted itself time and time again. 

I am sure that everyone of us will carry back to their respective cities this fine, 
harmonious spirit that prevails at this convention. But we have learned some other 
things from this convention. It has been brought to us more strongly than it could 
have possibly been done in any other form, that we are losing some of the best people 
in the organization, even it only temporarily. First Brother Senter, who represented 
a great number who have left our ranks. Then this morning, Brother Rosenblum. 
And while you may know only Brother Rosenblum from your acquaintance and 
contact with him since the Amalgamated has come into existence, 1 had the privilege 
te be with Brother Rosenblum 'way back in 1910, and 1911, when we were both 
strikers in the great, memorable Chicago strike. I recall all the work that was done 
by him and many others to build the movement that made this organization possible. 
And I know that we will feel not only In a personal way but as an organization, the 
departure o' these most active people from our ranks. 

My fronds, we have built the program before us. There is a great deal of work 
ahead of us. Until every man and every woman in the industry are protected by 
our organization, the work will not be completed. Until labor, not only in this 
country, but throughout the world, is free, our work will not be completed. Until 
the whole world is a free world, there will still be work ahead of us. The wonderful 
spirit of the past has made it possible for us to go forward, no matter what the 
obstacles, to make progress, no matter what the opposition, and always to go on and 
on. My friends, perhaps greater obstacles are ahead of us, greater goals are ahead 
of us. But I do hope Nay J I am convinced I feel certain, ihat all of you here, and 
through you the membership of the country at large will make a still greater effort, 
and if need be, still greater sacrifice, so that the work of freeing the human race 
may be done, so that real liberty may come into life. 

My friends, in closing this convention I want to urge you again, "On and On!" 
"On until the final victory has been achieved!!" 

(Great applause, everybody rising and cheering.) 

When the cheering had subsided, everybody rose and sang the Marsellaise. 

President HILLMAN: I propose three cheers for our brothers who have left us 
temporarily, and who, we expect, will return soon: 

Everybody: "Hurrah! Hurrah!? Hurrah!!!" 

President HILLMAN: I think we can send those cheers right through Brother 

Secretary 8CHLOS8BERG: I call for three cheers for the new social order 
proclaimed by the British Labor Party. 

Everybody: "Hurrah! Hurrah!! Hurrah;!!" 

President HILLMAN: This convention stands adjourned, to reconvene the second 
Monday in May, 1920, in the city of Boston. 

Everybody: "Hurrah! Hurrah!! Hurrah 

As soon as President Hillman had finished making this announcement, the dele- 
gates rushed forward and took both President Hillman and Secretary Schlossberg on 
their shoulders, cheering enthusiastically for several minutes, 

The convention adjourned at 5.15 P. M. 



Jippendix I. 
Inter-Allied Labor War Aims 

>" adopted b\ 

The War 

" been the caute* 
>ar that the peoi ' 


engaged at to y be po 


m the following .!r. Uration nnaoi- 

ri of the Kuropeao con- 
the antagonisms w> 


at all !; 

- - 
. . 

at \\ar with the any and only 

They demand 
o of 
(tied in a< itfe the wi 

r Balkan*. 
the right 

fiffht tintil 

nonr i-- iy attet^ 

trap* which v. v prepare 

;!<* mrr t^an r 
the "l-'-ihle pbgiic* f arnn id war. 

- remaining ' ' the International, the 

* the hoj>e that thr working clae* 
united again in thei 


e and at tiont 

and the \V- 

Making the World Safe for Democracy 

II Whatever may >r which the war waa begur. 

f um ia - - ' iup|H.rtin K the continuance of 

rid may henc* - - rmocracy. 

O- the peoples of the world 

- th no tr 

the peoples \\il! ha\r c, an internatK>nal ytler 

\\ill prevent war What mean to declare the right of 

peopl- r left at the m< 

<.at not i- - That ar- 

il the present belligerent*, but 
- -eited to 

The constitution of *nch a League of Nation* implie* the immediate 
ment ,,a1 Ilinh C for the settlement of all 

riable n.^ prompt and ene 

s-eii that >e power of honor of 

c League of :'iat the consultation of 



peoples for purposes of self-determination must be organized. This popular 
be vindicated only by popular vote. The League of Nations shall establish the pro- 
cedure of international jurisdiction, fix the methods which will maintain the freedom 
and security of the election, restore the political rights of individuals \\huh rio 
and conquest may have injured, repress any attempt to use pressure or corru; 
and p: riy subsequent reprisals. It will be also nc to form an inter- 

national Legislature, in which the representatives of c. :e would have 

their allotted share and energetically to push forward, step by step, the development 
rnational legislation agreed to by, and definitely binding upon, the several states. 

By a solemn agreement all the states and peoples consulted shall pledge thcm- 

to submit every issue between two or more of them for settlement as afor< 
Refusal to accept arbitration or to submit to settlement will imply deliberate a| 
sion. and all the nations \\ il' - ily have to make common cause, by using any and 

means at their disposal, either economic or military, against any state or 

- refusing to submit to the arbitration award, or attempting to break the world's 
covenant of peace. > 

But the sincere acceptance of the rules and decisions of the super-national author- 
ity implies complete democratization in all countries; the removal of all th< 
powers who. until now, have a>-umed the right of choosing between peace and war; 
the m. ate creation of legislatures elected by and on behalf of the sovereign 

right of the people; the suppression of >ecret diplomacy, to be replaced by the conduct 
of foreign policy under the control of popular legislatures, and the publication of all 
treaties, which must n^ver be in contravention of the stipulation of the League of 
Nations, with the absolute responsibility " rnt. and more p. 

of the foreign minister of each country to its legislature. 

Only sui-h a policy will enforce the frank abandonment of every form of imperial- 
ism. When based on universal democracy, in a world in which effective international 
guarantees against aggression have been sacred, the League of Nations will achieve 
the complete suppression of force as the means of settling international differences. 

The Le.-gue of Nations, in order to prepare for the concerted abolition of com- 
pulsory military service in all omitries. mut first take steps for the prohibition of 
fresh armaments on land and sea and for the common limitation of the existing 
armaments by which all the peoples are burdened; as well as the control of war manu- 
factures and the enforcement of such agreements as may be agreed to thereupon. 
The states must undertake suc'i manufactures themselves, so as entirely to abolish 
profit-making armament firms, whose pecuniary interest lies aluays in the war scares 
and progressive competition in the preparation for war. 

The nations, being armed s'-lelv for self-defense and for such action as the League 
of Nations mpy ask them to take in defense of international riyht. will be left free. 
under the international control either to create a voluntary force or to organize the 
nation for defense without professional armies for long terms of military service. 

give Affect to the above principles, the Tnter-A"ied Conference declares that 
the rnles upon which the League of Nations will be founded must be included in the 
treaty of peace, and will henceforth become the basis - 'iff>rences. 

Tn that spirit the Conference expresses its agreement with the propositions put for- 
ward ident WiUon in his last message* 

(i)" That each part of the final N : must be based upon the essential 

tice of that particular case, nnd upon such adjustments as are most likely to bring 
a peace that will be permanent. 

(2^ That peoples and provinces are not to be bartered abovt from sovereignty 
to sr as if they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even the great 

game now forever discredited of the balance of power: but that 

Every territorial settlement involved in this war rnu^t br m 

and for the benefit of the populations concerned, and not as a part of any mere 
adjustments of compromise of claims amongst rival states. 

(4) That all well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost 
satisfaction that can be accorded them without introducing new or perpetuating old 
elements of discord and antagonism that would be likely in time to break the peace 
of Europe, and, consequently, of the world. 

Territorial Questions 

ITT The Tnter-Allied Conference considers that the proclamation of principles 
of international law accepted by all nations, and the substitution of a regular pro- 
cedure for the forceful acts by which states calling themselves sovereign have hitherto 
liiwted their differences in short, the establishment of a League of Nations 
Ctn entirely new aspect to territorial problems. 



macy and the yearning* after domination by states, or even by , 

whole 01 ' niury hare Uken advantage of "and 

corrupted the aspirations of nation brought Europe to a condition of 

anarchy and : !y to the p